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Governments The History of Israel
This is a summary of the history of Israel and the descendants of Abraham. The dates that are used up to 722 BCE are a result of our own chronology.

Control Jerusalem History
Israel » Capital (1000 BCE). David captures Jerusalem.
» First Temple (950 BCE). Solomon builds it.
» Kingdom Divided (924 BCE). Capital of Judah.
Foreign » Babylon (586 BCE). Temple destroyed, exiled.
» Persia (539 BCE). Jews and temple treasures.
» Second Temple (515-492 BCE). Zerubabbel.
» Walls (445 BCE). Nehemiah rebuilds in 52 days.
Greek Ptolemies and Seleucids fight over Jerusalem for 125 years after the death of Alexander in 323 BCE.
» Greeks (333 BCE). Alexander conquers.
» Ptolemy (323 BCE). Ptolemy takes Egypt.
» Ptolemy (320 BCE). Ptolemy I takes Jerusalem.
» Seleucid (198 BCE). Antiochus III takes over.
» (167 BCE). Antiochus IV religious persecution.
» Hasmonean Period (164 BCE). Maccabeans.
Independence. After 500 years the Jews rule Jerusalem and Judea for the next 80 years.
Rome » Roman (63 BCE). Pompey captures Jerusalem.
» (40 BCE). The Persians (Parthians) help the Hasmonean king Antigonus to take Jerusalem back from the Romans.
» (37 BCE). Herod the Great is appointed by Rome.
» (26 AD). Herod rebuilds the temple.
» (70 AD). Titus destroys the temple.
» (135 AD). Hadrian exiles Jews from Jerusalem and renames it Aelia Capitolina.
» (614 AD). Persians take Jerusalem from Byzantines.
» (620 AD). Byzantine emperor Heraclius recaptures Jerusalem from Persians.
Islam » Islamic Conquest (638 AD). Islam spreads across the region and occupies Palestine (Judea).
» (692 AD). Dome of Rock is built by Caliph Abdel-Malik on the top of the ruins of the Jewish Temple.
» (1070 AD). Seljuk Turks conquer Fatimids.
» Crusades (1099-1291 AD). The Holy Roman empire orders crusades to liberate Jerusalem.
» Battle of Hattin (1187 AD). Saladin defeats the Crusaders. Jews settle in Jerusalem.
» (1229 AD). After the sixth crusade Muslims retained the Temple Mount and Christians have access to their holy sites.
» (1244 AD). Jerusalem is sacked by Turks.
» Mamluk Dynasty (1250 AD). Founded by a slave who murdered the sultan.
» Damascus Rules (1310 AD). Jewish Quarter.
» Spanish Inquisition (1492 AD). Spain defeats the Muslims and 200,000 Jews are expelled.
» Ottoman (1517-1917 AD). Mamluks defeated.
» (1831 AD). Egyptians conquer Jerusalem.
» (1840 AD). Ottoman Empire takes Jerusalem back and has to maintain Egyptian reforms.
» (1856 AD). The Crimean War.
» (1873 AD). Jerusalem becomes an independent province reporting to Jerusalem.
Europe » (1882 AD). British conquer Egypt and establish themselves as a political power in the region.
» (1914 AD). World War 1. Turkey is with Germany.
» Balfour Declaration (1917 AD). British general Allenby captures Jerusalem.
» Arab Revolt (1936-39 AD).
» Two State Solution (1937 AD). Partition.
» One State Solution (1939 AD). Britain.
» (1947 AD). November 29. United Nations adopts two state solution.
Israel » Modern Israel (1948 AD). May 14.
» Jerusalem Divided (1949). Israel and Jordan.
» Jerusalem United (1967). June 5. Six day war.
» Yom Kippur War (1973 AD). October 6.
» Jerusalem Capital. On 30 July 1980.
» Oslo Peace Accords (1993 AD). September 13. Israel and PLO on Palestinian statehood and future status of Jerusalem.

A Jewish Homeland
So the Jews have lived in the land since 1500 BC, occupying a region as far north as Lebanon and across the Jordan river over 40 miles within the border of Jordan down to the borders of Egypt in the south. A series of foreign occupation, attempts at genocide, exiles and expulsions have scattered them across the globe and their culture has survived assimilation despite the incredible odds against them. Throughout this they have always retained a presence in the land, until the were about one third of the population when the state of Israel was created.
On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram saying, "To your descendants I will give this land, from the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates." (Genesis 15: 18)
The descendants of Abram were Isaac and Ishmael and sons of another concubine, Keturah. Isaac fathered Jacob (Israel) and Esau. Abraham gave all the children except Isaac, the land to the east of Israel (Genesis 16: 12 and Genesis 25: 5-6). Ishmael and Esau live east of Israel as far as the Euphrates (Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, northern Saudi Arabia and southern Iraq).
Israel's inheritance was from the Mediterranean to east of the Jordan including the Arnon valley, the Arabah and mount Hermon, north in Lebanon as far as Sidon and south to the river of Egypt (Joshua 12-13).

Prophecy of Israel's Future

Governments Assyria
Prophetic points Prophetic Footprints
Assyria is not mentioned in the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation because they were not a power who threatened or will threaten Israel when the prophecies were given.
Map of the Assyrian Empire
The Assyrian empire extended from the mountains of Armenia to northern Mesopotamia with Nineveh as the capital. The empire developed in three phases.

Prophecy: Nineveh
Nineveh was the capital of Assyria which was founded by Nimrod (Genesis 10: 8-12). It was located near the city of Mosul, Iraq on the east bank of the Tigris at the junction of the Khosr river which runs through the city. By 668 BC it surpassed Thebes as the largest city in the world. According to Jonah, it took three days to walk across the city (Jonah 3: 3). The walled city was 3 by 8 miles, but it had suburbs which extended 14 miles north and 20 miles south.

Prophecy: Tyre
And they shall make a spoil of thy riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise: and they shall break down thy walls, and destroy thy pleasant houses: and they shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the midst of the water. (Ezekiel 26: 12)
Tyre was a rich Phoenician port city which angered God by the way they treated Israel (Joel 3: 4-6). So God prophesied their destruction in Ezekiel 26: 1-14.

Governments Babylon
Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
Visions 604-553 BC.
  1. Swift conquest
  2. Superior to the other kingdoms
  3. No divisions
  4. Conquered by Medo-Persia
  5. 70 year captivity of Jews in Babylon
  6. Will be subdued for 2520 years
Map of the Babylonian Empire
Kings of Assyria and Babylon
KingYearDynasty
Tudiya 2376-2342Dynasty 1
Hammurabi1792-1750
Shamshi Adad I1810-1771Middle
Assyrian
Ashur Uballit I1379-1341
Adad Nirari I1310-1281
Ashur-Rabi II1012-997
Ashur-Resh-Ishi II996-965
Tiglath-Pilasar II964-933
Ashur-Dan II932-910
Ashur Nirari II909-889Dynasty X
(Assyria and Babylon)
Tukulti Ninurta II888-884
Ashur Nasirpal II883-859
Shalmaneser III858-824
Shamshi Adad V823-810
Shammuramat (Shamiram)809-792
Adad Nirari III791-782
Shalmaneser IV781-772
Ashur Dan III771-764
HadadNirari763-754
AshurNirari V753-746
2 Kings 18:19,29; 16:7,10; 1 Chronicles 5: 6,26; 2 Chronicles 28:20 Tiglath Pilesar III (Pul)745-727
Affected Israel Shalmaneser V726-722
Marduk-apal-iddina II
2 Kings 20:12-19 (Merodach-Baladan)
722-710
Isaiah 20: 1 Sargon II the
Great (Sarrukin)
722-705
2 Kings 18:13-19:37 Sennacherib
(Sin-ahhe-eriba)
705-681
2 Kings 19: 37; Ezra 4: 2 Esarhaddon
(Assur-ahha-iddina)
680-669
Ezra 4: 10 Ashurbanipal
(Osnappar)
668-627
Ashur Etil Llani626-621
Sin-Sharishkun620-612
Ashur Uballit II611-605
612 BC. Nineveh falls to Babylon
Chaldou640-627Dynasty XI
(Neo-Babylonian
or Chaldean)
Nabopolassar626-605
Daniel 1-4 Nebuchadnezzar II605-562
2 Kings 25: 27; Jeremiah 52: 31 Amel-Marduk
(Evil-Merodach)
562-560
Nergal-Sharezer
(Neriglissar)
560-556
Labashi-Marduk556
Nabonidus and son
Daniel 5 Belshazzar (co-ruler)
555-539
535-539
Cambyses538-522
539 - Cyrus the Great of Persia captured Babylon
Affected Israel Mentioned in the Bible
Babylon, the current location of modern day Iraq, was located on the river Euphrates close to the site of the modern city of Baghdad in Iraq. It is located in a flat valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, known as "the land between the rivers". At its height, the empire ranged from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf and from Asia Minor to Egypt.

Nebuchadnezzar was the chief ruler of the empire, he succeeded his father Nabopolassar who died while Nebuchadnezzar was on a military campaign against Egypt in Palestine.

The Rise of Ancient Babylon. Babylon came to power by defeating the two superpowers of the day, Egypt and Assyria. After this the other nations in the region submitted to Babylon.

The Battle of Carchemish (605 BC). On three separate occasions the Assyrian army was defeated and had to move their capital. In 612 BC Nineveh was defeated and the capital moved to Harran which was captured by Babylon in 610 BC and the Assyrians moved the capital city to Carchemish. When the Babylonians attacked in 606BC, Egypt marched to help their Assyrian allies. However, Pharaoh Necho (Neco) and the Egyptian army was delayed by King Josiah in the battle of Megiddo. It was not until 605 BC that the Egyptian army met the Babylonian army. Egypt was defeated and never became a dominant power again. Assyria ceased to exist.

The Battle of Meggido (608 BC). While on his way to battle the king of Babylon at Carchemish, Egyptian pharoah Neco was delayed by Josiah, King of Judah in 608 BC. Josiah was killed and his army was defeated and he was succeeded by his son Jehoahaz who ruled for three months until he was deposed by Neco and died in exile. Neco placed his brother Eliakim on the throne and renamed him Jehoiakim. He reigned for eleven years, paying tribute to Pharoah Neco until Babylon defeated Egypt in 605 BC and Israel came under Babylonian control.

The Defeat of Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar made three attacks against Jerusalem.

1. Daniel Exiled (605 BC). The first attack against Jerusalem was in 605 BC during the reign of King Jehoiakim, he seized a selected group of captives which included Daniel and his three friends. He also confiscated some of the sacred vessels of God's temple. He trained these captives for government service. In ancient times, is was customary for a conquering nation to capture princes from the conquered lands. The prince would be trained and educated and when the throne of the conquered nation became available, the captured prince who was now friendly towards his conquerors would be installed as king. This practice ensured peace between the nations, first because the king would not want to see his captured heir harmed and second, because they made the next generation their friend.

2. More Exiles (597 BC). The second attack was in 597 BC when King Jehoiakim rebelled and was killed. In this invasion, Nebuchadnezzar took even more captives than before from the upper class of Judah including the new king Jehoiachin. He was exiled to Babylon and his uncle Mattaniah, another son of Josiah, was made king and his name was changed to Zedekiah. Ezekiel the prophet went into captivity during this invasion. He also seized a much larger portion of the Temple's treasures.

3. The Destruction of Solomon's Temple (586 BC). Nebuchadnezzar came for the last time again because after ruling for nine years King Zedekiah was rebellious and leaning towards an alliance with Egypt. Determined that rebellion would never rise again, this time Nebuchadnezzar decided to destroy Judah. At the end of an extended siege, he leveled the city of Jerusalem and completely destroyed the temple.
City of Babylon
Babylon
Timeline of the Fall of Babylon
540 BCEvent
WinterNabonidus orders all cult statues of outlying cities to be brought to the capital
WinterCyrus captures Elam and Susa
SeptemberBattle of Opis. Babylonians defeated
October 10City of Sippar siezed without battle. Nabonidus fled to the capital, Babylon
October Euphrates diverted
October 12
Tishri 16
Gubaru's troops enter Babylon and detained Nabonidus
October 29Cyrus entered Babylon and arrested Nabonidus
He led most of the survivors to Babylon to serve as slaves. Zedekiah was blinded and taken to Babylon where he died. Jehoiachin was released from prison by Evil-Merodach, the next king of Babylon.

The Fall of Ancient Babylon. In 539 BCE (540 BC), the kingdom of Babylon was invaded in one night when Cyrus dammed up the river Euphrates, this dried up the Euphrates river and the soldiers entered the city under the walls and conquered the empire. He placed Darius the Mede as the ruler.

» The Euphrates River. This river flowed north to south through the walled city of Babylon.

Prophecy of Babylon's Future
Babylon will be destroyed and never rebuilt. This prophecy of Isaiah written about 100 years before Babylon became a super power is remarkable.
. . . The day of the Lord is at hand; it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty . . . Look, I will stir up the Medes against them . . . And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldeans` pride, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. It shall never be inhabited . . . neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there, neither shall shepherds make their flocks to lie down there. But wild beasts of the deserts shall lie there. (Isaiah 13: 6, 17,19-20)

100 years after Isaiah's prophecy, Jeremiah writes the following when Babylon was about to attack Jerusalem.
Look, I will raise up against Babylon a destroying wind . . . Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed . . . Prepare against (Babylon) the nations, with the kings of the Medes . . . Babylon shall become heaps (ruins), a dwelling place for jackals, an astonishment and an hissing, without inhabitant . . . The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly overthrown, and her high gates shall be burned with fire . . . O Lord, You have spoken against this place to cut it off, that none shall dwell therein, neither man nor beast, but it shall be desolate for ever . . . (Jeremiah 51)
Great cities are rebuilt when they are destroyed. But not Babylon.

Current State.
Prophetic points     The Fall of Babylon
So Babylon's fate is to be uninhabited by neither man nor beast (except for wild beasts). The fall of Babylon came in several stages over many centuries.
  1. Attacked by the Medes and Persians
  2. Attacked by the Greeks
  3. Attacked by the Romans
  4. 140 BC - the irrigation system was destroyed in the Parthian conquest. It slowly declined after this and was abandoned by the third century.
  5. Attacked by warlike tribes (Arabs, Turks)
  6. 2003 - Antiquities and site ruined by war and soldiers occupying site
The site of the ancient city of Babylon (196 square miles) is still uninhabited. The ground is infertile through impregnation with salt. The ancient city of Babylon lay in ruins for centuries, it is inhabited by wild creatures and is avoided by nomadic Arabs tribes after dark for fear of evil spirits. Scholars doubted that it existed until archaeological excavations in the nineteenth century found the city.
Its decline was sealed with the collapse of its infrastructure. Babylon depended on a complex irrigation system of dams and canals between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Its famous hanging gardens depended on this intricate system. But, in 140 BC, the irrigation system collapsed during the Parthian conquest. The results, according to the The Encyclopedia Americana was that

The soil became saturated with mineral salts, and a crust of alkali formed over the surface, making agricultural use impossible.

200 years later, Babylon was still a populous city, but by the third century AD, the historian Dio Cassius described a visitor to Babylon as finding

... nothing but mounds and stones and ruins. (LXVIII, 30).

Its people survive today in another location as part of Iraq.

Saddam Hussein. Saddam Hussein was busy with a grandiose and extravagant project to rebuild ancient Babylon, with his name engraved repeatedly in the bricks of its walls. He planned to remove the capital from Baghdad. His plans came to a halt when he ran out of money and became involved in the Iraqi War in 1990 with the United States helping Kuwait. The place was further destroyed when Polish soldiers made a base there in the 2003 war with the United States. During the war, depleted uranium has contaminated the site making it radioactive.
He was doomed to failure, like Napoleon, Hitler, Charlemagne and others who attempted to defy the prophecies of God by reviving kingdoms which were to remain destroyed.

See Map of the empire of Babylon. Map of the city of Babylon. Map of Iraq and the Holy Land.

Governments Medo-Persia
Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
  1. Swift conquest
  2. Inferior to Babylon
  3. Two Divisions. The stronger would be the second
  4. Conquers three powers
  5. Conquered by a power from the East
Map of the Medo-Persian Empire
Kings of Persia (Achaemenid Dynasty)
KingYearDecree
1Isaiah 44: 28; 2 Chronicles 36: 22-23; Ezra 1:1-4;6:3-4 Cyrus II the Great559-530Ezra 1: 1-4
2Daniel 6 Darius the Mede539-536None
Persian Rulers Only
1Cambyses II538-522None
2Gaumata (false Smerdis)522None
3Ezra 4: 24-6:15; Haggai 1:1,15 Darius 1 (the great)522-486Ezra 6: 7-12
4Ezra 4: 6; Esther Xerxes 1 (Ahasuerus)486-465Esther
He warred against the Greeks
5Affected Israel Artaxerxes 1 (Longimanus)465-425Ezra 7: 11-12
Nehemiah 2:1
6Xerxes 2 424None
7Sogdianus424None
8Darius 2 423-405None
9Artaxerxes 2 404-359None
10Artaxerxes 3 358-338None
11Arses 337-336None
12Darius 3 335-330None
Alexander the Great330-323Greek Empire
Cyrus left Darius the Mede in charge as governor
Achaemenes, Teispes, Cyrus 1 and Cambyses ruled before the conquest of Babylon
The Medo-Persian empire was a combination of two empires, the older Median empire and the newer Persian. At its height it extended from India to Ethiopia.

» Astyages. Under his rule, the Medes conquered Anshan, Persia and all Assyrian kingdoms except Babylonia. He was the grandfather of Cyrus, who tried to kill the child at birth because of a dream.
» Birth of Cyrus. About 120 years before his birth the prophet Isaiah predicted that Cyrus would liberate the Jews from captivity (Isaiah 44: 28).
Legend states that after the birth of Cyrus, Astyages had a dream that his grandson would overthrow him. So he ordered his steward Harpagus to kill the infant. Instead Harpagus gave the child to a herdsman to dispose of and the man raised the boy. At the age of ten, his behavior was so noble that he was brought to the king. Astyages noticed that they resembled each other and questioned Harpagus. After confessing, the king forced him to eat his own son. Then he returned Cyrus to his biological parents, Cambyses and Mandane. Harpagus would seek revenge as advisor to Cyrus and convinced Cyrus to rally the Persian people to revolt and conquer the Median Empire.

» Cyrus II, The Great. In 553 BC or 550 BC, Cyrus, who had been king of Anshan as a vassal of the Median empire, defeated his grandfather Astyages of Media after encouraging the Persians to revolt against the Medes from 554 BCE and 553 BCE. Between 550 BCE to 549 BCE, Cyrus led his armies to capture Ecbatana, and effectively conquered the Median Empire.
So, the former subordinate Persians became the dominant power in the former Median empire.
By 546 he had assumed the title of king of Persia, dethroning Arsames, who had been the ruler of Persia under the Medes.

Three Powers Defeated. Cyrus overthrew the Medes in 550 BC. Astyages had been allied with Croesus of Lydia, Nabonidus of Babylon and Amasis II of Egypt. So in the rise to power, Medo-Persia conquered three great powers - Lydia, Egypt and Babylon.

  1. Lydia. Moving west in 547 BC, Croesus of Lydia, brother-in-law of Astyages, was defeated in the battle of Thymbra when the Lydian horses were spooked by the smell of the Persian camels. Croesus was a wealthy king who had allied himself with Egypt and Babylon against Medo-Persia - but they were all defeated.
  2. Babylon. It was defeated in 539 BCE.
  3. Egypt. To the south Egypt and Nubia were conquered by 538 BC. The conquest continued north against the Scythians in 513 BC.

» Death. Cyrus died around December 530 BC and was succeeded by his son Cambyses II, who immediately killed his brother Smerdis (Bardiya). He then went to the eastern front and captured Egypt just before he died in 522 BC. He was succeeded by an imposter, Gaumata, calling himself Smerdis. After only seven months he was killed by Darius the Great, the grandson of Arsames.

The Persian and Greek Wars.

Decrees to Rebuild Jerusalem. When the Jews left Babylon, it took three decrees before the city was finally rebuilt. The first two had little effect, but the final decree provided financial aid in the rebuilding.

  1. First Decree. 536 BC. Issued by Cyrus and recorded in Ezra 1: 1-7
  2. Second Decree. 518 BC. Issued by Darius and recorded in Ezra 6: 1-12
  3. Third Decree. 457 BC. Issued by Artaxerxes and recorded in Ezra 7: 12-26

Prophecy of the Future of Medo-Persia
Persia was to remain until the end of time. But it would never receive its former glory. The old nation of Persia now survives as Iran.
See Map

The Largest Army. Before the Greeks conquered Persia, Darius III assembled the largest army ever created to try and stop the progress of the Greeks (over 1,000,000 men from 40 different nations). He was still defeated by Alexander, who had no money and only 35,000 men, in the Battle of Arbela (also known as the battle of Gaugamela). Alexander was only 25 years old. The independent, warring Greek states allied themselves to fight for their freedom.

Governments Greece
Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
Greek empire
  1. Swift conquest
  2. One strong ruler, who is 'broken' early
  3. Kingdom divided in four
  4. Kingdom became a dominant Northern and Southern kingdom
Map of the Greek Empire
Rulers of Greece
KingYearConquerorTerritoryDynasty
Philip II359-334 BC-MacedoniaArgead
Alexander III the Great334-323 BCLiquorGreece
Perdiccas323-321 BCDiadochi
(The Successors)
GreecePerdiccas was Regent, then Antipater
Antipater321-319 BCGreece
-Arridaeus (Philip III)323-317 BCGreece
-Alexander IV323-310 BCGreece
1Ptolemy323-30 BCOctavianEgypt, PalestineDiadochi
Wars
323-301
2Seleucus312-63 BCPompeySyria, Persia, Babylon
3Lysimachus323-281 BCSeleucusThrace, Asia Minor
4Antipater, Cassander321-168 BCAemilius PaullusGreece, Macedonia
The Greek states were in constant civil wars. They had been fighting the Persians and even fought among themselves. The Athenians and Spartans were constantly at war. In 431, under the leadership of Pericles, they started the Peloponnesian War when the Spartans invaded the Athenians. They had different military strengths. The Spartans were good at land wars and Athens had a strong navy. After many years of fighting, the peace of Nicias was signed.

In 415 BC, Alicibiades convinced the Athenians to attack Sicily. Their navy was defeated. Then the Spartans attacked them in their weakened state and the Persians joined in. In 405 the rest of their navy was destroyed and they surrendered to the Spartans in 404 BC.
It took the threat of Persian domination and the strong leadership of Alexander to unite the warring states and form a great empire.

Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great 356-323 BC is respected as the most powerful and brilliant of all military leaders. He had defeated much of the known world in 13 years by the age of 33.
Succeeded to the throne in 336 BC as king of Macedon on the death of his father Philip II. He was tutored by Aristotle. Alexander first conquered the Greek states and then, as head of the Greek army, continued east in 334 BC to conquer the rest of the world in 8 short years. The battles of Alexander included:

No Heirs.
HeirRelationship Death
PerdiccasRegent by will321 BC
Philip III ArrideusRetarded half brother317 BC
OlympiasMother316 BC
Alexander IVSon (Now 13)Poisoned (311 BC)
RoxanaWife
HeraclesIllegitimate sonExecuted (309 BC)
BarsineHeracles' mother
Alexander the Great conquered Babylon in October 331 BC and died on 11 June 323 BC of a fever at age 33 without a legitimate heir.
He had a four year old illegitimate son with Barsine, a Persian princess but his wife Roxana was still nine months pregnant. His mother, Olympias, murdered his half brother, Philip, so that her grandson could be king.
Cassander, the general who wanted to rule Greece, executed her and then proceeded to murder all relatives and lovers who might have a claim to the throne. He poisoned Alexander IV and his mother, Roxana.
Peridiccas, the regent named in his will to take care of the empire until the heirs were old enough, was killed by his own men in a failed invasion of Egypt.

Alexander the Great Meets the High Priest
The Talmud relates that when Alexander the Great and his conquering legions advanced upon Jerusalem, they were met by a delegation of elders, led by the High Priest Shimon Ha Tzaddik (Simon the Righteous). When Alexander saw Shimon approaching, he dismounted and prostrated himself before the Jewish Sage. To his astonished men, Alexander explained that each time he went into battle, he would see a vision in the likeness of this High Priest leading the Greek troops to victory. In gratitude, and out of profound respect for the spiritual power of the Jews, Alexander was a kind and generous ruler. He canceled the Jewish taxes during Sabbatical years, and even offered animals to be sacrificed on his behalf in the Temple. Unfortunately, history would prove that Alexander's heirs failed to sustain his benevolence.

Rulers of Greece (Diadochi)
Greece, MacedoniaThrace, Asia Minor
Dynasty KingYear KingYear
Antipatrid Antipater I 321-319 Lysimachus323-281
Polyperchon319-316
Cassander (son of Antipater)316-297
Philip IV297-297
Antipater II297-294
Alexander V297-294
Antigonid Demetrius I Poliorcetes294-288
Lysimachus288-281
Seleucus 1 Nicantor281-281Seleucus 1 Nicantor281
Antigonid Ptolemy Ceraunus (Keraunos)281-279 Battle of Curopedium / Curupedium. 281 BC. Lysimachus is killed by Seleucus 1 Nicantor
Meleager279-279
Antipater Etesias279-279
Sosthenes279-277
Antigonus II Gonatas277-239
Demetrius II Aetolicus239-229
Antigonus III Doson229-221
Philip V221-179
Perseas (Perseus)179-168

A Kingdom Divided
After his death in 323 BC, the empire was divided among his generals - the Diadochi (successors). They included Antipater, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, Perdiccas, Eumenes and Craterus.

» Battle of Ipsus (301 BC). These successors struggled for the empire until the battle of Ipsus in 301 BC when Antigonus was defeated by a coalition of four leaders. Antigonus I Monophthalmus was the ruler of Asia Minor with his son Demetrius I Poliorcetes. In 306, Antigonus declared himself king of the Greek empire so the coalition moved against him. Antigonus and his forces of 70,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 horses were defeated by Lysimachus, Ptolemy and Seleucus and their elephants. Lysimachus took Asia Minor and the former Greek empire was divided among them:

  1. Lysimachus (North). Asia Minor (Turkey).
  2. Ptolemy 1 Soter (South). Egypt. It started the dynasty of Greeks as Egyptian kings (305 BC) known as the Ptolemies.
  3. Seleucus 1 Nicantor (East). Syria to India
  4. Cassander (West). Macedonia and Thrace (Greece) was the son of Antipater.

» Battle of Corupedion (281 BC). Finally, 20 years later, Lysimachus was defeated by Seleucus in the battle of Corupedion (281 BC) and gained the largest section of the old Persian empire in the north and east. Therefore the Greek kingdom was finally divided into two:

  1. Northern kingdom. Seleucid empire (Syria).
  2. Southern kingdom. Egypt

Although they were divided, the former Greek empire of diverse people were united by the Greek language and Greek civilization.

The Kingdoms of the North and South
Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
Egyptian empire
  1. The Greek empire was divided in four.
  2. Dominant Northern and Southern kingdom.
  3. An agreement by marriage between a woman from the south and the northern king. This would fail.
Map of the Divided Greek Empire
Rulers of the Greek Empire (Diadochi)
Egypt, PalestineSyria, Babylon, Persia
King of the SouthYear King of the NorthYear
Ptolemy 1 Soter323-285Laomedon 319-314
Antipater,
Antigonus
319
301
Seleucus 1 Nicator312
Ptolemy II Philadelphus282-246Antiochus 1 Soter280
Antiochus II Theos261
Ptolemy III Euergetes246-222Seleucus II Callinicus246
Ptolemy IV Philopator222Seleucus III Soter226
Ptolemy V Epiphanes205Antiochus III, the Great223
Cleopatra 1 Syra 180-178Seleucus V Philopator187
Ptolemy VI Philometor180-146Antiochus IV Epiphanes175 Affected Israel
Cleopatra II170Antiochus V Eupator164
Demetrius 1 Soter162
Alexander Balas150
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator145-144Antiochus VI145
Demetrius II Nicator146-139
129-125
Ptolemy VIII Physcon145-116Trypho142
Cleopatra III116-101Antiochus VII Sidetes138
Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyrus)116-107
88-80
Antiochus VIII Grypus125
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus116
Ptolemy X Alexander107-88Antiochus X Eusebes94
Ptolemy XI Alexander II80Demetrius III Eucerus92-87
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Auletes80-58,
55-51
Philip 1 Philadelphus 92-83
Cleopatra Selene88-69
Berenice IV58-55Tigranes II of Armenia83-69
Cleopatra VII Thea
(51-30BC)
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator51-47Antiochus XIII Asiaticus88-64
Philip II Philoromaeus66-53
Ptolemy XIV Theos Philopator II47-44
Ptolemy XV Caesarion44-30
Cleopatra VII51-30BC
Augustus Caesar30-14ADPompey63-48
Battle of Actium (31 BC). Augustus Caesar defeats Cleopatra and Mark Anthony Pompey (63 BC). Conquered Judaea and Syria
Titles. Soter = Savior. Theos = God. Epiphanes = Manifest or illustrious.
Nicator = Conquerer. Callinicus = Victorious. Ceraunus = Thunderbolt.
The strongest kingdoms were Egypt in the South, ruled by Ptolemy I Soter and Syria, in the North, ruled by Seleucus I Nicator. In 316, Seleucus I Nicator was driven from Babylonia by Antigonus. He then placed himself under the leadership of Ptolemy and together they defeated Demetrius (son of Antigonus) in 312 BC. The Seleucid empire grew to be bigger and stronger than the Egyptian. By 280 it extended from Greece to India. Here is some history related to prophecy.

Rulers of Egypt
KingYearDynasty
Early Dynastic3050-26861-2
Old Kingdom2650-21843-6
First Intermediate2150-20607-10
Middle Kingdom2055-175911-12
Amenemhet 11991-196212th (Hebrew Slaves)
Senusret 1 (Senwosret 1)1956-1911
Amenemhet II1911-1877
Senusret II1877-1870
Senusret III1836-1817
Amenemhet III1817-1772
Amenemhet IV1772-1763
Sobekneferu1763-1759
Second Intermediate1783-153913-17 (Hyksos)
New Kingdom1539-106918-20
Ahmose1539-151418th (Exodus)
Amenhotep I1514-1493
Thutmose I 1493-1481
Thutmose II1491-1479
Hatshepsut1473-1458
Exodus Thutmose III1504-1450
Amenhotep II1427-1392
Thutmose IV1419-1386
Amenhotep III1382-1344
Amenhotep IV1350-1334
Smenkhkare1336-1334
Tutankhamun1334-1325
Ay1325-1321
Horemheb1323-1295
Ramesses I1295-129419th (1295-1187)
Seti I1394-1279
Ramesses II1279-1213
Merenptah1213-1203
Third Intermediate1070-71521-24
1 Kings 14: 25-26 Shoshenq I (Shishak)945-92422nd
Osorkon I924-909
Takelot909--?
Shoshenq II?--883
Osorkon II883-855
Takelot II860-835
Shoshenq III835-783
Pami783-773
Shoshenq IV773-735
Osorkon IV735-712
Pedubaste I828-80323rd
Osorkon IV777-749
Peftjauwybast740-725
Shepsesre Tefnakht I725-72024th
Wahkare Bakenranef720-715
Late Kingdom715-34325-30
Piye747-71625th
Late
Kingdom
Shebaka712-698
Shebitku698-690
2 Kings 19: 9 Taharqa (Tirhakah)690-664
Tantamani664-657
Psammetichus I
(Psam-tik)
664-61026th
Affected Israel Nekau (Necho) II610-595
Psammetichus II595-589
Apries589-570
Amasis570-526
Psammetichus III526-525
Cambyses II538-52227th
(Persians)
Darius I521-486
Xerxes I486-466
Artaxerxes I465-424
Darius II424-404
Amyrtaios404-39928th
Nepherites I399-39329th
Psammuthis393
Hakoris393-380
Nepherites II380
Nectanebo I380-36230th
Teos365-360
Nectanebo II360-343
The 30th Dynasty was the last of the Egyptian born Pharaohs.
Affected Israel These kings affected Israel.
Second Persian343-33231
Macedonian332-323Greco Roman Period (332 BC-395 AD)
Ptolemaic Dynasty323-30
Roman Emperors30 BC - 324 AD
Byzantine Christian306-634
Abbasid ... Fatimid ... Ayubbide Mamlukes634-1516Islamic Period (750-1517)
Ottoman Rulers1517-1796
Napoleon Invaded
Map of the Egyptian Empire

Prophecy of the Future of Greece
Greece would exist until the end of time, but it would not be a significant empire anymore. The next empire would also accept the culture of Greece.

See Map of the Greek Empire.
See Map of four divisions of Greece after the death of Alexander

Governments Egypt.

The Treasures of Egypt. The treasures, mummies and buildings of Egypt have been looted by Greece, Rome and France. These foreign invaders preyed on the pyramids and the structures at Heliopolis, the City of the Sun. Heliopolis is near the Cairo airport.
The Obelisks of Egypt and Rome
ConstructedEgyptCollectorCurrent Location
1500 BC
Thutmose III
Karnak?Istanbul
KarnakConstantius II Sixtus VLateran, Rome
Heliopolis
Cleopatra's needle
?Embankment, London
?Central Park, New York
1300 BC
Ramses II
Luxor?Paris
HeliopolisAugustusFlaminian, Rome.
Piazza del Popolo
HeliopolisClement XIPantheon, Rome. Piazza della Rotonda
Heliopolis?Villa Celimontana
Heliopolis?Piazza de Termini
Memorial to soliders killed at Dogali
Heliopolis?Florence
600 BC
Psametico II
HeliopolisAugustus. Pius VIPalazzo di Montecitorio
Apries SaisAlexander VIIPiazza di S. Maria Sopra Minerva
150 BC
Ptolemy VII
Aswan?Britain
10 AD
Augustus
AlexandriaCaligulaSt. Peter, Vatican
Mausoleum of AugustusSextus VEsquiline, Rome
Pius VIQuirinal, Rome
90 AD DomitianCampus MartiusInnocent XPiazza Navona, Rome
120 AD Hadrian-?Sallust, Rome
-?Aurelian, Rome
Porta MaggioreHadrianPiazzale del Pinico
Memorial to Antinous

After Augustus defeated Cleopatra in 30 BC, he took the obelisks of Ramses II and Psammetichus II. Over the next 300 years Roman emperors moved about 13 obelisks from Egypt to Rome and merged the gods of Egypt with the gods of Rome, just as they had taken the gods of Greece. In adopting the Egyptian culture they also took their titles and started the dynasty of the Ptolemies.
» Isaeum-Serapeum Campense. The Obelisk of Domitian was built to honor the Egyptian gods Isis and Serapis and placed in a large complex of temples dedicated to these Egyptian gods. This complex was located in an area between the Pantheon and the Via Flaminia and was filled with small obelisks from Egypt.
Most obelisks were broken into pieces in the sixteenth century until they were rescued by Pope Sixtus V, repaired, embelished with Christian symbols and moved to the center of a piazza or in front of a basilica. Monuments to the gods of Egypt. Greece and Rome now became Christian monuments.

Prophecy of Egypt's Future
The former empire of Egypt was now the southern Greek empire. Egypt was the first great super power mentioned by the Bible. They enslaved Israel for 430 years after which God made an example of them by staging the most spectacular rescue of a people under the leadership of Moses during the exodus.
Thus says the Lord God: at the end of forty years will I gather the Egyptians from the peoples whither they were scattered . . . and will cause them to return to the land of Pathros [in upper Egypt, the original seat of Egyptian power], into the land of their birth; and they shall be there a base kingdom (RSV, a lowly kingdom). It shall be the basest of the kingdoms; neither shall it exalt itself any more above the nations: and I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the nations . . . Thus says the Lord God: I will also destroy the idols and will cause the images to cease out of Noph (Memphis); and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt ... (Ezekiel 29:13-15; 30:13).

Egypt as a kingdom was not to be destroyed. It was to survive, but with greatly reduced power - "a lowly kingdom", never presuming to exert power over the surrounding nations any more. It would also cease to have a monarchy. This probably was fulfilled when the Egyptians were removed from the throne and replaced by the Greeks with the Ptolemaic dynasty. Their dynasty would fall in the battle of Actium in 31 BC. It has remained a lowly kingdom for over 2500 years. It will never regain its former glory.

  1. Attacked by the Babylonians
  2. Attacked by the Medes and Persians
  3. Attacked by the Greeks and its Egyptian kings were replaced with Greek kings (the Dynasty of Ptolemy). Now, there is no Egyptian monarchy from any dynasty.
  4. Attacked by the Romans in the battle of Actium in 31 BC and has essentially lost its former glory ever since. Rome took the treasures of the Egyptian temples.
  5. Napoleon invaded Egypt and took the treasures of Egypt to France.
  6. British rule in the 19th century
  7. Currently independent but is an impoverished nation.
  8. Will turn to God with Assyria (Isaiah 19).

Governments Rome - Pagan
In 197 BC when Carthage was no longer a rival, Rome defeated Macedonia and set up the Greek states under her own protection. Rome was dominant in the West and she was now pointing towards the nations of the east and the old Greek empire.

Conquering the three remaining divisions of the old Greek empire was a process. By 168 BC, only one was conquered but the other two could not make a move. By 30 BC, all three were formally conquered.

Rome was cruel. Sometimes whole cities were destroyed. Corinth was destroyed in 146 BC. People who were not destroyed or subjugated were used as slaves or sold into slavery.
Some of the Roman territory was obtained peacefully by inheritance. In 74 BC Nicomedes III gave his entire kingdom of Bithynia to Rome on his deathbed. King Attalus III left his kingdom of Pergamum to the Roman Empire in his will (133 BC) and it became the province of Asia in 129 BC.

The Caesars.

Roman Governors and Other Rulers.

Facts One third of the Roman citizens were slaves.

The Kings and Priests of Israel During the Time of Jesus Christ
Born in Bethlehem, Judea about 4 BC while the Jews were under Roman occupation. He was born around the time Augustus Ceasar issued taxes and baptized in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar 29 AD. These are the rulers of Palestine at the time of Christ.
Julius Caesar 27 BC Augustus Caesar 13 ADAugustus and Tiberius14 AD Tiberius Caesar37 AD Caligula41 AD Claudius
Herod
Antipater
37 BC Herod
The Great
1 BCHerod
Antipas
39 ADHerod
Agrippa 1
44 AD Herod
Agrippa 2
4 BC 30 Years27 AD3.5 Years 31 AD
Birth 33 Years (Jesus Christ) Death
The Disciples Ministered
6 AD Annas---18 ADCaiaphas 36 AD
The High Priests

Herod.
Roman EmperorsThe House of Herod
Judea Idumea Galilee
Julius Caesar
(47-44)
Herod Antipater II (67-43 BC)
Phasael (47-40)
Augustus (Octavian) (27BC - 14AD) Jesus Herod 1 the Great (39-4 BC)
Herod Archelaus
(4 BC-6AD)
Herod Philip
(4 BC-37 AD)
Herod 2 Antipas
(4 BC-39 AD)
Coponius (6-9)
Ambivulus (9-12)
Annius Rufus (12-15)
Tiberius (14-37AD) Valerius Gratus (15-26)
Pontius Pilate (26-36)
Caligula (37-41) Marcellus (Marulus) (37)
Herennius Capito (37-41)
Herod Agrippa 1 (37-44)
Claudius (41-54) Cuspius Fadus (44-46)
Tiberius Alexander (46-48)
Ventidius Cumanus (48-52)
Nero
(54-68)
Antonius Felix (52-60)Herod Agrippa II
(50?-100)
Porcius Festus (60-62)
Clodius Albinus (62-64)
Gessius Florus (64-66)
Vespasian (69-79) Temple Temple Falls (70 AD)
First Jewish Revolt (66-73)
Titus
(79-81)
Mount Vesuvius Eruption (24 August 79)
Hadrian (117-138) Bar Kochba Jewish Revolt (132-135)
Jews Exiled From Jerusalem (136 AD)
Roman Procurators: Procurators of Judaea (6-41). Procurators of Palestine (44-66)
The Herods were the non-Jewish ruling dynasty that descended from the Esau. After the Roman occupation of Palestine in 63BC, they ruled at the pleasure of Rome.

The High Priests
High priests were appointed for life by law as the scriptures suggest (Numbers 35: 25, 28). However, in this corrupt era the office of high priest was bought and sold and the priest could easily be deposed by the Roman leaders. Therefore, several men who had served as high priests could coexist as Luke reported (Luke 3: 2). Therefore, at the time of the crucifixion the gospel described two men as high priests, Annas and his son-in-law Caiaphas (John 18: 13). Annas was a Saducee who had five sons, a son-in-law and a grandson as high priest. Josephus comments in the (Jewish Antiquities XX, 9.1):
SanhedrinThe High PriestsYear
? Ananelus Appointed by Herod the Great37-36 BC
Aristobulus III36 BC
Joshua ben Fabus 30-23 BC
Hillel the Elder
(20 BC-16AD)
Simon ben Boethus22-5 BC
Mattathias ben Theophilus Baby Jesus 5-4 BC
Joazar ben Boethus4 BC
Eleazar ben Boethus Appointed by Herod Archelaus4-1 BC
Joshua ben Sie3 BC-6AD
Father Annas (Ananus ben Seth) Appointed by Quirinius, the imperial governor of Syria Jesus 6-15
Ishmael ben Fabus Appointed by Valerius Gratus15-16
Shimon haNasiSon Eleazar ben Ananus16-17
Simon ben Camithus17-18
Son-in-Law Joseph Caiaphas18-36
Gamliel 1Son Jonathan ben Ananus Appointed by Vitellius36-37
Son Theophilus ben Ananus37-41, 44
Simon Kantheras ben Boethus Appointed by Herod Agrippa 141-43
Son Matthias ben Ananus43-44
Elionaius (Aljoneus) son of Kantheras43-44
Josephus ben Camydus (Kami) Appointed by Herod of Chalcis44-46
Ananias ben Nebedeus46-52
Ishmael ben Fabus (Phiabi) Appointed by Herod Agrippa II56-62
Joseph Cabi ben Simon62-63
Son Ananus ben Ananus63
Joshua ben Damneus63
Joshua ben Gamaliel63-64
Grandson Mattathias ben TheophilusSiege65-66
Shimon ben GamlielPhinnias, son of Samuel Appointed by The People67-70
Temple DestroyedTemple 70 AD
Relatives of Annas (Annanius). ("ben" means "son of")
Son Son Grandson Grandson Son-in-Law Son-in-Law
Josephus Flavius (Joseph ben Matthias), the Jewish historian, was born around 37-39 AD. He was the son of Matthias ben Theophilus, the grandson of Annas.

It is said that the elder Ananus was extremely fortunate. For he'd five sons, all of whom, after he himself had previously enjoyed the office for a very long period, became high priests of God - a thing that had never happened to any other of our high priests.

Roman Persecution
The Romans conducted ten formal persecutions against the Christians and Jews, starting with Nero. When half of Rome was burned in a fire in 64 AD, Nero accused the Christians of starting it and began the first Roman persecution.

The Destruction Of The Temple
After the death of Nero, the seventeen year old son of Herod Agrippa was considered too young to ascend the throne, so Jerusalem fell under direct Roman rulers. This caused animosity and civil war and eventually a riot which killed 20,000 Jews.

Trouble broke out in Caesarea between the Jews and the Greeks (who tried to insult the Jews). This led to a siege of the Roman garrison Antonia and the assault on Masada.

The trouble intensified when two massacres occurred on the same day. The Jews in Jerusalem killed some Roman soldiers and the Greeks massacred 20,000 Jews in Caesarea. This caused all Jews to resort to retaliation and armed conflict. Many Roman soldiers were killed as they tried to maintain order. Judea was now in rebellion against Rome.

Meanwhile, in Jerusalem and other cities, the country was plagued by civil wars against violent zealots who murdered and openly robbed homes and tried to maintain hostilities. The Romans offered no help because they hated the Jews. A leader of the Zealots, Phanias (Phinnias), managed to remove the high priest and set himself up in that office, increasing the civil war and causing the death of 85,000 people.

Nero died around this time and was succeeded by Vespasian who waited a year hoping that the Jews in Jerusalem would weary themselves with their internal struggles while he subdued rebellion in smaller cities. He then sent Titus to subdue Jerusalem.

Cestius. In 66 AD, before the final siege, Cestius came against the city and withdrew for some unknown reason. Some sources say that he was defeated by the Jews on August 8. Many Christians took that as a sign to flee the city.

Titus. Then the army returned with Titus in 70 AD to besiege the city for 143 days. He would become the next emperor from 79-81. His reign was filled with tragedy and national disasters which caused people to speculate that his reign was cursed because he destroyed the temple in Jerusalem.

The Siege and Fall of Jerusalem.
Map of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Map of Ancient Israel Map of Modern Israel
The story continues with a direct account by Josephus in "The War of the Jews".

Signs of Doom. "Thus there was a star resembling a sword, which stood over the city, and a comet, that continued a whole year. Thus also before the Jews' rebellion, and before those commotions which preceded the war, when the people were come in great crowds to the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan], and at the ninth hour of the night, so great a light shone round the altar and the holy house, that it appeared to be bright day time; which lasted for half an hour. This light seemed to be a good sign to the unskillful, but was so interpreted by the sacred scribes, as to portend those events that followed immediately upon it.
Flavius Josephus, War of the Jews, Book VI, Chapter V, Sn 3
The Fall of Jerusalem. Now, as Titus was on his march he chose out 600 select horsemen, and went to take a view of the city, when suddenly an immense multitude burst forth from the gate over against the monuments of Queen Helena and intercepted him and a few others. He had on neither helmet nor breastplate, yet though many darts were hurled at him, all missed him, as if by some purpose of Providence and, charging through the midst of his foes, he escaped unhurt. Part of the army now advanced to Scopos, within a mile of the city, while another occupied a station at the foot of the Mount of Olives.

» Warring Factions Unite. Seeing this gathering of the Roman forces, the factions within Jerusalem for the first time felt the necessity for concord, as Eleazar from the summit of the Temple, John from the porticoes of the outer court, and Simon from the heights of Sion watched the Roman camps forming thus so near the walls. Making terms with each other, they agreed to make an attack at the same moment. Their followers, rushing suddenly forth along the valley of Jehoshaphat, fell on the 10th legion, encamped at the foot of the Mount of Olives, and working there unarmed at the entrenchments. The soldiers fell back, many being killed. Witnessing their peril, Titus, with picked troops, fell on the flank of the Jews and drove them into the city with great loss.

The Roman commander now carefully pushed forward his approaches, and the army took up a position all along the northern and the western walls, the footmen being drawn up in seven lines, with the horsemen in three lines behind, and the archers between.

Jerusalem was fortified by three walls. These were not one within the other, for each defended one of the quarters into which the city was divided. The first, or outermost, encompassed Bezetha, the next protected the citadel of the Antonia and the northern front of the Temple, and the third, or old, and innermost wall was that of Sion. Many towers, 35 feet high and 35 feet broad, each surmounted with lofty chambers and with great tanks for rain water, guarded the whole circuit of the walls, 90 being in the first wall, 14 in the second, and 60 in the third. The whole circuit of the city was about 33 stadia (four miles). From their penthouses of wicker the Romans, with great toil day and night, discharged arrows and stones, which slew many of the citizens.

At three different places the battering rams began their thundering work, and at length a corner tower came down, yet the walls stood firm, for there was no breach. Suddenly the besieged sallied forth and set fire to the engines. Titus came up with his horsemen and slew twelve Jews with his own hands.

» First Wall Falls. The Jews now retreated to the second wall, abandoning the defense of Bezetha, which the Romans entered. Titus instantly ordered the second wall to be attacked, and for five days the conflict raged more fiercely than ever. The Jews were entirely reckless of their own lives, sacrificing themselves readily if they could kill their foes. On the fifth day they retreated from the second wall, and Titus entered that part of the lower city which was within it with 1,000 picked men.

But, being desirous of winning the people, he ordered that no houses should be set on fire and no massacres should be committed. The seditious, however, slew everyone who spoke of peace, and furiously assailed the Romans. Some fought from the walls, others from the houses, and such confusion prevailed that the Romans retired; then the Jews, elated, manned the breach, making a wall of their own bodies.

Thus the fight continued for three days, till Titus a second time entered the wall. He threw down all the northern part and strongly garrisoned the towers of the south. The strong heights of Sion, the citadel of the Antonia, and the fortified temple still held out. Titus, eager to save so magnificent a place, resolved to refrain for a few days from the attack, in order that the minds of the besieged might be affected by their woes, and that the slow results of famine might operate. He reviewed his army in full armor, and they received their pay in view of the city, the battlements being thronged by spectators during this splendid defiling, who looked on in terror and dismay.

Famine and Mass Crucifixions. The famine increased, and the misery of the weaker was aggravated by seeing the stronger obtaining food. All natural affection was extinguished, husbands and wives, parents and children snatching the last morsel from each other. Many wretched men were caught by the Romans prowling in the ravines by night to pick up food and these were scourged, tortured and crucified. This was done to terrify the rest, and it went on till there was not wood enough for crosses.

Sanhedrin Massacred. Terrible crimes were committed in the city. Matthias, the aged high priest who was deposed in 66 AD, was accused of holding communication with the enemy. Three of his sons were killed in his presence, and he was executed in sight of the Romans, together with sixteen other members of the sanhedrin.

Cannibalism. The famine grew so woeful that a woman devoured the body of her own child. At length, after fierce fighting, the Antonia was scaled, and Titus ordered its demolition.

Destruction of the Temple, August 10. Titus now promised that the temple should be spared if the defenders would come forth and fight in any other place, but John and the Zealots refused to surrender it. For several days the outer cloisters and outer court were attacked with rams, but the immense and compact stones resisted the blows. As many soldiers were slain in seeking to storm the cloisters, Titus ordered the gates to be set on fire. Through that night and the next day the flames raged through the cloisters. Then, in order to save the temple itself, he ordered the fire to be quenched.
» Fire In The Temple. On the tenth of August, the same day of the year on which Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the temple built by Solomon, the cry was heard that the temple was on fire. The Jews, with cries of grief and rage, grasped their swords and rushed to take revenge on their enemies or perish in the ruins.

The slaughter was continued while the fire raged. Soon no part was left but a small portion of the outer cloisters, where 6,000 people had taken refuge, led by a false prophet who had there promised that God would deliver His people in His Temple. The soldiers set the building on fire and all perished. Titus next spent eighteen days in preparations for the attack on the upper city, which was then speedily captured. By this time the Romans did not want to show any mercy. It was night that put an end to the carnage. During the whole of this siege of Jerusalem, 1,100,000 were slain, and 97,000 taken as prisoners.

In 71 AD, the Romans cut down every tree and salted the land in Israel to punish the Jews. In 73 AD, 900 Jews were killed at the fortress Masada.

The Bar Kochba Revolt (132-135)
A second Jewish revolt occurred during the years 132 to 135 AD and was led by Bar Kochba (Kokaba, Cocheba). He was originally named Shimon bar Kosiba and it was changed to Kochba "son of the star" in fulfillment of the prophecy by Balaam (Numbers 24: 17) about a star out of Jacob. He proclaimed himself to be the Messiah and it was quickly affirmed by Rabbi Akiva. Christianity was still largely seen as a sect of Judaism at this time. These events would cause a rift between Christianity and its roots.

Jewish Christians had to choose between Christ or Bar Kochba as the Messiah. If they chose Bar Kochba they would have to support the revolt. They chose not to support the revolt and were seen as traitors. It caused permanent hostilities between the Jewish and Christian communities.

» Emperor Hadrian. The culture of the Roman empire was full of incest, homosexuals and pedophiles. This was the practice adopted from the Greeks where young boys were expected to take an older male lover until they got married. When the Greeks took over the Egyptian dynasty, this practice of incest, homosexuality, adultery and pedophelia continued among the Ptolemaic dynasty. Herod adopted these customs and came under the condemnation of John the Baptist.
Emperor Hadrian's favorite was a twelve year old Greek youth named Antinous. He toured the eastern empire between 129-130 with a homosexual entourage and began the process unifying religons.

Rebuilding the Temple
The Bar Kokaba revolt happened because emperor Hadrian supported a plan to rebuild the temple and dedicate it to the Pagan God Jupiter. The Jews revolted.
Emperor Constantine also tried to rebuild between 313-324 it but was unsuccessful. He built Christian churches instead. Finally, in 363 emperor Julian tried to rebuild it. For this project, the Jews had to remove the remaining foundation stones. Now, there were no stones left of the original temple. Only parts of a wall that surrounded the complex remained. This still exists as the wailing wall. After the demolition, and before, the rebuilding could begin a series of natural disasters and unusual events prevented the efforts. An earthquake, followed by many explosions and balls of fire from the ground stopped the project.
Finally, the Muslims built the Dome of the Rock mosque in 691 and the Al-Aksa mosque in 715 on the temple mount. The political tensions prevent the destruction of the mosqe and the rebuilding of the temple.

Europe: The Division and Decline of Pagan Rome
Tribe Leader Location and History
1Invader VisigothsAlaricSpain
2FranksClovisFrance
Gained control of the empire for the Papacy
3AllemaniLeuthariGermany
4Anglo-SaxonManyEngland
5Invader LombardsCassiodorusItaly
6SueviHermericPortugal
7Burgundians GundobadSwitzerland
8 Invader Heruli OdoacerGermanic tribe from Sweden. Assimilated
9 Invader VandalsGaisericGerman tribe
Moved to North Africa, controlled western Mediterranean then disappeared in 534 after they were overthrown by the Romans
10 InvaderOstrogothsTheodoricGerman tribe
Conquered by the Romans
Map of the Divided Roman Empire
Tribe Origin Location and History
A BastarnaeGermanDisappeared by the second century
MarcomanniGermanDisappeared after the fourth century
Invader SlavsSlavNorth Carpathian
From the North Carpathian. Settled in the peninsula
CostobociSlavDisappeared by 3 AD
CarpiSlavDisappeared by 273
BulgarsTurks, HunsEmerged in seventh century
Invader HunsAtilla (Asiatic)Disappeared by the fifth century
RoxolaniIranianDisappeared by 68 AD
SarmatiansIranianDefeated by the Goths and Huns in the third and fourth centuries
Scythians
Saka
Central Asia, Iranian800BC-600BC-300 AD
Umman-Manda (Scythians) drove the Cimmerians out of Europe to the region above the Black Sea
CimmeriansIranian800-600 BC
The region above the Black Sea
B Invader GothsGermanMoved to Italy by 488
Adopted Christianity in the fourth century. Split into the Visigoths and Ostrogoths and moved to Italy
C BasquesUnknownFrom northern Spain
DQuadiGermanDisappeared with the Vandals
E GepidaeGermanDisappeared by 567
Defeated by the Huns and Avars
CumansTurkishAppeared around the twelfth century and later assimilated into the population
TartarsTurkishBulgaria and Romania
Appeared around the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in the region of Bulgaria and Romania
PechenegsTurkishVolga and Ural rivers
Emerged 8-9th century.
Assimilated by the twelfth century
AvarsTurkishUkraine
Settled in the Ukraine by the sixth century. Defeated by the Franks in 827
F AlaniIranianWestern Rome
Disappeared by the fifth century and settled in the northern Persian region. They had migrated to western Rome by 451
BerberUnknownFrom North Africa. Not part of the empire.
Celts (Gauls)Indo-EuropeanConquered by 52 BC, assimilated by the native populations
CeltsIndo-AryanFuture British empire
(Celts, Irish, Scots, Picts, Britons, Jutes) Part of the future British empire. Not part of the Roman empire
Rome broke up into ten dominant groups after constant invasion from the Barbarian hordes from the north and east. As a result, Rome had to divide the empire into two halves in an attempt to survive. Both halves would fall because of invaders from the east. The Barbarians conquered western Rome, while the Persians conquered Byzantine Rome.

Barbarian Invasion of Western Rome
By the end of its dominance, Western Rome was constantly invaded by the Mongol and Germanic tribes (Barbarians) from the north and east. Eventually, the divisions were roughly according to ten nations: Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Suevi, Allemanni, Anglo-Saxons, Heruli, Lombards and Burgundians.

Other Barbarians. There were other tribes who appeared before or after this period. Some were absorbed into the ten dominant tribes while others were destroyed. These are the reasons why these are not considered part of the final ten powers of the western Roman empire.

  1. Before Rome. Some tribes disappeared before the division of Rome in 476 AD or were defeated by the Romans or others. (Celts (Gauls), Costoboci, Roxolani, Bastarnae, Carpi, Sarmatians, Marcomanni, Huns, Alani, Slavs, Cimmerians, Scythians)
  2. Split. They became part of the empire but split up into multiple tribes. (Goths)
  3. Weak Nations. They were located within the borders of the Roman empire but never became powerful enough to be a kingdom. (Basques)
  4. Assimilated. They were absorbed by a more dominant tribe and so they lost their identity and any claim to be called a power. (Quadi)
  5. After Rome. They appeared or organized themselves long after the papacy was in power, and were not within the borders of the empire. (Avars, Gepidae, Cumans, Tartars, Pechenegs)
  6. Outside Rome. Their physical location was not within the borders of the Roman empire and they never conquered any of the empire. (Alani, Berber, Bulgars, Celts)

Byzantine (Eastern Rome). During this time, Rome decided to abandon Italy and to abolish imperial succession in Rome.

Rome Removed Political Structure. They also dismantled the rest of the roman political structure:

Invader The Turkic Migration. The Turks migrated from Central Asia into Europe and the Middle East between the sixth and twelfth centuries. Turks also founded states between Mongolia and Transoxiana and were converted to Islam. A great migration of Oghuz Turks (Turkomen) in the eleventh and twelfth centuries came into Asia Minor (Anatolia).
While eastern Rome eventually fell under the invading Turks and the religion of Islam, the papacy controlled western Rome.

Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
  1. Ten Divisions
  2. Will be ruled by a small power
  3. Attempts to unite by marriage will fail
  4. Other attempts to unite will fail
  5. Will remain divided
  6. Will help to setup the last religious power

The Rise of Papal Rome
Under the old Roman empire, the popes had no powers, but when the empire had disintegrated, the church became independent of the states and dominated religious and secular affairs.

In its rise to power in Rome, several important events happened.

The Holy Roman Empire. With the empire divided into two and the Bishop of Rome the head of the western empire, the church quickly established itself as the power behind all powers. They approved, coronated, threatened and punished kings. They had the power to ask governments to use their armies to execute the desires of the church.

The Visigoths converted to Orthodoxy/Catholicism in 589, but were later destroyed by the Muslims. After some fluctuations in their power, and periods of division, the Franks eventually, but briefly, created a vast empire, which was considered to be the continuation of the Western Roman Empire, comprising most of the then civilized lands of Central and Western Europe (with the exception of a large part of the Iberian peninsula, now belonging to the Muslims).

In the year 800, the Frankish King Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by the Pope, thus becoming a successor to the Roman Emperors of the past, only now it was felt that such a title could only be granted by the Church. Historians traditionally regard this event as the birth of the Holy Roman Empire Under the auspices of the Catholic Franks, the Papal States were created in central Italy, comprising Rome and the areas around her. The Frankish Empire was divided into a French and a German half a few decades after its formation. The Papal States would survive until 1871. In November 1793, all Christian churches in Paris, the center of the Revolution, closed down, and the Christian religion was officially banned.

During its reign, the states were separate powers often times at war with each other. But the church was a unifying force in that it installed and dethroned kings and could call the states at anytime to use its military power to enforce church laws and policy.

The Church under the Papacy
Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
  1. Religious power
  2. Removes three of the ten divisions
  3. Lasts 1260 years
  4. Persecutes the church
  5. Captured
  6. Rises to power again
  7. Allies with the United States
  8. Controls world religion
  9. Defeated by God (future)

The reign of the papacy was marked by these events:

  1. Power. Helped to power by the French king Clovis and later Justinian.
  2. Defeat of three Nations. Three rulers and nations were exterminated (Vandals, Heruli, Ostrogoths) before the church could take over control of Rome.
  3. Persecutes. The church persecuted and killed between 50-100 million martyrs as heretics in a series of organized campaigns.
    The Crusades against Muslims and Protestant heretics.
    The Inquisition against Protestant heretics.
  4. Captured. Removed from power in 1798 during the Napoleonic wars, when General Berthier imprisoned Pope Pius II and created the Papal States.
  5. 1260 Year Reign. The reign would last from 538 with the defeat of the Ostrogoths to 1798 with the imprisonment of Pope Pius.
  6. Restoration. Sovereign power was restored after World War II when Italy and the Pope signed the Lateran Treaty and created the Vatican City.

The Decline of Papal Rome
The political and religious decline of the church came in several stages, the most influential was the Reformation.

  1. The Invention of Printing. Before this time, only a few copies of the Bible existed, mostly in Latin and in monasteries. Printing made is available in more languages and more widely circulated. Education was followed by unrest.
  2. The Protestant Reformation. It caused many to question the doctrines of the church and broke the religious dominance of the church. With new information from the Bible and in reaction to centuries of persecution many broke away from the church.
  3. The French Revolution. It changed the political dominance of the church. With new ideas of government, the resulting Napoleonic wars spread the new political ideas. With their hatred of the church, they succeeded in taking away the land and government of the church in Rome.

The church used many tactics to combat the rising tide of independence. They began with force.

Spain and the Inquisition
The nation of Spain is discussed because of the Spanish Inquisition. In 1478 Pope Sixtus IV issued a papal bull for the creation of the Spanish Inquisition, at the request of the Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella. They used this system to unify the nation of Spain which was divided into various groups after Spain was retaken by the Christians in the Crusades.

The king and queen chose Catholicism to unite the nation. They drove out Jews, Muslims and other nonbelievers. In 1483, Tomas de Torquemada became the inquisitor general for most of Spain. He was responsible for establishing the rules of inquisitorial procedure and creating branches of the Inquisition in various cities.

The Spanish Inquisition was officially abolished in 1834.

Jesuits
One of the tasks assigned to the Jesuits at the Council of Trent was to fight the reformation by inquisition, torture and theology.

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534 and was officially approved by Pope Paul III in 1540. Loyola was a devotee of the virgin Mary whom he credited with giving him the spiritual exercises that is practiced among the group. They are bound by a vow of obedience to the pope and are governed by a general in Rome who is elected for life. This general is sometimes referred to as the "Black Pope". In this case "black" means hidden or evil activities. He is thought to be the most powerful in the Roman Catholic Church.
Their work mainly centered on foreign missions, education and working with outsiders. As such they became spiritual advisors to kings and taught the sons of leading families. These activities (education and political influence) are two of their primary means of promoting Catholicism.

The Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648)
The Protestant Reformation (1517) and the printing of the Bible in the common language brought religious chaos to Europe. It eventually helped to start the Thirty Years war which was basically a war of religion involving several nations. It eventually became a political war as other Catholic countries (France) became fearful of the growing Spanish power.
The Spanish Hapsburgs joined the Austrians to form the Catholic League. They would be at war with several nations for the next thirty years.

Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
Napoleon
  1. Against God
  2. Lasts 3 ½ years

The French Revolution
The final demise of the church came during the French Revolution. By 1789, the French treasury was bankrupt. The problem precipitated a political upheaval that eventually affected the whole world.

The discontent with the French government was due to the financial crisis, disaffection with the privileged clergy and nobility fuelled the rebellion of the underprivileged classes against feudal oppression. Louis XVI convened the States-general at Versailles on May 5, 1789, for the first time since 1614 to deal with the financial problems. This forum was used by some deputies to press for sweeping political and social reforms that far exceeded the assembly's powers.
French Revolution Timeline
1789July 14Storming of the Bastille. Revolution began
August 14Nationalization of Church property
August 26 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
1791 -Academy of scientists asked to rationalize weights and measurements
1792August 10Monarchy overthrown
September 2-7September Massacres. 1500 prisoners killed
Europe Republic: (21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795)
September 21The "Convention" abolishes monarchy, sets up republic
September 28Danton declares that the revolution is a revolution against all kings
November 19The Convention declares its willingness to help all subjected peoples to achieve their liberty
December 26King Louis XVI was brought to trial
1793January 15Louis XVI condemned by 351 out of 700
January 21Louis XVI executed on the guillotine
FebruaryWar declared on Britain and Holland (February 1). Spain (March 7)
March 10Revolutionary Tribunal to judge "enemies of the republic"
April 6Committee of Public Safety, the official terror organization of the state
September 5Reign of Terror begins
October 5New Republican calendar with new time (year, month, week, hours) retroactive to 22 September 1792
-Press censored
October 16Queen Marie Antoinette guillotined
November 10Idolatry The Festival of Reason in Notre Dame
Religion Banned for about 3.5 Years
November 22Roman Catholicism banned and churches closed. Bibles burned
1794February 5The Great Terror. Mass executions. 250,000 killed. Some sources say 500,000 to a million
June 8Idolatry The Festival of the Supreme Being worshipping Bacchus and nature. Robespierre starts the cult of the supreme being and is called "the prophet of the new dawn" and the "Messiah who would renew the earth". This festival resembles Mardi Gras
June 10Law of 22 Prairial. Great Terror
June 27-28Robespierre is accused, condemned and executed after a failed suicide attempt
September 18State no longer pays expenses and salaries of the church
1795April 1Food shortages and riots
February 21Freedom of worship and separation of church and state is official
May 20-23Bread riots and white terror in Paris
Europe Directory: (27 October 1795 to 10 November 1799)
November 3The Directory begins, 1795-1799
1796April 11Italy invaded
1797April 18Electors turn against the Directory
Religion Returns after 3.5 Years
August 24Repeal of laws against the clergy
1798The Fall of the Papacy and The Fall of Egypt
February 10France captures Rome and declared a republic
February 15Pope flees
February 20Pope imprisoned and taken to Siena then to Florence
April 3Mandatory 10 day week
July 1French land in Egypt
July 21French victory of the Pyramids against the Mamelukes
August 1Battle of the Nile. Admiral Nelson defeats the French fleet at Aboukir Bay
1799April 16Napoleon, with 600 men reinforcing 1500 soldiers of general Kleber, defeats 25,000 Turks at the Battle of Mt. Tabor on the plains of Megiddo
August 22Napoleon deserts his army
August 29Pope Pius VI dies in Valence, France
October 9Napoleon returns secretly to France
Europe Consulate: (November 1799 to ?)
November 9-10Coup d'etat. Napoleon overthrows directory
December 12Napoleon becomes first consul
1800 July 26Free to worship on any day
1801July 15Concordat signed with the Papacy
1803April 30 - December 20War Financing Louisiana Purchase. France sells 530 million acres to the USA for $15 million
1804-Napoleon crowned himself emperor, taking title from the pope
1805September 9Sunday was the official rest day
1806January 1 France returns to Gregorian calendar
1812June-DecemberInvaded Russia with 600,000 men. Retreated in winter with less then 100,000 survivors
1814January 11War Financing British hire Rothschilds to finance the war with war bonds
1814April 11Forced to abdicate, exiled to Elba. Escaped
1815June 12-18Napoleon defeated at Waterloo
1815June 22Surrenders. Exiled to St. Helena. Died at age 51


They proclaimed themselves the National Assembly (June 17) and took an oath not to separate until a constitution had been drawn up. Acting on rumors, on October 5 a mob marched to Versailles and forcibly moved the royal family and the Assembly to Paris. There the Assembly drafted a constitution (1791) that created a limited monarchy. the preamble was the famous Declaration Of The Rights Of Man And Citizen. Influenced by the United States Declaration Of Independence and the Enlightenment, it asserted the equality of all men, the sovereignty of the people, and the inalienable rights of the individual to liberty, property and security.

On September 21 the Convention (revolutionary government) abolished the monarchy, set up the first Republic, tried and executed the king for treason in January 1793. This led to a royalist uprising and the September massacres (September 2-7, 1792) in which hundreds of royal prisoners were killed. This was followed by the Reign Of Terror in 1792-1794 led by Maximilien Robespierre.
On 22 November 1793, Robespierre reports on the principles of political morality, declaring that the revolutionary government is based on both virtue and terror

"... virtue without which terror is evil, terror without which virtue is powerless"

Robespierre was executed after a coup d'etat of 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794), and the Directory came into existence under the new constitution of 1795. Their reign was plagued with corruption and was finally ended by Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire and the establishment of the Consulate. Thus ended the French Revolutionary Wars, the beginning of the Napoleonic empire (1804) and the Napoleonic wars in which the French tried to spread their revolutionary ideas and liberalism and communism across Europe. Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo and exiled.

The Death of God in France. During the revolution, the people revolted against the Catholic church. The people had been tortured and repressed for so long, that when they revolted they rejected all of Christianity and the word of God.

For 3 and ½ years beginning November 24, 1793 to April 1797 religion was banned and a substitute put in place. They even changed the calendar to show their new found love for natural law and hatred of Sunday.

Beginning with that period (November 24, 1793 or 3rd Frimaire in Year II), the churches of Paris were closed and the public reading of the Bible forbidden. Immediately, almost all parts of the town renounced religion, closed parish churches and reopened them as temples of reason. In these temples, a prostitute, Désirée Candéille, was installed as the Goddess of Reason after she paraded naked through the streets of Paris.

The goddess, after being embraced by the president, was mounted on a magnificent car, and conducted, amid an immense crowd, to the cathedral Notre Dame, to take the place of Deity. There she was elevated on a high altar, and received the adoration of all present.

At the end of the period, the churches of Paris were reopened and the public reading of the Bible was encouraged among the Protestants. All non-Catholic groups (Protestants and Jews) were granted freedom of religion. The French Protestants had been subjected to millions of deaths in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, the slaughter of Protestant Huguenots at the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV, Albigensian Inquisition and Crusade, and the persecution of the Huguenots.

In their animosity towards the Catholic church, the members of the government appealed to Napoleon to destroy the papacy. Christianity and the French Revolution page 151 quotes a letter written to Napoleon from the Directory of France who appealed to him with these words:

The Roman religion would always be the irreconcilable enemy of the Republic. It must be struck in France. It must be struck in Rome ... that is to destroy, if possible, the center of the unity of the Roman church; and it is for you, who unite in your person the most distinguished qualities of the general ... to realize this aim.

The Demise of the Papacy. By 1798, General Berthier entered Rome and seized Pope Pius VI and placed him in prison on February 15, 1798. He made his entrance into Rome, abolished the Papal government and established a secular one. This temporarily ended 1260 years of Papal rule and their loss of prestige around the world. They were brought to power by the French General Belisarius and removed from power by the French - Napoleon and General Berthier.

The Loss of Power in Italy. In 1870, the new government of Italy seized the Papal states, including Rome. On 13 May 1871, it passed the "Law of Papal Guarantees" granting the pope a salary, religious freedom and the right to receive ambassadors.

Civic Isolationism. Pius IX refused to acknowledge this law and in May 1873, the state seized all Catholic schools, hospitals and religious orders. During this period, Leo XIII developed an official position on religious liberties and church-state relations, which demanded that states must not only care for religion but must "recognize the true religion professed by the Catholic church." These policies would be implemented by Vatican II.

The Papacy Rises Again.
The Lateran Treaty (11 February 1929). It was not until the Lateran Treaty, when Mussolini gave the Vatican City to the Church that the secular power began to be restored. The Lateran treaty had three sections.

Concordat (3 June 1985). This treaty with Italy replaced the Lateran treaty. It gave the papacy more international power, but the church was no longer the official state religion.
The church has signed concordats with many governments. These agreements guarantee certain rights of the Catholics within the country.

International Power. The international power of the church grew. By 1989, the world would learn that the church was instrumental in cooperating with the United States to bring an end to communism since 1981.

Attempts to unite Europe
Several peaceful and violent methods have been used in an attempt to unite the divided kingdom of Europe into one political entity under one ruler.
Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
  1. The old Roman empire will be divided into ten powers
  2. They will attempt to unite by marriage
  3. They will be ruled by a 'little' power
  4. They will not unite as one political body like the old Roman empire
These include marriages between members of the royal family, by war and now we see an attempt to partially join Europe by an economic union. Under the economic union, there may be an attempt to get full political union. By itself this too will fail. Even though prophecy says that there may not be another long political union, there is a coming spiritual union under one leader, the Roman Catholic Church.

1. European Unity by Marriage
The European monarchies attempted to bring peace and unity by marriage. This type of activity picked up around the eleventh century and was the norm by the 1800's. All these intermarriages eventually failed to bring about one political union similar to the days of the Roman Empire under the caesars. During the middle ages, the church brought about a religious union, and the pope was able to influence the monarchs on the basis of religious action as if he were the head of all those states. But still this was not a complete political union. The kingdom remained divided.

Many attempts were made to unite by war or marriage. The most significant was the reign of Queen Victoria, the 'grandmother of Europe', she married a German prince and they had 9 children whose marriages were made to strengthen their ties with the other royal houses. Many times this caused brother and sister to be at odds with the British position and with each other. Despite all the relationships, there was always enmity or war between Britain and France, Prussia and Denmark and between Hungary and Prussia. Following are just a few examples of some primary unions. Relationships of the spouses to other royal houses were not considered.
Prophetic points     Queen Victoria
Grandmother Of Europe
*Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German). They had 9 children.
  1. Victoria empress of Germany - Prince Frederick of Prussia
  2. King Edward VII of Great Britain - Princess Alexandria of Denmark
  3. *Alice Grand Duchess of Hesse - Louis of Austria
  4. Alfred Duke of Edinburgh - Marie of Russia
    Their son became King Carol II of Romania
  5. Helena Princess of Schleswig-Holstein - Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
  6. Louise Duchess of Agryll - Sir John Alexander McDonald of Scotland. He became prime minister of Canada.
  7. Arthur Duke of Connaught - Princess Louise Margarte of Prussia
  8. *Leopold Duke of Albany - Helene of Waldeck
  9. *Beatrice Princess of Battenburg - Prince Henry of Battenburg (Prussia)
    Daughter *Victoria Eugenia married King Alfonso XIII of Spain.
* These carried the genetic disease of Hemophelia

  1. British Royal. House under Queen Victoria (1819-1901). She married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg Gotha (German) and their 9 children and some grand children married into the royal families of Denmark, Austria, Russia, Scotland, Prussia, Darmstatt. The grandchildren married in the royal families of Spain, Romania, Germany (Battenberg), Netherlands and Denmark.
  2. Spanish Royal House. Starting with King Carols I whose parents were from Austria and Aragon he married a princess from Portugal. Their son Filipe II had three marriages to princesses from Portugal, France and Austria. Each successive heir married in the royal families from Portugal, France, Austria, Bavaria, Orleans, Savoy, Saxony, Parma, Sicily, Greece and Denmark.
    The two generations of Carlos I and his son Fillipe II represented the union of five different nations by marriage.
  3. Kings Of The Hellenes (Greece). This royal line married into families from Bavaria, Saxe-Hildburghausen, Hesse-Cassel, Russia, Prussia, Romania, Hohenzollern, Hannover and Denmark.
  4. Kings Of Yugoslavia. Married into the royal families of Montenegro, Serbia, Romania, Greece and Denmark.
  5. Kings Of Romania. Married into the royal families of Hohenzollern, Great Britain and Ireland, Greece and Denmark.
  6. Kings Of Bulgaria. Married into the royal families of Hesse-Darmstadt, Orléans, Saxe-Coburt and Gotha, Bourbon-Parma and Savoy.
  7. Grand Dukes Of Luxenburg. Married into the royal families of Netherlands, Prussia, Russia, Belgium, Saxe-Altenburg, Portugal and Bourbon-Parma.
  8. Kings Of Norway. Married into the royal families of Denmark, Poland, Normandy, England, Sweden, Pomerania, Bavaria, Germany, Hesse-Cassel and Prussia.
  9. Kings Of Denmark. Married into the royal families of Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, Flanders, Pommerania, Portugal, Bavaria, Brandenburg, Saxony, Hohenzollern, Brunswick, Hesse-Cassel, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Iceland.
  10. Kings Of Belgium. Married into the royal families of Wales, Habsburg-Lothringen, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Flanders, Bavaria and Sweden.
  11. Kings Of The Netherlands (Dutch). Married into the royal families of Prussia, Russia, Würtemberg, Waldeck and Pyrmont, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Lippe-Biesterfeld.
  12. Kings Of France. Married into the royal families of England, Spain, Austria, Portugal, Hungary, Italy, Denmark, Greece, Belgium and Bavaria. In 1770 King Louis XVI of France married Marie Antoinette of Austria to strengthen ties between the two countries. They were killed in the French Revolution.
  13. Tsars Of Russia. Romanov dynasty (1613 - 1917). Married into the royal houses of Germany, Denmark, Prussia, Greece, Sweden, Britain and Spain.

The Ruling Classes. Four major families dominated the old Roman empires and their reigns ended in 1917 at the end of World War I.

  1. Habsburgs. Princes of Austria, Bohemia and Hungary. The Republic of Austria declined after World War I when its territory was split into Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania and Bulgaria
  2. Hohenzollerns. German and Prussian princes
  3. Romanovs. Russia. They were conquered in the Bolshevik revolution.
  4. Ottomans. Turkey and the Middle East (Approximately 1444-1917)

See Map of Old Europe.

The Decline of Monarchies
Country Type of Monarchy Year Ended
Egypt Empire31 BC
Belgium Kingdom Ceremonial
Denmark Kingdom Ceremonial
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Kingdom Ceremonial
Liechtenstein Principality Ceremonial
Luxembourg Grand Duchy Ceremonial
Monaco Principality Ceremonial
Netherlands Kingdom Ceremonial
Norway Kingdom Ceremonial
Spain Kingdom Ceremonial
Sweden Kingdom Ceremonial
Albania Principality 1918/ 1939
Austria-Hungary Empire, Kingdom 1918
Baden Grand Duchy 1918
Bavaria Kingdom 1918
Brunswick Duchy 1918
Bulgaria Kingdom 1946
Germany Empire 1918
Greece Kingdom 1973
Hesse and by Rhine Grand Duchy 1918
Italy Kingdom 1946
Lippe Principality 1918
Mecklenburg-Schwerin Grand Duchy 1918
Mecklenburg-Strelitz Grand Duchy 1918
Montenegro Kingdom 1918
Oldenburg Grand Duchy 1918
Portugal Kingdom 1910
Prussia Kingdom 1918
Reuss Principality 1918
Romania Kingdom 1947
Russia Empire 1917
Saxe-Altenburg Duchy 1918
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Duchy 1918
Saxe-Meiningen Duchy 1918
Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach Grand Duchy 1918
Saxony Kingdom 1918
Schaumburg-Lippe Principality 1918
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Principality 1918
Schwarzburg-SondershausenPrincipality 1918
Serbia Kingdom 1918
Waldeck and Pyrmont Principality 1918
Württemberg Kingdom 1918
Yugoslavia Kingdom 1945
At the end of World War I (1918) most monarchies were abolished or replaced with republics or other forms of government, leaving the old families with only ceremonial duties. There are only ten surviving monarchies and these have no real power.

2. European Unity by War
All these attempts to unite Europe eventually failed to annex an area equal to the area of the old Roman empire under any conditions (war or peace).

  1. Charlemagne or Charles the Great . (768-814) A French king of German descent - Unified the areas of Northern and central Italy, France and Germany He assumed the role of protector of the church. He started 53 campaigns to enlarge his territory and Christianize the region. When he conquered the Saxons, he gave them a choice between baptism and death. At the height of his rule his territory included most of Italy and the Balkans, the region between the Pyrenees and the Baltic and the region between the Atlantic and the Vistula.
  2. Otto I the Great. (936-973) He subdued the duchies of Bavaria, Swabia, Franconia and Lorraine. He later tried to extend his territory to France, Burgundy and Italy. At one point he was declared the defacto head of the west. By 955 he allied with the church to achieve some of his political goals and eventually ended up controlling who was elected to the papacy. The Ottonian system and the union of church and state caused the spread of Christianity into Slav territory.
  3. Henry III. (1039-1056) a German emperor. He wanted to be ruler of the Universal state through the church. He fought for the idea of the supremacy of the church. Under his rulership, the Holy Roman Empire achieved its greatest power.
  4. Charles IV. (1294-1328), King of France (1322-1328). He invaded British territory in 1324 and tried to become emperor of France with the help of Pope John XXII who has deposed Louis IV
  5. Louis XIV. The Sun King (1643-1715). He was the champion of absolute monarchy and fought the other European countries in 4 wars.
    He started the War of Devolution (1667-1668) against Spain claiming the Spanish Netherlands. In 1672-1678 he fought against the Dutch in the third English - Dutch war. He captured territory from Italy, Spain, Germany and Flanders.
  6. Napoleon Bonaparte. The French emperor whose military successes are memorialized by the Arc de Triomphe. Most of the Holy Roman Empire and Britain escaped. The Russian army and an unusual winter storm in the summer ended his dreams. In June 18, 1815 he was defeated at Waterloo by the allied forces of England, Russia, Prussia and Austria when an unusually heavy rain trapped his artillery in the mud. It is claimed that Napoleon said:
    God Almighty has been too much for me.
  7. Kaiser Wilhelm. Leader of Germany in World War I (1914)
  8. Adolph Hitler. Leader of Germany in World War II (1942) - Forcibly captured France, Poland, Norway, Denmark, Austria and made allies in Italy, Greece and part of North Africa. But Spain, Sweden, North West Africa and Switzerland was officially neutral and Great Britain was against her.

See Map of unification areas.

3. European Unity by Religion
After the year 538, the Western European nations were successfully united by the Church of Rome. The nations still remained sovereign nations and many times were fighting against each other. They never achieved the political unity of the old Roman empire - but they did achieve a false religious unity. This unity of the people under religion was maintained by the church and state under the threat of death, persecution and torture. Although there was still national and political strife, Europe was united in maintaining their Catholic Christian identity until the reformation.

To maintain this purity of religion, the popes were able to influence the governments to declare internal wars against Protestants, or to go on crusades against Muslims and Jews. The ability to influence the states decreased after the capture of the Pope by General Berthier in 1798. Consequently, there are no more overt declaration of wars against heretics that are legally enforced by the state.

At least not yet.

4. The European Union - an Economic Union
The European Union formed as a more integrated trade group. Each nation remains sovereign, but attempts to standardize, trade, standards and eliminate export tariffs are just a part of the economic goals. By the year 2001, the official currency of the participating nations changed to the Euro dollar.

Others see an attempt to integrate more deeply into the political lives by standardizing criminal law and elevating the leadership of the union to a more political one. They are now attempting to go beyond the original goal of economic unity to form a military alliance.

The leaders of 15 European countries decided Thursday to make the European Union a military power for the first time in it's 42 year history. Sacramento Bee, June 4, 1999

The European Union - A Prophecy
The prophecies of Daniel 2 state that after the Roman empire is divided it will never unite as one political entity until the Second Coming of the Messiah. A certain level of unity has been achieved under religion and this may also happen under the current economic plans. But prophecy states that no political union under one ruler will be achieved in the Old Roman empire.

What will happen in the future, is that we will see a revival of the religious union like the one that influenced Europe during the years 538-1798. The Bible states that they would attempt to unite by marriage but they will not stay together. There will never be one Europe (from the old Roman Empire) under one real leader - but there will again be a Europe dominated by the church. The current economic union is said to have been a brain child of the church. It was a long term strategy to once again regain religious control - at the right moment.

Already, influential people in the United Nations are calling for this type of church control of Europe and the West, to avoid Muslim take over of the world.

Muslims will not take over the world. The Catholic church will. But as you see the Muslim threat you will fall under the control of the church and the United States by accepting their plans. That is the message of the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation.

See Map of the Roman Empire. Map of the ten divisions of Rome. Map of the breakup of the empire by religion.

The Byzantine Church In The East
While Rome had their problems in the west, the Byzantine church (Orthodox and Coptic) were being overrun by Islam. The church of Rome and the kings of the Holy Roman Empire made frequent assaults through formal crusades on Palestine to save Jerusalem from infidels, but eventually Islam won.

Islamic Conquest.
By the seventh century, eastern Rome came under the attack by the followers of Mohammed. They conquered Syria and Egypt and all the Persian territories but not Byzantium. In 670 and 717, they tried, unsuccessfully, to conquer Byzantium with a large fleet. By the ninth century, the Byzantine empire began to reconquer their territory and were once again powerful in the region of Greece to Arabia.

The worst assault on the Greek division of the empire lasted from July 27, 1299 to 1449 when the Turks were at war with the Greek empire.

Crusades. However, in 1071, the Turks conquered the Byzantine army and quickly took all of the empire. The Byzantine empire turned to the western empire for help, and this brought the crusades. The crusaders even attacked the city of Constantinople in 1204, but the empire continued to function in Greece until 1261 when they retook the city.

The Byzantine empire finally fell in 1453, when the Ottoman Turks conquered the city and renamed it Istanbul. Constantinople was captured after a siege lasting from April 6, 1453 and May 16. Crusades were launched against the empire in 1366, 1396 and 1444 - without success.

The Religion of Islam
» Prophets. Islam recognizes the prophets of Judaism.
» Promised Son. Ishmael is the son, not Isaac.
» Holy Book (Qu'ran). It is not a combination of the Old Testament and the new writings of Muhammad. The stories have been changed and merged with Zoroastrianism, Arab paganism and the prophets from Muhammad and his successors.
» Jesus Christ (Isa). He is a prophet, not God.
» God (Allah). He is one of the gods from the pagan religions, a moon god. He is not YHWH.

The Expansion Of Islam
In 100 years after the death of Muhammad, Islam had conquered the region by force of arms. They conquered the Pagan Arabs and attacked the two superpowers, Byzantine Rome and the Sassanids (Persians). They were stopped short of counquering western Rome by Charles Martel, "the hammerer".

History of Major Wars and Disasters
World War 1 (The Great War).
This war settled the fate of both the eastern and western empires. After this war, all monarchies lost their power as new forms of government took over. The Western monarchies were now figureheads. In the east, the Ottomans kings had lost their political power.

Although much of the European rulers were united by marriage, they were still constantly at war. France, Britain and Germany would remain dominant powers because of their colonization of distant lands. The ruin of Europe in the two World Wars was a direct cause of the emergence of the new super power - The United States of America.

Year War End of War Issues
431-404 BCPeloponnesianPeace of NiciasGreeks. Sparta against Athens. 90,000 died in a plague
331 BCBattle of Arabela (Gaugemela)331 BCGreeks under Alexander the Great defeated the Persians (Darius III) on October 1. With only 35,000 men Alexander defeated an army of one million.
168 BCBattle of Pydna168 BCRomans defeated the Greeks (Macedonia) ending a four year war that started in 171 BC
31 BCBattle of Actium31 BCAugustus Caesar defeated Mark Anthony and the Egyptian fleet of Cleopatra
1095-1272Crusades1272Christians against the Turks, Wars authorized by the pope to fight against non-Christians (Muslims and Jews), heretics and Protestants
1311-1340Genocide-35 million Chinese killed by the Mongols
1337-1453Hundred Years' War1453England and France
1394Battle of Nicopolis-Ottomans defeated the crusaders and captured many European leaders
1455-1485War of the Roses1485British civil war
1562-1598French Wars of Religion1598Huguenots and Catholics to suppress Calvinism
1618-164830 Years WarTreaty of WestphaliaAn attempt to convert Protestant Europe to Catholicism by force. War between the French and the Hapsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain.
1688-1697War of the League of AugsburgTreaty of RijswijkLouis XIV against the alliance of England, Netherlands and Austria
1700-1721Great Northern WarTreaty of NystadRussia, Denmark and Poland reduced Sweden's power. It led to Russia's rise as a major power.
1701-1714War of Spanish SuccessionTreaty of UtrechtLouis XIV of France against the alliance of England, Dutch and the Austrians. The death of the childless Charles II of Spain started a war about who would inherit the throne.
1739-1743War of Jenkin's Ear1743Britain and Spain
1740-1748War of Austrian SuccessionTreaty of Aiz-la-ChapellePrussia and Austria over the German states
1756-1763Seven Years' WarTreaty of Paris, Treaty of HubertusburgBetween Austria and Prussia and Britain, France
1775-1783United States War of Independence1783 Treaty of ParisFrance, Spain and the Netherlands helped the 13 colonies to defeat Britain
1792-1802French Revolutionary War1802France and neighboring states
1800-1815Napoleonic Wars1815Napoleon's war to dominate Europe ended in the Battle of Waterloo June 18, 1815
1812-1814War of 1812Treaty of GhentUnited States and Britain over fair trade
1821-1828Greek War of Independence1828Greek and Turkey. Britain, Russia and France later helped
1853-1856Crimean War1856 The Crimean War breaks out as a result of a quarrel between the Russian Orthodox monks and the French Catholics over who had precedence over the Holy Places in Jerusalem and Nazareth. England and France defeat Russians at the battle of Sevastopol and win more concessions from the Ottomans. They prevent Russian expansion after the Russians defeat the Turks in the Black Sea.
1861-1865American Civil War186523 northern and 11 Confederate South states about slavery and the Federal Union. 970,000 dead (620,000 soldiers)
1866Austro - Prussian WarUnknownUnknown
1880-1881
1899-1902
Boer Wars1881Britain's mastery of South Africa
1914-1918World War I (the Great War)Treaty of VersaillesGermany, Austria, Hungary, Italy against Britain, France, Russia and the rest of the world. 37,000,000 dead
1915Genocide1918Ismail Enver (Ottoman Turks) massacre 1,500,000 Armenian Christians (1915-20), 350,000 Greek Pontians, 480,000 Anatolian Greeks (1916-22), 500,000 Assyrians (1915-20)
1936-1939Spanish civil WarNationalist victoryRepublicans (with the aid of Russia) against the Nationalists (with fascist Italy and Nazi Germany).
1937Genocide1954Japanese massacre 200-300,000 Chinese in Nanking
1939-1945World War II1945Germany, Italy and Japan against the allies (Britain, France, China, Russia, United States). 79,530,00 dead. War ended with the use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6 and August 9 1945.
Genocide1939-1945Nazi Holocaust kill 12 million people. 6 million were Jews
1941-1944Genocide19441 million Yugoslavians killed by Nazis, Chetniks, Ustashi after the Tito regime
1941-1945Genocide1945Ante Pavelic (Croatia facist and Ustase movement) 359,000 (30,000 Jews, 29,000 Gypsies, 300,000 Serbs)
1946-1954Indochinese War1954Vietnam and France
1950-1953Korean War1953Communists and those who are not communists
1956Suez War1956Britain, France, Israel against Egypt to regain control of the Suez canal
1956-1973Vietnam War1973Communist North Vietnam against and South Vietnam. The United States became involved in 1961. 1-2 million dead
1966-1976Indochinese War19761 million Tibetans killed in Mao's cultural revolution
1967Six Day War1967Israel against Egypt, Jordan and Syria with the support of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Sudan and Algeria
1970-1975Cambodian War1975Cambodia, South Vietnam and United states against North Vietnam. 4 million killed (1970-80), 1.7 million between 1975-79 by Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge
October 6-22, 1973Yom Kippur War1973Israel against Egypt and Syria with the support of Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Jordan
1980-1988Iran - Iraq War1988Iran accused Iraq of trying to break up its country by supporting independence in some provinces
1982Falklands Island War1982Britain against Argentina when it invaded the Falkland Islands
1988Genocide1988Saddam Hussein used gas to kill 50-100,000 Kurds in the Anfal campaign
1991Gulf War1992Iraq against the United States and 29 allies after Iraq invaded Kuwait. 100,000 Iraqis and 143 USA killed. 1 million more may have died in the sanctions afterwards
1991-1995Genocide1995200-300,000 Bosnian Muslims and Croats killed by Serbs led by Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic
19958,000 men and boys (12-60 years) killed in Srebrenica
1994Genocide19941,000,000 most Tutsis killed by Hutus in 100 days
September 2001Afghanistan WarPresentUnited States against terrorist organization supported by the clerics of Afghanistan. It was precipitated by the September 11, 2001 suicide attacks by hijacked commercial planes against key United States buildings.
March 2003Iraq WarPresentThe United States against Iraq searching for nonexistent weapons of mass destruction

Disasters. Natural disasters include many sudden or slow processes that destroy lives and property. They include earthquake, hurricane, flood, tsunami, tornado, volcano, drought, famine, disease and fires.

In addition, some disasters are caused by human activity. Industrial accidents, wars and environmental changes. Global warming and deforestation are the major human activity that contributes to the problem.
The Plague killed about one third of the population of Europe.

Disasters are caused by plague, famine and flood. Some of these are caused by human behavior such as war, environmental changes, immorality and greed. The fourteenth century experienced the worst period of wars, plagues and disasters.

Disasters - Diseases.
Disease Carrier Year Location Effect
Infectious diseasesAir, waterBefore 1929WorldwideKilled 25% of children
DiphtheriaAir.:AfricaKilled many children in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.
TyphusAir430 BCAthensThe unknown plague of Athens might have been typhus. 90,000 died in Athens. 20% mortality, in 7 days, gangrene of the fingers tips and toes, fever, vomiting, thirst
MeaslesAir1850-2000Worldwide200,000,000
CholeraWater 1800'sEurope Millions killed
1991Indonesia New type of cholera
1991Latin America 600,000 infected and 5,000 killed
1994Rwanda 10,000 killed. The civil war killed 1,000,000
Smallpox AirMiddle agesEuropeKills 30% of its victims. Officially eradicated in 1979. Some estimate the total number of victims to be 500,000,000
SmallpoxAir1900-2000Worldwide300,000,000
Bubonic PlagueRats and fleas Third CenturyRome Killed 5,000 each day
165-180Roman Empire5,000,000 (Antonine Plague)
542-662Constantinople At its peak, 10,000 people died each week. 70,000 in the city were killed. Also called Justinian's plague
540-590Asia, Europe, Africa40,000,000 (Justinian's Plague)
1324Europe and Asia 25 million were killed in 1347 - 1351. During the crusades, killing 30 - 40% of the population
1300-1720Asia, Europe, Africa100,000,000
1665London Killed 17,440
1850-1950Worldwide12,000,000
1890Asia 12.5 million killed 6 million were in India
1924Los Angeles San Francisco in 1900
Leprosy ContactMiddle agesEurope Epidemic in Europe in the Middle Ages. India, Brazil and Myanmar continue to have major problems
TuberculosisAir1900-2000Worldwide40-100,000,000
TyphusAir1918World War 1150,000 soldiers died
Influenza (Spanish flu)Air1917-1918WorldwideKilled more people than the war. 50-100 million worldwide including 500,000 Americans. 40% of the United states population were infected
Asian Flu Air1957Worldwide4,000,000 pandemic
Hong Kong Flu Air1968Worldwide750,000 pandemic
Ebola Contact1977AfricaHemorrhagic fever. Also found in a research laboratory in Virginia in 1989. Causes death within 5 days. Currently isolated
MalariaMosquito1900-2000Worldwide80-250,000,000
Yellow FeverMosquito.: Hemorrhagic fever
Dengue FeverMosquito.: Hemorrhagic fever, not fatal, occurs in southern United States, the Caribbean, and subtropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, and Africa
Lassa FeverRodents.: Hemorrhagic fever
HantavirusAir.: Hemorrhagic fever
Anthrax Contact.:Farming communitiesDisease of animals transmitted to humans
Mad cow diseaseContact2000EuropeMany farm animals had to be destroyed
AIDS Sexually transmitted1981-2010Worldwide12 million died and 40 million infected by year 2001. 25,250,000 by 2010
Superbug MRSA Contact1990WorldwideMethicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Drug resistant. It kills more people than AIDS in the USA
Superbug MRSA Contact2000United States Flesh eating disease. Drug resistant
Superbug PVLContact2000USA, Australia, England, FrancePanton-Valentine Leukocidin. Drug resistant. 75% Fatal. Associated with MRSA
Superbug C-DiffContact2008United StatesClostridium Difficile. Drug resistant hospital bacteria
Superbug CREContact2001United StatesCarbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Hospital bacteria. 50% fatal
Superbug TubercolosisAir2009WorldDrug resistant strain
Superbug Escherichia Coli Food200 World80% of antibiotics in the USA are given to animals not humans, creating drug resistant strain in foods. Europe banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed in 2005
Superbug Salmonella Food200 World
Superbug Gonorrhea STD/STI200 WorldDrug resistant strain
Superbug Chlamydia STD/STI200 WorldDrug resistant strain
Superbug ESKAPEContact Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter. They are a group of six bacteria that are becoming drug resistant
AIDS PandemicSexually transmitted1981-2003World20 million dead. 60 million infected (6 million children)
TubercolosisAir2003World1.7 million died. 33% of the world is infected
Bird FluAir2003WorldPandemic warnings issued in 2004. Waiting for the event
InfluenzaAirAnnualUSANormally kills 30,000

Superbug Problem: Superbugs. A growing number of deadly pathogens are becoming resistant to all antibiotics because of insufficient course of treatment or the proliferation of antibacterial products. Benzochlonium chloride sanitizers create superbugs. Studies show that alchohol-based hand sanitizers do not cause bug resistance but the chemical in antibacterial soaps are making antibiotics ineffective.

In 2010 a deadly new class of superbugs was reported in patients who had surgery in India. These superbugs are able to make any bugs deadly by giving them the genes that will change them into superbugs.

Disease: Acquired Immune Deficiency Disease. There are many deadly diseases that still exist today. Of these, the HIV virus, that produces AIDs is the most troublesome. As of 2001, forty million people were infected, none are cured.

In the sub Saharan section of Africa alone 3.8 million new infections were reported in the year 2000 and 2.4 million deaths occurred. A total of 25.3 million people in that region are living with AIDS in that year 1.1 million of these are children. 55% of the women are HIV positive and 25% of women between age 20-29 are infected!
So far, AIDs has orphaned 12.1 million children under the age of 14 in Africa.
What started out as a disease in gay men in western countries in the early 1980's is quickly becoming a disease of the minority and underprivileged populations.

While there is still no cure for AIDS and it is largely a sexually transmitted disease, people can live with the disease for years. But there are other diseases that strike suddenly and kill within days. Ebola is the most feared of all. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person. No one is safe. There is no cure.

Disasters - Famine. Famine caused 20 to 25 million deaths in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, and about two million in the last quarter of the twentieth century.
Famine Year Location Effect
Famine536 - 551EuropeUnknown global disaster that cooled the planet
The Great Famine1315-17EuropeMillions died during the little ice age
Russian Famine1601-03Russia2,000,000
Bengali Famine1769-71India15,000,000
Irish Potato Famine1846-49Ireland1-1.5 million died of hunger or disease
Great Persian Famine1870-1871Persia2,000,000
Northern Chinese Famine1876-79China13,000,000
Southern and Central Indian Famine1876-79India10,000,000
Finnish Famine1866-68Finland150,000
Horn of Africa Famine1888Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia1,000,000
Indian Famine1896-1902India19,000,000
Chinese Famine of 19071907China24,000,000
Ukrainian Famine1921-23Russia, Ukraine7 to 10 million killed by a man made famine
Chinese Famine of 1928-301928-30China3,000,000
Soviet Famine of 1932-331932-34Soviet Union5,000,000 as Stalin stopped the Ukraine independence movement
1936 Chinese Famine1936China5,000,000
Chinese Drought of 19411941China3,000,000
Bengali Famine of 19431943India4,000,000
Vietnamese war famine1943-45Vietnam2,000,000
Dutch Famine of 19441944The Netherlands18,000
Great Chinese Famine1958-61China4.9 - 43 million died
Civil war Famine1967-69China1 million died. 3.5 million starved
Bangladesh Famine1974Bangladesh26,000 to 1,000,000
Famine in Ethiopia1984Ethiopia1,000,000
North Korean Famine1996-98North Korea1,200,000
FamineCurrentAfricaCaused by weather and war

Natural and Accidental Disasters List.
Disaster Year Location Deaths
Typhus430 BCAthens90,000
Fire47 BCEgyptBooks
Great Library of Alexandria, all knowledge destroyed
Volcano79 ADPompeii and Herculenium20000, August 24, Mt. Vesuvius
Earthquake526, May 20 Antioch250,000
Volcano535 ADGlobal25-50%
Global darkness and cooling effect for about 15 years causing famine. Possibly caused by a comet or a volcano in Indonesia
Justinian's plague542Constantinople70,000
Earthquake 856Damghan, Iran200,000
Earthquake 893Ardabil, Iran150,000
Earthquake 81138Syria, Aleppo230,000 August 9
St. Lucia Flood1212Netherlands60,000
Earthquake1268Asia Minor, Silicia60,000
North sea Flood1287Netherlands50-80,000
Famine1315 - 17Europemillions died
Bubonic plague1346-52Europe, Asia25 million
Started in Asia and then Italy. Jews blamed
St Felix's Flood1530Netherlands100,000+
Earthquake 8.21556China, Shaanxi830,000 January 23
Tsunami1605Japan5,000
Yellow fever1648Havana 
Plague1649Spain80,000
Plague1666London70,000
Stopped by the great fire
Fire1666London80% of city
80% of city destroyed September 2
Earthquake1667Caucasia, Shemakha80,000 November
Earthquake1693Italy, Sicily60,000 January 11
Tsunami1703Japan5,233
Tsunami1707Japan30,000
Earthquake1727Iran, Tabriz 77,000 November 18
Cyclone1737India, Calcutta300,000 November 11
Earthquake 8.7-9, tsunami1755Lisbon, Portugal70-100,000+
Smallpox1775-82North America130,000
Tsunami1771Ryukyu Trench13,486
Earthquake1776
July 27
China, Tangshan255,000 - 655,000
Earthquake 7.41780Iran200,000
Tsunami1782South China Sea40,000
Earthquake1783Italy, Calabria50,000 February 4
Tsunami1792Japan15,030
Yellow fever1793Philadelphia5,000
Earthquake 8.81811-12Missouri (New Madrid Fault)
(September 16 - February 7). Five major earthquakes out of 2000. 12 new lakes. Mississippi flowed backwards. February 7
Volcano1815 Indonesia, Tambora92,000-177,000
April 10-15
Cholera Pandemic1816-1826Bengal, India, ChinaUnknown
Cholera Pandemic1829-1851Europe, United StatesUnknown
Cholera1831Cairo - LondonUnknown
Cholera1832New York 3000, New Orleans7,340
Cyclone1839India300,000 November 25
Famine1846 - 50Ireland1 million
Cholera1848New York5,000
Cholera Pandemic1852-1860Russia1,000,000+
Yellow Fever1853New Orleans7,790
Cyclone1864Calcutta, India60,000
Ship Wreck1865Sultana1547
Riverboat boiler explosion carried soldiers from the war
Cholera Pandemic1863-1875Europe and AfricaUnknown
Yellow Fever1867New Orleans3,093
Tsunami1868Chile25,674
Smallpox1870-71France500,000
Cyclone1876Backerganj, Bangladesh200,000
Yellow Fever1878Mississippi Valley13,000
Typhoon1881Haiphong, Vietnam300,000
Cyclone1882Bombay, India100,000 (June 6)
Volcano, Tsunami1883Indonesia, Krakatoa 36,500 August 27
Flood1887China, Yellow river September-October900,000-2,000,000 killed
Flood Johnstown1889Pennsylvania2,209
Tsunami1896Japan27,000
Cholera Pandemic1899-1923Europe, RussiaUnknown
Hurricane1900Galveston, Texas8,000 September 8
Ship Wreck1904General Slocum1021
Long Island steam ship. June 15
Earthquake 8.61905India19,000
Earthquake 8.21906Chile20,000
Earthquake, fire1906San Francisco3000
225,000 homeless (April 18). Magnitude (7.8-8.25)
Meteor1908 Siberia, Tunguska (June 30)
Flattened an area 2000 square Km
Earthquake 7.21908Italy, Messina70,000 December 28. Tsunami
Earthquake1911Mexico City 
Flood1911China, Yangtze river100,000
Ship Wreck1912Titanic2224
Collides with an iceberg April 15
Ship Wreck1914Empress of Ireland1012
On the St. Lawrence river after a collision May 19
Ship Wreck1915Lusitania1198
Passenger ship hit by a German torpedo May 17
Ship Wreck1915Eastland800
July 24, sunk while docked in Chicago
Earthquake 7.51915Italy29,980
Polio1916USA (27,363 cases)7,000 dead
Ship Wreck1917Mont Blanc1963
December 6 Halifax harbor explosion. Three ships involved
Influenza1918Worldwide25 million
Earthquake 8.21920China, Gansu240,000 December 26
Typhoon1922China, Swatow60,000
Earthquake 8.31923Japan, Kwanto143,000
September 1. Great Tokyo fire
Tornado1925United States689
3 states of Missouri, Illinois and Indiana, $16 million damage
Earthquake 7.91927China, Xining200,000 May 22
Okeechobee Hurricane1928Florida1,800
Dam Break1928Los Angeles (St. Francis Dam)450 (March 12)
Flood1931China, Yellow river3,700,000
July-Nov
China's sorrow. 80 million homeless
Earthquake 7.61932China70,000
Earthquake 7.51935
May 30
Pakistan, Quetta30,000- 60,000
Flood1935China, Yangtze river145,000
Air Ship1937Hindenburg35
Lakehurst New Jersey. May 6
Flood1938China, Yellow river500-700,000
Rain1938New York600
Earthquake 8.31939Chile28,000
Earthquake 7.81939Turkey30,000
Disaster Year Location Deaths
Ship Wreck1944Junyo Maru5620
September 16. Japanese prisoner of war ship torpedoed near Sumatra by a British submarine
Ship Wreck1945Wilhelm Gustloff7000-8000
January 30. Civilians and wounded German soldiers torpedoed by a Russian submarine in the Baltic sea
Nuclear bomb1945Japan220,000
Hiroshima (140,000) and Nagasaki (80,000) ended World War 2
Earthquake 7.31948Turkmenistan110,000 October 5
Polio1949USA (42,173 cases)2,720 dead
Polio1952USA (57,628 cases)3,300 dead
Hurricane1957Louisiana400
Famine1959 - 61China30 million died
Cholera Pandemic (El Tor)1961-1966Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, USSR Unknown
Earthquake 9.5
Tsunami
1960Chile2,000 died
2 million homeless. Largest earthquake
Earthquake 9.2 and Tsunami1964Alaska100
$350 million damage, March 27. Felt in Houston TX. Anchorage dropped 20 feet
Avalanche1970Peru20,000
May 30, 100 miles per hour flow started by earthquake in the sea
Earthquake 7.91970Peru66,000 May 31
Typhoon1970Bhola, Bangladesh500,000 killed, November 13
Flood1971North Vietnam, Hanoi and Red river delta100,000
Dam Break1972West Virginia (Buffalo Creek Dam)125 (February 26)
Flood1974Bangladesh28,000
Banqiao Dam Break (Typhoon Nina)1975Shimantan Dam, China231,000 (August 7)
Deaths. 86,000 flood, 145,000 disease
Earthquake 7.51976Guatemala23,000
Earthquake 7.51976 July 28China, Tangshan 255,000-655,000
Tsunami1976Philippines8,000
Cyclone1977India10,000
Earthquake 7.81978Iran15,000
Nuclear1979Three Mile IslandFirst in United States
Nuclear Dam Break1979New Mexico (Church Rock)Nuclear waste water
Heatwave1980USA1,250-10,000
Volcano1982Mexico1,800
Chemical
Accident
1984India, Bohpal8,000 injured 50,000
Earthquake1985Mexico8,000
Nuclear1986Chernobyl30
April 25-26. 135,000 people evacuated, contaminated an area 20 miles wide
Heatwave1987Mediterranean1000-1500
Earthquake 6.81988Armenia25,000
Geomagnetic Storm1989QuebecNo electricity
Tornado1989Manikganj, Bangladesh13,000
Earthquake 7.71990Iran50,000 June 20
Deforestation1990Ethiopia-
90% of forest has been cut down since 1990. 20,000 square kilometers no longer support crops
Volcano1991Philippines (Mt. Pinatubo)June 15, most violent eruption
Cyclone, Tsunami1991Bangladesh138,866
Hurricane Andrew1992Florida-
250,000 homeless, $26 billion damage
Earthquake 6.21993India9,748
Famine1994Korea100,000
Forest Fires1994MongoliaBurned 1.75 million hectares
Earthquake 7.11995Japan, Kobe5,502
Forest Fires1995BrazilBurned 1.75 million hectares
Forest Fires1995IndonesiaAffected 70 million people in 6 countries
Heatwave1995Chicago739
Flood1996China, Yellow river3000 killed, 4 million homeless
Meningitis1996West Africa25,000
Tsunami1998New Guinea3,000
Floods1998China3,600
Heatwave1998India2,541
Hurricane Mitch1998Central America12,000 killed in 9 countries on October 24
Earthquake 7.61999Turkey17,118 August 17
Earthquake 7.71999Taiwan2,297
Rain, mudslide1999Venezuela15,100
Cyclone1999India7,600
Flood1999Venezuela15,000
Forest Fires2000Western United States1.75 million hectares burnt
Earthquake 7.72001India20,023 January 26
Bombing2001New York3,200
Wind2002France300 million trees
Earthquake 6.12002Afghanistan1,000
Earthquake 6.62003Algeria2,266 May 21
Heatwave2003Europe37,451
Heatwave2003India1,900
Earthquake 6.72003Iran, Bam41,000
December 26. 90% of city destroyed
Earthquake 9.3, and Tsunamis2004South East Asia443,929
December 26. South East Asia, Indian Ocean, Sumatra. Millions displaced in 11 countries. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Maldives
Earthquake 8.72005Sumatra500
March 28. South East Asia, Indian Ocean, Sumatra. 500+ died on Nias island. 80% of buildings destroyed
Hurricane Katrina (5-3)2005New Orleans1,836+ /3000
August 29. 1 million homeless. Cost $81.2 billion Worst USA disaster
Earthquake 7.62005South Asia, Pakistan, India80,240+
October 8. 79,000 dead in Pakistan
Earthquake 6.32006JavaMay 27. 5800
Heatwave2006Europe3,418
Cyclone Nargis (3)2008Myanmar146,000+
May 3. 1 million homeless
Earthquake 7.92008Sichuan, China87,652+
May 12. 5 million homeless
Earthquake 6.42008Pakistan300+ dead
October 29. 15,000 homeless
Earthquake 7.02010Haiti316,000+ dead
January 12. 2 million homeless. 250,000 injured. 200,000+ amputees. 80% buildings destroyed in Port-au-Prince. Damage estimate is $8 to 14 billion
Earthquake 8.8
Tsunami
2010Chile, ConcepcionFebruary 27
521 dead
2 million homeless 500,000 homes destroyed.
Tsunami. 6-10 feet (1.8-3.0 m), 1.2 miles (1.8 km).
Earth's axis shifted 3 inches (7.62 cm)
Earthquake 6.92010Quinghai, China April 14
2698 dead
Earthquake 6.32011Christchurch, NZFebruary 21
145 dead. 200+ missing
Earthquake 9.02011Sendai, Japan March 11
18,000+ dead.
23ft-77ft (7m-23m) tsunami. Partial nuclear meltdown at 4 reactors. Core breached in #3 March 25. $235+ billion damages
Cigarette (Annual Deaths)CurrentUnited States420,000
Plus 70,000 from second hand contact
CurrentWorld5,016,000
Plus 600,000 from second hand contact
Every 8 seconds someone dies from tobacco.
In 2005, 10% of Adults die, it will be 17% by 2030. 100,000 children start smoking every day
This does not include many disasters that destroyed property but not many lives.

Increasing Deadly Disasters
DisasterPeriod (AD) Events by MagnitudeDeaths
Earthquake
Earthquake
YearsDates6-6.97-7.9 8-9.9-
500 Years   526-999 4 2 745,000
1000-1499 4 6 41,707,024
100 Years1500-1599 1 1 1 870,000
1600-1699 1 7 3 163,350
1700-17991836 515,161
1800-1899202215 146,111
501900-1949618426979,574
10 Years1950-1959 - - - -
1960-1969 - - - -
1970-1979 1029 150 6 815,956
10 Years1980-1989980101 458,880
1990-19991339147 6 114,646
2000-20091443131 13465,364
2010-2012442 54 4341,524
Deaths (  526-1949): USGS and Wiki combined data
Deaths (1950-1989): Still Validating data
Deaths (1990-2009): USGS earthquake statistics by decade
The first earthquake might have occurred during the exodus between 1500-1460 BC.
Moses called it a "new thing" (Numbers 16: 28-35)
Disaster Years Period (AD) Events Deaths
Flood
Flood
100 1200-1300 1 100,000
400 1301-1700 1 300,000
200 1701-1900 4 943,000
30 1901-1930 6 104,000
10 1931-1940 33,900,250
20 1941-196010 22,500
10 1961-197014 8,600
5 1971-197517 6,500
Cyclone
Storms
-   -1900 AD 1400
50 1901-195014 64,000
10 1951-1960 2 10,000
10 1961-197018 389,000
10 1971-198013 4,200
10 1981-1990 10 14,100
10 1991-2000 37177,000
Volcano
Volcano
-     -100 AD 1 16,000
100 1401-1500 1 10,000
200 1501-1700 1 4,000
100 1701-1800 3 26,850
100 1801-1900 2 128,000
50 1901-1950 5 38,400
40 1951-1991 6 30,500
Scientists claim that there is no increase in earthquakes. Since the western hemisphere has just been recently occupied and since global records have not been kept we cannot prove how frequent or deadly past earthquakes have been. However, we can demonstrate that the number of deadly earthquakes have increased within the past forty years and the number of other natural disasters have increased rapidly since 1991. As population increases the number of deaths increase from natural disasters. However, new technology, early warning systems and building codes have limited the deaths.

Atheist Genocide
Although atheists love to disparage religion as being the cause of wars and bloodshed, in their brief history atheists in power have been the cause of unspeakable carnage in a rate that exceeds that of religion for the purpose of wiping out non-believers.
Atheism on a societal scale began with the French Revolution.
Genocide Event Total Death Estimates
Atheist Campaign Year LowHigh Estimate Daily
French Revolution Reign of Terror 1792-94 250,000 1,000,000 500,000 400
LeninRussian Civil War, famine 1917-22 - - 9,000,000 5,000
Josef Stalin
(Communist Russia)
All deaths 1930-53 9,800,000 49,000,000 20,000,000 2,500
»Forced famine in Ukraine 1932-33 - - 7,000,000 19,500
Leonid Brezhnev Afghanistan 1979-1982 - - 900,000 833
MussoliniWorld War II 1933-45 low high 300,000 70
Adolph HitlerWorld War II - All deaths 1939-45 50,000,000 - 79,000,000 37,000
»6 million Jews, 6 million others 1940-45 - - 12,000,000 6,500
»3 million Russian POWs 1941-43 - - 3,000,000 2,000
Pol Pot Khmer Rouge purge of religion 1975-79 1,500,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 14,000
Mao Zedong
(Mas Tse-Tung)

Communist China
All deaths (excluding abortions) 1958-79 49,000,000 78,000,000 70,000,000 6,500
» China's Great Leap Forward 1958-61 20,000,000 46,000,000 36,000,000 33,300
» Cultural Revolution 1966-69 750,000 30,000,000 1,500,000 1,500
»Labor camps (Laogai) 1950-60 15,000,000 27,000,000 27,000,000 7,500
» Tibetan Genocide 1949-79 600,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 111
13,000,000 forced abortions /year 1971-2009 - - 336,000,000 24,560
Ho Chi Min Vietnam 1953-56 - - 200,000 185
North Korea Invasion of South Korea 1950-53 - - 3,000,000 35,000
Kim Il Sung Purges and concentration camps 1948-94 - - 1,600,000 100
Josip Tito Yugoslavia 1941-45 - - 570,000 400

Inventions and Discoveries: An Increase of knowledge
5800 Years 1790 1798 1800 Time of the End (200 Years)End of Time
Feet Walk Lamp, wood Bow, arrow, sword Pigeon Horse Electricity Church Falls Disaster Electricity Medical Communication Transportation Weapons Genetic Today
But you, O Daniel, shut up the words and seal the book even to the time of the end. Many shall run to and fro and knowledge shall be increased. (Daniel 12: 4)
Prophecy describes a period known as "the time of the end". It can be positively identified by several converging trends including an increase in knowledge, escalating natural disasters, the fall of the church and people "running to and fro". Here we summarize the revolution of knowledge.

Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
  1. Knowledge increases
  2. Disasters increase
The number of inventions increased drastically after the printing of the Bible. The late nineteenth century introduced many inventions that helped the technological age. It is impossible to list all the inventions made since 1800, but compared to previous centuries there are hundreds of times more.
Prior to 1000 BC there were about three significant events in 3000 years.
Then there were approximately eight during the next 2000 years and ten during the next 800 years.
After 1800 there were about 45 significant inventions and discoveries in 200 years and thousands of others in the medical, information and electronic fields.

5800 Years of Inventions (4000 BC - 1790 AD)
Invention Inventor Year
Needle, thread-13000BC
Fire-8000 BC
Bricks-8000 BC
Domesticated plants, animals-8000 BC
PotteryWest Asia6500 BC
Weaving, loom-6000 BC
No Events Should be Older than ˜4000 BC
Earth, UniverseGod (YHWH)4004 BC
WheelMesopotamia4000 BC
Chariot (2 wheel)Sumeria3500 BC
AbacusChinese3000 BC
Homing pigeonEgyptians, Persians3000 BC
FloodNoah2600 BC
PapyrusEgypt2400 BC
Rubber, ballMayans1600 BC
Modern Science Periodic TableMoses' model of the sanctuary in the Torah is a model of modern science1500 BC
Modern Science Particle Physics1500 BC
Modern Science Electrodynamics1500 BC
Modern Science DNA Model 1500 BC
Steel, iron smeltingHittites1400 BC
Horse Transportation. Feet, horse, wheel, chariot, cart, elephant, camel, boat, sail
Babylonian Inventions. Metal working (copper), glass making, lamp making, textile weaving
Farm Agriculture. Flood control, water storage, irrigation, three field rotation
Flush toiletCrete. King Minos800 BC
Ancient OlympicsGreeks776BCSports
Sundial-700 BC
CoinsGreeks650 BC
Cast ironChinese512 BC
CatapultGreeks400 BC
Appian WayFirst Roman road312 BC
Aqua AppiaFirst Roman aqueduct312 BC
Archimedes screw and leverArchimedes210 BC
Latitude and Longitude gridEratosthenes200 BC
Phone Communication. Clay tablets, stele, papyrus (2600 BC), ink (2000 BC), scrolls, palm leaf manuscript, leather, velum, drums, smoke signals, bells, ram's horn, carrier pigeon (3000 BC), book binding (21 BC), books, wood block printing (400), printing (1450), electronic media
Weapon Weapons. Stone, club, axe, sling, blowgun, dart, knife, spear, flail, catapult, battering ram, Greek fire
Lead glazingChinese206 BC
AstrolabeHipparchus150s BC
Monsoon WindsHippalus150 BC
Glass blowingSyria, Babylon100 BC
Lime plasterEtruscans8 BC
Electrotherapy pain relief (Torpedo eel)Romans100 AD
Science Ancient Chemistry. Only seven metals are known by the ancients: Gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, mercury.
PaperTsai Lun (China)105 AD
HorseshoesGermany200s
Life InsuranceRomans230
StirrupsAvars, China300 AD
SaddleAvars, Sarmatians365 AD
Carbonized ironVikings500's AD
ZeroIndia500's AD
Positional NotationIndia (Hindu Numerals)500's AD
PorcelainChinese600's AD
WindmillPersia. Europe (1180)644 AD
Greek fireGreece674 AD
QuadrantMuhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi800-850
Anaesthesia Abu al-Qasim1000
GunpowderChina (weak formula)1000
Damascus steelIndia (wootz steel)1100's
Money Arabic numerals in western financeFibonacci1200
GunpowderRoger Bacon (European)1249
Spinning WheelEurope1300
Mechanical clockItaly1335
Money Credit Venice, Italy. Medici Bank1390
Middle Age Inventions. Silk, spectacles, clock, hourglass, paper, sun dial, compass, astrolabe, oar, rudder, mill, wind mill, wheelbarrow, horse shoes, stirrups, bit and bridle.
Farm Agriculture. Manure, oxen and horses, hand sowing, hoe, sickle, flail, wooden plow Health
Sanitation. Out house, chamber pots, open sewers, rotting garbage, flies, vermin
Weapon Weapons. Phalanx, gladius (197 BC), trebuchet, perrier, mangon, mangonel, ballista, hedgehog, gunpowder (800), lance, longbow (1450), crossbow, flail, chain mail, armor.
Weapon Weapons: Hand grenade (1044), cannon (1128), land mine (1277), matchlock musket (1500), revolver (1835), minuet bullet (1840s), flintlock musket (1850), repeating rifle (1860), riflrd musket (1862), trenches, Gatling gun (1862), Maxim machine gun (1885)
Important Discoveries
Printing pressJohannes Gutenberg1450 Great
Solar SystemNicholas Copernicus1450
Bible printed200 copies of the Bible printed by August 15, 14561456
Money BondsFlorence, Italy1464
Trade WindsChristopher Columbus?1480's
AmericaChristopher Columbus1492
Money Stock MarketAmsterdam1602
Refracting TelescopeHans Lippershey1608
Money Trading SharesAmsterdam1610
Circulatory SystemWilliam Harvey1616
Steam turbineGiovanni Branca1629 Great
Adding machineBlaise Pascal1642
BarometerEvangelista Torricelli1644
CalculusIsaac Newton1666
Reflecting TelescopeIsaac Newton1668
Light CompositionIsaac Newton1670-72
MicroscopeNetherlands1674
Mechanics, Gravity, Light, CalculusIsaac Newton
"Principia Mathematica"
1687 Great
PianoBartolomeo Cristofori1700
Iron SmeltingAbraham Darby1709
Science Chemistry (Before 1800). H, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, W, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Bi, U
ThermometerGabriel Fahrenheit1714
Money Public Bank Notes, tradingJohn Law, France. Mississippi Company1716
Marine Chronometer (H1)John Harrison1735
Longitude measurement
GolfEdinburgh, Scotland1744 Sports
Sewing machineCharles T. Wiesenthal1755
Steam engineJames Watt1769
PhotosynthesisPriestley and Ingenhousz 1772
Tobacco snuff linked to cancer of the nasal passage1781
CricketEngland1788 Sports
*** The French Revolution (1789) ***

Knowledge Increases
100 Years of Inventions (1790 - 1899)
Invention Inventor Year
Farm Agriculture. Cradle and scythe, cotton gin (1793), cast iron plow (1797), mechanical harvester (1831), reaper (1834), steel plow (1837), grain elevator (1842), mower (1844), irrigation (1847), chemical fertilizer (1849), horse power (1862-75), barbed wire (1874), milking machine (1879), plant hybridization, selective breeding, four field crop rotation, chemical fertilizer and pesticides
Apple Food. Salt, smoking, drying, ferment, canning (1810), pasteurization (1862), baby formula (1867), saccharine (1879), coca cola (1886), corn flakes (1894)
Religious Knowledge (1800's). Interest and knowledge in the prophecies increased causing the great advent awakening. Manuel de Lacunza in South America, Dr. Joseph Wolfe in Europe and Asia, Edward Irving of England, Johann Bengel of Germany and William Miller in the United States. Children in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. 300 ministers in the Church of England and 600 nonconformist ministers preached the Second Coming in England.
2001. Information about Christ in the Old Testament
2008. Evidence of modern science in the Old Testament
Transportation, Construction, Energy and Communication Discoveries
VaccinationEdward Jenner1796 Great
Smallpox VaccineEdward Jenner1798
Stethoscope Vaccines. Smallpox (1798), Rabies (1885), Plague (1897), Cholera, Typhoid (1917), Diphtheria (1923), Pertussis (1926), Tuberculosis, Tetanus (1927), Yellow Fever (1935), influenza (1945), DTP (1949), polio (1955), measles (1963), Mumps (1967), Rubella (1969), Anthrax (1970), MMR (1971), Swine Flu (1976), Fluzone (1978)
Science Chemistry (1800-1849). Li, Na, Si, K, V, Se, Br, Nb, Ru, Rh, Pd, Cd, I, Ta, Os, Ir, La, Ce, Nd, Tb, Er, Th
Science BatteryAlessandro Volta1800
Locomotive TrainRichard Trevithick1804
RefrigeratorOliver Evans1805
Base ball. In 1806, the Nez Perce taught the Lewis and Clark group a stick and ball game called "base"
Steam BoatRobert Fulton1807
Locomotive Steam EngineGeorge Stephenson1814
StethoscopeTheophile Laennec1816
Stock exchangeWall Street, New York1817
Portland cementJoseph Aspdin1820
WaterproofingCharles Mackintosh1821
Science ThermodynamicsSadi Carnot1824
MatchesJohn Walker1827
Steam Locomotive TrainGeorge Stephenson1829
Horse Transportation. Astrolabe (150BC), quadrant (800), Trade winds discovered (1400's), longitude (1737), submarine (1775), hot air balloon (1783), train (1804), steam boat (1809), Stockton-Darlington railway (25), steam locomotive (29), bus (57), pedal bicycle (61), London subway (63), motorcycle (69), transcontinental railroad (69), Suez canal (69), air brake (69), lubrication system (72), internal combustion engine (76), pneumatic tire (87), car (89), Panama Canal (89), diesel engine (1892)
TypewriterWilliam Austin Burt1829
Science Electromagnetic inductionMichael Faraday1831
Steel plowJohn Deere1837
TelegraphSamuel Morse1837
Phone Communication. Telegraph (1837), shorthand (37), fax (43), Atlantic cable (58), pony express (60), transcontinental telegraph line (61), telephone (1876), switchboard (1877), quill pen and ink
VulcanizationGoodyear1839
Type-revolving pressRobert Hoe1840
Paper (wood pulp)F. G. Keller1840
Morse codeSamuel Morse1840
Fax MachineAlexander Bain1843
BaseballAlexander Cartwright1845 Sports
Department storeMarble Palace, New York1846
Ether, surgical anestheticMassachusetts General Hospital1846
Blue JeansLevi Strauss1848
Chewing gumJohn Curtis1848
Science Chemistry (1850-1899). He, Ne, Ar, Sc, Ga, Ge, Kr, Rb, In, Xe, Cs, Tl, Po, Ra, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Ac discovered
NursingFlorence Nightingale1852
ElevatorElisha Graves Otis1852
Bessemer furnaceHenry Bessemer1852
BusGeorge Pullman1857
Can openerEzra Warner1858
Fossil FuelTitusville Pennsylvania well1859 Great
Evolution TheoryMorality Charles Darwin1859
Science Atomic WeightsFirst International Congress of Chemistry1860
Pedal bicycleErnest Michaux1861
PasteurizationLouis Pasteur (April 20)1862 Great
Education Morril Land Grant ActJonathan Baldwin Turner
Justin Smith Morril
1862 Great
July 7
76 colleges and universities are funded by this law
RugbyBritain1863 Sports
Science GeneticsGregor Mendel1863
AntisepticJoseph Lister1865 Great
Bacteria (cholera, tubercolosis)Robert Koch1865
Health Sanitation. Tooth paste (300), toilet paper (589), toothbrush (610), under arm deodorant (857), cotton clothes (washable), flushing toilet (1596), sewer systems (1800's), indoor plumbing (1829-40), packaged toilet paper (1857), hand washing (1865), modern toilet (1910)
Stethoscope Medical. Four humors, blood letting (<460 BC-1875), barbers, doctors, leeches (1025), ambulance (1792), vaccination (1796), anesthetic (1842, 46), nursing (1852), pasteurization and germ theory (1862), antiseptic (1865), hand washing (1865), EKG (1887), X-Ray (1895), Aspirin (1897)
Ruler Textiles and Materials. Clay, metal, wax, leather, skins, wool, cotton, waterproofing (1821), vulcanization (1839), thermoplastic (1869), Viscose (1892)
Baby formulaHenry Nestlé1867
DynamiteAlfred Nobel1867
QWERTY keyboardChristopher Sholes1868
FootballAmerica1869 Sports
Celluloid plasticJohn Hyatt1869
Science Periodic TableDmitri Mendeleev1869 Great
Science Chemistry. Alchemy (?-1778), Lavoisier's Table of Simple Substances (1789), Dalton's Elements (1808) (36 elements), Johann Dobereiner's Triads (1780-1849), Telluric Helix or Screw (1862), Newlands' Octaves 1864 (First "Periodic table"), Mendeleev's Tables 1869, Meyer's Periodic Table 1870, Moseley's Periodic Law, Modern periodic table (1914)
Transcontinental railroadUnion and Central Pacific1869
"Weekly" magazine promotes free loveMorality Victoria Woodhull1870
Science MitosisAnton Schneider1873
DDTOthmar Zeider1874
FertilizationOscar Hertwig1875
LinotypeOttmar Mergenthaler1875
The director of the patent office resigned saying "there is nothing else to invent". 1875
TelephoneAlexander Graham Bell1876 Great
Professional TennisWimbledon1877 Sports
Sound recordingThomas Alva Edison1877 Great
Light bulbThomas Alva Edison1879
Science Electrical PowerEdison (Menlo Park)1879 Great
Energy Light and Energy. Sun, moon, wood, dried dung, coal, wax, whale oil, camphene, coke, kerosene (1853), lantern.
Electromagnetic induction (1831), Demonstration at Menlo Park (1879), power station (82), AC electricity (88), Electromagnetic theory of light (89), hydroelectric dam (90)
Evidence Forensic. Polarizing light microscope (1828), blood test (1863), fingerprinting (1880), bullet comparison (1898)
USA United States. In 1879 the United States was a third rate power. Then the inventions and new consumer products and the collapse of European monarchies after World War 1 in 1918, catapulted it to super power status
SaccharineConstantin Fahlberg1879
Internal combustion engineGottleb Daimler
Karl Benz, cars (1885)
1880
Professional TennisUS Open1881 Sports
Hebrew RestoredBen Yehuda1881
American Red CrossClara Barton1881
Hydroelectric power plantAppleton, Wisconsin1882
Machine gunHiram Maxim1883
Science HistonesAlbrecht Kossel1884
Cash registerJames Ritty1884
FilmGeorge Eastman1884
Coca ColaDr. John S. Pemberton1885
10 story buildingChicago (Iron frame)1885
DishwasherJosephine Cochrane1886
Science MeiosisAugust Weismann1887
CameraGeorge Eastman1888
Electric AC MotorNikola Tesla1888
AutomobileKarl Benz1889 Great
Science Theory of Light, Electromagnetic Heinrich Hertz1889
Hydroelectric damGreat Falls, Montana1890
Science AntibodiesEmil von Behring1890
Punched card machineHerman Hollerith1890
Professional TennisFrench Open1891 Sports
BasketballJames Naismith1891 Sports
EscalatorJesse Reno1891
Fingerprints Sir Francis Galton1892
Ferris wheelGeorge Ferris1893
HormoneGeorge Oliver and Eduard Albert Sharpey-Schaeffer1894
Rigid air shipDavid Schwarz1895
X-raysWilhelm Konrad Roentgen1895
ScienceWireless telegraphGuglielmo Marconi1895 Great
Modern OlympicsWorld1896 Sports
100 Years of Inventions (1900 - 2008)
Invention Inventor Year
Ground Pollution! 120,000 horses produce 2.4 million pounds (1,088,633 kg) of manure every day in New York. Automobiles stop pollution!1900
There is more to invent!
16,000 patents were filed in 1901
1901
Peanuts, pecans, sweet potatoes, soyGeorge Washington Carver1900-10
325 uses for peanuts and hundreds of uses for other crops: Paint, dye, stains, linoleum, glue, rubber, glycerine, insecticide, hand lotion, gasoline, diesel, nitroglycerine
Apple Food. Refrigerator (11), frozen foods (30), tupperware (42), saran wrap (54), milk carton (54), TV dinners (54), McDonald's (55), food processor (71), HFC (70?), freeze drying (76), push through tab (80), veggie patty (81), olestra (96)
Farm Agriculture. Haber process (1908), hybrid corn (33), automatic hay baler (36), tractor replaces horse (45), hydroponics (19??), genetic engineering (1994), cloning
Processes. Assembly line, Haber (08), robotics (56)
Science Chemistry (1900-1949). Tc, Hf, Re, At, Rn, Fr, Pm, Lu, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Cm discovered
Consumer Products and Business Systems
ZeppelinFerdinand Zeppelin1900
Blood GroupsKarl Landsteiner1900
Evidence Forensic. Blood groups and type stain (1900), bullet identification (1910), polygraph (21), luminol (37), Rh blood group (40), voiceprint identification (41), superglue fuming latent print (77), RFLP DNA finger printing (84), PCR (86), IBIS (91), STR DNA (92), AFIS (96), NIDIS (98), laser lights, SKP latent printing (2000)
Fingerprint card and magnifying glass method examines 10 fingerprints in 8 hours. While AFIS can examine millions of prints in 15 minutes by long distance
Science Radio signalsMarconi (December 12)1901 Great
Air conditionerWillis Carrier1902
AirplaneWilbur and Orville Wright1903 Great
Electric plug, socketHarvey Hubbell1903
TractorBenjamin Holt1904
Vacuum tubeJohn Ambrose Fleming, Lee de Forest1904-06
Professional TennisAustralian Open1905Sports
Science Physics TheoriesAlbert Einstein1905
Science Physics. Gravity (1666), Newtonian laws of motion (1687), leyden jar (1745), thermodynamics, electromagnetism, electromagnetic induction (1831), Einstein's theories miracle year (E=MC2, special relativity, photon, Brownian motion, quantum mechanics, mass-energy) (1905), Absolute zero (1911), super conductors (11), protons and electrons (12), atom (13), de Broglie waves (23), neutron (35), super conductors, quark (62),
Color photographyAuguste and Louis Lumiere1907
Plastic (bakelite)Leo Baekeland1907
Ruler Textiles and Materials. Safety glass (1903), rayon (04), bakelite (07), superconductors (11), Pyrex (15), stainless steel (16), zipper (17), cellophane (26), neoprene (1930), nylon (35), lucite (37), plexiglass (37), teflon (38), synthetic rubber, PVC and polyethylene (20-45), saran (42), dacron (48), velcro (48), fiberglass (50), styrofoam (51), super glue (51), non-stick pan (54), optic fiber (55), synthetic diamonds (55), lycra (58), acrylic paint (64), permanent press fabric (64), nitinol (65), astroturf (65), fiber optics (66), corlan (69), sialon (72), kevlar (73), nanotechnology (74), integrated photoreceiver [fiberoptics] (80), fullerenes (85), ceramic super conductors (86), shape memory polymer (95), metallic hydrogen (96), sound proofing
Haber processFritz Haber1908
Greenhouse EffectSvante Arrhenius1908
Talking motion pictureThomas Edison1910
Refrigerator, modernFrench monk1911
ScienceAtomic Nucleus, electronsErnest Rutherford1911 Great
SciencePeriodic Table by Atomic NumberHenry Moseley1913 Great
ScienceSolar System Model of AtomNiels Bohr1913 Great
BraMary Phelps Jacob1913
Mass productionHenry Ford1913
Horse Transportation. Chariot (2600 BC), zeppelin (1900), escalator (1900), windshield wipers (03), New York subway (04), tractor (04), Ford Model-T (08), robot (21), traffic signal (23), liquid-fueled rocket (26), jet engine (30), parking meter (32), radar (35), helicopter (39), Transatlantic air service (39), jeep (40), Pasadena freeway (40), power steering (51), radial tires (53), snowmobile (59), spacecraft (61), telstar (62), bullet train (64), electronic fuel injection (66), concorde (69), space shuttle (81), doppler radar (88), Chunnel (94), maglev train (99), Segway (2001)
National Birth Control LeagueMorality Margaret Sanger1916
USA United States Population (1920). 60,000 homes had radios. 80% had no indoor plumbing. Most had no electricity and were below a 6th grade education by 1933
HockeyNHL Season1917Sports
Lie DetectorJohn Larson1921
CellophaneDupont1926
TelevisionPhilo Farnsworth1927 Great
PenicillinAlexander Fleming1928 Great
In 1900, 30.4% of all deaths occurred among children under 5 years old. Pneumonia, tuberculosis, diarrhea, enteritis and diphtheria caused one third of all deaths. Mass immunization programs began in the 1920s
Stethoscope Medical. Band-aid (1920), insulin (22), iron lung (27), antibiotics penicillin (28), EEG (29), synthetic cortisone (44), blood bank (44), kidney dialysis (44), vaccination programs (48), oral contraceptives (54), tetracycline (55), pacemaker (57), valium (61), polio vaccine (57), birth control pill (60), gene splicing (73), CT scanner (73), liposuction (74), MRI (77), cochlear implant (78), ultrasound (79), hepatitis-B vaccine (80), RU-486 (80), human growth hormone (82), artificial heart (82), synthetic skin (86), disposable contact lenses (87), RU-486 (88), prozac (88), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) (89), viagra (97), stem cell tissue generation (2004), BCI (2005), artificial pancreas (2008), MEG (2010), OCT (optical coherence tomography)
Jet EngineFrank Whittle, Dr Hans von Ohain1930
Scotch tape3M1930
Frozen foodClarence Birdseye1930
Radios are in two of five U.S. homes (40%)1931
Radio telescopeKarl Jansky1932
Hybrid cornUnited States1933
Abortion (Instillation)Morality Eugen Aburel1934
Magnetic tapeBASF, AEG1935
RadarRobert Watson-Watt1935
Chocolate Chip CookieRuth Wakefield1939
Soy Bean Commercial usesHenry Ford1930s
Percy Lavon Julian1936
Steroid Chemistry1940s
PDA Consumer Products. Vacuum cleaner (01), air conditioner (02), color photography (07), flashlight (10), radio (16), short wave radio (19), pop-up toaster (19), hair dryer (20), polygraph machine (21), bubble gum, sliced bread (28), polystyrene (30), fm radio (33), nylon (35), disposable diapers, microwave oven (46), velcro (48), video tape recorder (51), remote control (55), smoke alarm (74), satellite radio (2001)
Television broadcastGermany (35), Britain (36), United States (39)1935-39
Ball point penLadislo Biro1938
HelicopterIgor Sikorsky1939
Computers and Electronic Systems
Turing MachineAlan Mathison Turing1940
Nuclear reactionEnrico Fermi1942
Programmable Computer (Mark 1)Howard H. Aiken1944 Great
Electronic Computer (ENIAC)John Mauchley and J. Presper Eckert 1945
Atomic BombUnited States1945
Weapon Weapons: Parachute (1913), tank (14), cruise missile (17), sonar (06, 17), barbed wire, RADAR (35), bazooka rocket gun (42), radio proximity fuse, nuclear weapon (45), fusion bomb (52), Atomic bomb, hydrogen bomb, neutron bomb, salted bomb, fighter jets, B-52, helicopter, GPS, C4, rockets (50's), AK-47 (1947), assault rifles (M4, M16), satellites, X-Band radar, razor wire, kevlar body armor (1965), boron carbide ceramic plate armor, ICBM, aircraft carriers, jeep, hummer, nuclear submarines, star wars missile defense, armor-piercing bullets, land mines, grenade, tank, chemical weapons, night vision (1991), biological weapons, radiological weapons, JDAM, Tomahawk cruise missile (91), daisy cutter bomb, bunker buster bomb, unmanned drone, cyber warfare, exoskeleton, armed remote control robot
Microwave ovenPercy Spencer1945
DNA Genetic recombinationLederberg and Tatum1946
Disposable diaperMarion Donovan1946
Science Strange Quark (Lambda Particle)1947
TransistorBardeen, Brattain and William Shockley1947
Cell phonesAT&T1947,79
HologramDennis Gabor1947
Copy machinesChester Carlson1948
RFIDHarry Stockman1948
Fertilizes human egg in a test tubeMorality John Rock1948
(DTP). Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine1949
NASCARBill France Sr1949Sports
Science Chemistry (1950-1999). Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt, Ds, Rg, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr discovered
Credit card
(Diner's club)
-
Ralph Schneider
1920's
1950
Money Finance. Barter, shells (1200 BC), salt, precious metals, coins (650 BC), bread, paper money (806), piggy banks, Arabic numerals (1200), currency trading, banks and credit (1390), bonds (1460+), rum, checks (1500), Stocks and Stock Market (1602-05), trading shares (1610), bank notes (1716), printed check (1762), traveller's check (1891), credit union (1909), consumer credit (1921), world bank and IMF (45), credit card (1950), bar code (52), computer (60's), ATM (69), consumer debt financing (84), overdraft fees (89), debit card, Internet, paypal (98)
Influence and create valuesMorality Television1950's
Color televisionPeter Carl Goldmark1950
Sperm bankMorality University of Iowa1950
Hydrogen BombEdward Teller and team1952
Computer CompilerGrace Hopper1952
Sex changeMorality George Jorgenson1952
Science DNA structureWatson and Crick1953
Playboy magazineMorality Hugh Hefner1953
Sperm bank babyMorality Scientists1953
RAM (memory)UNIVAC 1103 by Remington Rand1953
Nuclear Power PlantObninsk, Russia1954
Polio vaccineJonas Salk (April 12)1955
Music Music. Piano (1700), saxophone (1841), phonautograph (1860), phonograph (1875), Microphone (1877), Gramophone (1887), Hi-Fi Sound Recording (1924), Magnetic Tape (1927), Tape Recorder (1935), Video Tape Recorder (1956), Long Playing Record (1948), dolby (1965), CD (1976), Sony Walkman (1979), VOIP (1998), MP3 (1998), iPod (2001), Auto-Tune
Telecommunications
Semi conductor transistors replace vacuum tubes
Silicon Transistor (TRADIC)J. H. Felker (Bell Lab)1955 Great
Transatlantic cableUSA to Europe1956
DNA ReplicationMeselson and Stahl1957
Hydrogen bombUSA at Bikini Atoll1956
Satellite (Sputnik 1)Soviet Union1957
FORTRANJim Backus (IBM)1958
Abortion (Vacuum Aspiration)Morality Dr Yuantai Wu, Dr Xianzhen Wu in China1958
Stethoscope Abortion: D&C (late 19c), Instillation (1934), Vacuum Aspiration (1958), D&E (1970s), Menstrual Extraction (1971), Intact D&E (1983), RU-486 (1988), Misoprostol
LaserGordon Gould1958
Integrated circuitJack Kilby, Robert Noyce1959
LaserTheodore Maiman1960
Communications satellite (Echo 1)United States1960 Great
Birth control pillMorality Gregory Pincus1960
Robot (UNIMATE)General Motors1961
Science Quark ModelGell-Mann, Ne'eman, Seber1961-63
Book: Sex and the single girlMorality Helen Gurley Brown1962
Telecommunications satellite (Telstar)United States1962
Operating System (OS/360)IBM1964
NutrasweetJames Schlatter1965
Summer of LoveMorality San Francisco hippies1966
Science Up, Down QuarkSLAC1967
RAM memoryRobert Dennard1968
OilPrudhoe Bay, Alaska1968
Energy Energy (Oil Discoveries): Pennsylvania (1859), oil tanker (1886), Texas (1901), Gas Station (1905), Iran (08), Iraq (25), Saudi Arabia (38), Gulf of Mexico (47), Alaska (68).
Equipment. Oil rigs, Pumpherston retort (1894), horizontal drill (72), hydraulic fracturing, Blow Out Preventer, drilling mud.
Light (Electricity): Hydroelectric power plant (1882), plug and socket (1904), nuclear power (51), solar cell (54), solar power plant (2005), Bloom Box Generator (2010)
200 million TVs in the world. 78 million in USA 1968
Operating System (Unix)United States1969
Arpanet (Internet)United States (DARPA)1969
ATMUSA1969
Gay liberation movementMorality Sylvia Rivera (New York)1969
Woodstock festivalMorality 300,000 youth1969
Moon LandingAmerica1969
Relational databaseDr. Edgar Frank Codd1970
(MMR). Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine1971
Abortion (Menstrual Extraction)Morality Downer and Rothman 1971
GPSUnited States military1972
Biotechnology
DNA Gene splicingMoralityPaul Berg, Herbert Boyer, Stanley Cohen1972
Operating System (CP/M)Dr. Gary Kindall1973
InternetVinton Cerf (USA)1973 Great
Abortion (USA)Morality Abortion is legalized1973
Science Charm Quark (Psi/J Particle)Stanford, Brookhaven1974
DNA Gene Splicing with agrobacterium tumefaciens Jozef Schell, Marc Van Montagu (Ghent)1974
Mary-Dell Chilton1976
Granite Radio HalosDr. Robert Gentry1976
Personal computerSteve Jobs, Steve Wozniak1976
Science Bottom QuarkLeon Lederman1977
Science Upsilion particleFermilab1977
ModemDennis C. Hayes1977
DNA Rapid DNA sequencingAllan Maxam, Walter Gilbert, Frederik Sanger1977
Test tube babyMorality Britain1978
Compact Disk (CD)Joop Sinjou and Toshi tada Doi1979
Scanning Tunneling MicroscopeErnst Ruska, Gerd Binnig, Heinrich Rohrer1981
Atomic Force MicroscopeGerd Binnig, Christoph Gerber, Calvin Quate1981
Space shuttleUnited States1981
Hardware Hardware: Rock, clay, skins, paper (105), quill pen and ink (700), pencil (1565), slide rule (1622), chalk and blackboard, typewriter (1829), census records, microfiche, Kodachrome (1935-2010), photocopier (1937), Computer (1945), CD (65), microprocessor, mouse (68), RS-232 (69), bar code scanner (69), VCR (71), daisy wheel (70), dot-matrix (71), laser (75), ink jet (76), modem (77), camera, Cray super computer (79), cellular phone (79), IBM PC (81), Apple Macintosh, DVD (95), USB (96), blogs (97), MP3, iPod (2001), iPhone (2007), G1 (2008), iPad (2010), diamond electronics
Software: Fortran (58), FTP (71), UNIX (71), Word processor (72), e-mail (72), ethernet (73), TCP/IP (74), spreadsheet (78), Telnet (80), Bitnet (81), GIF (87), Apple Lisa (83), GUI interface, domain name server (84), HDTV (89), Windows (85), HTTP world wide web (91), JPEG (91), MPEG, PDF (92), Mosaic Web browser (93), Netscape, Yahoo (94), Google (98), Bluetooth (99), WiFi, iTunes (2001), Wikipedia (2001)
Operating System (MS-DOS)Microsoft1981
DNA GE vaccineARS1981
DNA GE InsulinGenentech1982
Science W and Z BosonsWeinberg,Salam,Glashow 1983
Abortion (Intact D&E)Morality Dr. James McMahon1983
Money Consumer debt trapsShailesh Mertha
(Providian Financials)
1984
RFLP DNA TestAlec Jeffreys1984
DNA GE pig (SMGT), chicken, goat, sheep-1984
DNA GE TobaccoEPA approved1986
NanotechnologyEric Drexler1986
DNA Gene GunJohn Sanford (Cornell)1987
DNA Chromosome transplantARS1987
DNA Polymerase Chain ReactionKary Mullis1988
RU-486Morality Roussel Uclaf, France1988
Money Overdraft loansBill Strunk1989
HDTV-1989
2,500,000 cell phones in the USA1990
HTTP and HTMLTim Berners-Lee1990
Genome ProjectNIH and DOE1990
STR DNA TestThomas Caskey1992
DNA Flavr Savr tomatoCalgene Inc1994
DNA GE corn, cottonEPA approved1995
Science Top QuarkFermilab, Tevatron1995
DNA Cloned sheepIan Wilmut1997
ViagraMorality Pfizer, Inc1998
DNA Terminator SeedDelta and Pine Land Co.1998
DNA Traitor Seed-199?
Internet PornMorality Internet globalized1998
PayPalLevchin and Thiel1998
700+ new Messianic PropheciesLaverna Patterson2001-10
Brain Computer Interface (BCI)Wadsworth Center, Jonathan R. Wolpaw2005
BCI ImplantAndy Schwartz200?
e-reader (Kindle)Amazon.com2007
iPhoneApple2007
Large Hadron Collider (17 miles)International group2008
Modern Science Periodic TableLaverna Patterson
Modern revelation of Moses' model of modern science in the Torah
2008
Modern Science Particle Physics2008
Modern Science Mass, gravity2008-
Modern Science Electron Spin2011
Modern Science Electrodynamics2008
Modern Science DNA Replication 2008
Flibanserin Morality Boehringer Ingelheim 2009
Bionic FingersTouch Bionics2009
3D-HD TVPanasonic2010
iPadApple2010
2,500,000,000 cell phones in the USA2010
Morality Products of the sexual revolution and the value of life
Phone Communication. Rotary dial (1876), radio (1902), stereo (33), comic books (33), radar (35), television broadcast (35-39), ballpoint pen (38), color television (51), Europe-USA telephone cable (56), telex (58), fountain pen refill cartridge (60), touch tone or push-button (63), postal zip codes (63), cable TV (64), packet switching (60s), satellite (65), magnetic stripe credit card (68), e-mail (72), GPS (72), OCR (74), text-to-speech (76), fiberoptics (80), cell phone (83), fiberoptics long distance (88), digital answering machine (91), Internet (98), microprocessor, Brain Computer Interface (99), social networking: Myspace (2003), Facebook (2003), YouTube (2005), Twitter (2006), ebook (2007), SETI's Allen Telescope Array (2007)
Revolutionary Discoveries, Networks and Infrastructure
Public ServiceInfrastructureYear
Medical Water and SewerHealth1829
Energy OilEnergy Great1859
Basic science ScienceBasic Science1860
Education UniversitiesEducation1862
Food AgricultureHealth, food production1862
Medical MedicineHealth and hygiene1865
Phone TelephoneCommunication1876
Energy Electrical GridEnergy1879
Horse AutomobileTransportation1889
Money BankingFinance (Public)1891
Phone WirelessCommunication1895
RadioCommunication Great1902
TelevisionCommunication1935
Transportation Roads, HighwaysTransportation1940
Hardware ComputerInformation1944
Satellite SatelliteCommunication, global1965
GPSCommunication, global1972
InternetInformation, global1998
Great Early Technology. Notice that all the critical inventions are due to unrelated technologies which were "discovered" within 30 - 35 years.
They must have been inspired by God.
Great Late Technology. Communications to spread Gospel
Progress depends on a wide distribution of:
» Energy. A cheap, versatile, reliable source.
» Infrastructure. Dispersion system.
» Transportation. Mobility, infrastructure.
» Communication. Long distance, wireless, instant.
» Information Systems. Data storage and retrieval.
» Medicine. A healthy work force
» Education. Relevant knowledge. Public schools.
» Financing. Money or supporters
» Market. A need must exist or be made for the product.
FYI Over 100,000 patents are required for the modern car DNA Genetic Engineering (GE)
Simply by listing the major types of inventions, I have demonstrated that knowledge has suddenly increased exponentially since the 1800's.
After the flood, God confounded speech and disrupted communications and scattered tribes for over 3700 years. Now, at the end of time, the ultimate goal for all technology seems to be to restore global communications as He gathers all the tribes of the Earth for one final showdown.

Navigation Navigation
(Stars)
Measuring Altitude. The astrolabe and quadrant were used to measure the altitude of Polaris or the sun in relation to the horizon. Measuring the altitude in degrees was the same as the degrees of latitude above the equator.
Star » Polaris (North Star). It marks the north pole.
» Other Stars. The altitude of a star of known declination was measured when it was on the meridian at night.
sun » Noon Day Sun. It marks the meridian which identifies due north and south. Near the equator, navigators rely on the sun to determine latitude because Polaris is below the horizon. They measured the angle of the sun at its zenith
Measuring Declination (Almanac). A chart was used to find the declination for a particular date.
Latitude = 90º - altitude + declination

Old World Technology: The Evolution of Travel
Although technology allowed travel and exploration to expand greatly, yet other knowledge had to be acquired first so that the fear of the unknown would no longer prevent exploration.

The Evolution of Speed: Running "To and Fro".
5800 Years 1790 1798 1800 Time of the End (200 Years)End of Time
Feet Walking Rafts, Dugouts, Canoes Horse Sailing Ships Knowledge Church Falls Disaster Ship Train Car Plane Space Shuttle Today
For 5800 years we were limited to a maximum speed of 10 miles per hour (16 kph) on land and sea. In the 200+ year period known as "the time of the end" the prophecy of Daniel 12, written 2600 years ago, describes an increase in knowledge, and people "running to and fro". Here we summarize the evidence of the revolution of speed.

Comparison of Speed by Method of Travel
Vehicle Mph Kph
Foot Power (4000 BC-Present)
»Walking4 6
»Camel (with 400 lbs)3 5
»Dog sled4-9 6-14
»Bicycle10 16
Horse Horse6 10
»Pony Express10 16
»Stagecoach15 24
»Iron horse (early car)4.3-2.1 6.4-3.2
Wind and Steam Power (1769-Present)
Ship Sailing Ship5-9 8-15
»Merchant Ship6 10
»Paddlewheel boat (1783)7-3.5 11-5.5
»Clipper Ship (1833)10-23 16-37
»Steam Ship (1898)14-26 23-42
»Nuclear powered (1958)35 53
»Submarine23 35
Train Steam Locomotive5 8
»Passenger Train (1825)16 25
Electro-Chemical Power (1900-Present)
»Diesel Train (1925)147 273
»Maglev Trains (1999)311-345 500-552
Car Car60-120 97-193
Plane Air ship (1895)78 135
»Early passenger plane100 161
»Jet Plane (1952)570 917
Speed of Sound761 1225
»Concorde SST (1969)1674 2693
»Space Shuttle (launch)4,973 8,002
»Space Shuttle (orbit)17,580 28,287
»Rocket10,000 16,090
Solar Power (Future)
Speed of Light11 x 106 18 x 106

In 500 BC it took over four months to travel about 700 miles (1125 km) from Babylon to Israel. By 1800 people and information were still travelling at about the same speed as they were since Noah, 4 to 10 miles per hour (6 to 16 kph).

The Next Frontier
One Language (2474 BC) 1790 1945 No Language or Geographical BarriersEnd of Time
Technology Ark Tower of Babel Bulb Knowledge Bomb Bomb Satellite Phone Plane Travel Space Shuttle Space DNA Genetics
Already, our new inventions are little more than repackaging, renaming and marketing old systems as new products. Cheaper and global may be the route that telecommunications needs to take, but faster now seems superfluous. Faster data will not add much more to our ability to take in what we see and hear. Faster travel has reached its practical limits on rail and road. Faster air travel is the only really practical innovation.
We need better advances in energy, medicine and agriculture, but the research seems to be centered on cornering market share perpetually, not on finding cures and solutions. Language is no longer the barrier to advances in technology as it was in the days after the flood. Now, corporate profit and competition are. This same combination is also the impetus that drives research. The next frontiers seem to be related to discoveries in sub-atomic physics and biology. But we may be approaching the limits of what God will allow.

The History of Money
Barter and Trade Money Electronic Credit
LaborProperty 476 1290-1390 1464 1610 1716 1744 1920s NowEnd of Time
Slave Coin Land Feudal Currency
Trade
Bond BullStock Money Paper
Notes
Dice
Insurance
Consumer
Credit
Leopard
Predatory
Economies could never be globalized if we did not learn how to convert the value of goods and services into a system whose value was standardized. Then this symbol of value had to become portable, first by becoming small and light and then being virtually transferrable.
Then a market was set up for trading goods and the middle men rigged the system to guarantee flow of wealth through their hands.
We present this global financial history so that you can understand the powerful financial forces behind every major fulfillment of prophecy as the wrath of God executed justice. Most of the information from 1290 to 2008 is from the PBS documentary by Niall Ferguson.

The Money Empire Falls: Market Panics, Bubbles, Booms and Busts
The history of banking shows that the powerful elite always ignored or changed the rules to perpetrate their fraud. Such disasters are often preceeded by a change in regulation that benefits the bankers at the expense of the population. When they operate by ignoring the law and all other sense of fair play, their wealth and apparent success are so powerful that it trumps any criticism and they are allowed to operate freely while we beg them to share their wisdom and give us a chance at Nirvana.
Bubbles appear to be created with new opportunities that are created through deregulation or new markets. Vultures take advantage of deregulation to build up speculation, lure the common people and the novices.

Financial Exploitation
Prior to 1984 it was difficult to obtain a credit card, but officials at Providian Financials counted on the fact that there are people who are desperate or naive enough who will take their products. These desperate souls will always carry a balance which can be misused to earn billions.

What is God thinking? We have violated all the rules that will trigger His wrath. While the bankers hear the clink of money when they see the desperate poor, He will hear the cries of these people. As corruption and greed seem to triump untouched and rewarded, the poor and middle class strain under the burden and they begin to respond to greed and short cuts to achieve more and more.

Prophecy: Global Economic Collapse
We spent a lot of time explaining the roots of an attitude towards people and finance that will be punished by God. Prophecy condemns evil people, clergy, wicked rulers and evil nations, but it only condemns one private system: bad businessmen, calling their trade violence.
The pursuit of money, capitalism and the free market will create conditions that will be just as evil as perpetual slavery, perpetual poverty and communism. In the end a flourishing, free-market economy will exploit the people. Whereas communism can reward laziness and suppress individual ambition, capital without regulation will reward a system of debt financing that will collapse, leading to global revolution and conflict that has never been seen.

» Self Destruction. The classic method for the vengeance of God is to let the enemy destroy themselves by their own schemes. A system based on greed, lies, crumbling infrastructure, tax burden on the mass, inflation, unbridled usury, lack of accountability and exploitation will collapse when the masses become a burden when they can no longer carry the burden. So the final collapse must include unbridled greed and a Ponzi scheme so huge and unexpected that it will send central banks into a panic and we will be talking about it for millions of years. After looking at the history of frauds I must conclude that the prestige of the church will probably be at the center of this massive fraud.

In His mercy, God sends repeated warnings as we are being herded down a path of no return and no useful options. Hearing the siren song of quick riches and "blessings of the Lord" we will not listen. We never learn.

The Accidental Discovery Of The American Continent
Christopher Columbus had a hair-brained scheme to reach the east by sailing west, thinking that he could sail to Japan (Cipangu) and India from the Canary Islands in search of spices, not knowing that an entire continent lay in between. He did not know where he was going and when he got there he did not know where he was and for decades after he still did not know where he had been.

» The Trade Winds. He discovered the great clockwise Atlantic ocean wind system during the early 1480s and tried to gain support for his trip in late 1483. He felt the west wind along the Portuguese coasts and in the Madeira Islands. He felt the trade winds in Africa, the Canary and Cape Verde Islands. He reasoned that he could make an Atlantic round trip using the circular winds by going down south to catch the trade winds "easterlies" which would blow him west, and return east with the westerlies at a higher latitude (35-65 degrees). The Romans have used the Monsoon winds in June and November to cross the Indian Ocean on the spice route since the first century AD. So Columbus knew that he could depend on the wind systems.

» Fifteenth Century Science And Technology. While most people believed that the earth was flat, some people believed the world was round, but they were not sure how big it was.
Map of the Old World
The Known World
Sailing ships generally hugged the land and would sail only if they could see land. The sea beyond the western end of Europe was known as "the Sea of Darkness" where monsters roamed, cannibals waited, violent winds, frequent storms, high waves and rough seas abounded and a hapless sailor might fall off the edge of the earth. They also believed in the imaginary islands of Antilia, St. Brendan's and Brazil. The people of Europe and Asia were unaware of the existance of the American and Australian continents. Terra Australis Incognita (unknown southern land) was discovered in 1606.

» The Size Of The Earth. He believed that the earth was encircled by 24 hours, of 15 degrees, and each degree was 56 and 2/3 Roman miles. There was 225 degrees of land and 135 degrees covered by sea. So the circumference of the earth was estimated to be 20,400 miles (25,255 km) and only a small sea lay between the eastern and western end of the continent. His calculations assumed that there was only 2300 miles (3700 km) between the Canary Islands and Cipangu (Japan) and that there was nothing in between. The circumference is actually 32364 miles (40,066 km) and the distance between the Canary Islands and Japan was actually 12200 miles (15103 km).
Fortunately he was correct about the importance of the circular winds. He was wrong about everything else, but that was also fortunate. Since he believed the circumference of the earth was so small, he found the courage to attempt the voyage, otherwise he would not have attempted a long distance voyage nor been able to find investors or convince a crew to join him because they would have believed that they would have starved to death.
» The Mission. Columbus was on a mission from God. He believed that the earth would end in 1631 and he had been given the gift of knowledge by God making his voyage prophetic. So it was his duty to bring the godless multitude into the Catholic fold and to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims.

» The Voyage To America. The fleet sailed from Palos, Spain on 3 August 1492 with 90 men in 3 ships (Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria) with the aid of the Pinzon brothers who were experienced sailors. In 9 days he sailed 700 miles from Spain to the Canary Islands. On 6 September 1492, he sailed west 5400 miles (8678 km) from there to the Bahamas in 36 days using the trade winds. On October 12, at 2:00 AM, under the light of the moon, the Pinta saw land in the Bahamas (San Salvador). He found the Arawaks and named the people Indians, thinking that he had reached India. Within 50 years the Arawaks would be virtually extinct by infection and exploitation.
On October 28 he reached Cuba thinking that he was sailing along the coast of Asia, believing that it must be China. He sailed to Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) on December 5 and saw gold and resorted to slavery to mine it. So Haiti became the first place where African slaves were brought and the first Spanish colony after the population of 250,000 Arawaks died. He resorted to forced conversions, even burning people alive at the stake for the faith.
On November 22 the Pinta sailed off on her own, searching for gold. On December 25, the Santa Maria went aground and sank. January 6, 1493 he saw the Pinta returning with gold which was used to gild the Santa Maria Majore church ceiling.
Nine months after their departure, Columbus returned to Spain with the Nina and Pinta under the power of the westerlies, bringing back gold, tall tales and syphillis. He had symbolically given birth to a new continent.
He would make four more voyages to the continent, but continued to believe that it was Asia.

  1. American Continent (3 August - 6 September 1492 - 15 March 1493). Sailing with three ships, he discovered the American continent after 39 weeks, landing in the Bahamas. He was titled Admiral of the ocean seas and Viceroy of all the lands.
  2. Islands (24 September 1493). He had seventeen ships and 1,200 men. He named almost all the islands and instituted a policy of terror and genocide on Hispaniola to obtain gold.
  3. Arrested (30 May 1498). He was recalled for governing like a tyrant and torture by disgruntled Spanish settlers and he was brought back in chains to Spain.
  4. Jamaica (11 May 1502 - 7 November 1504). He lost four ships and was stranded on Jamaica for one year.

» A New Continent!!. It was not until 1502-04 that Amerigo Vespucci published journals in which he reasoned that Columbus had discovered a new continent, not India. The continent was named after him. However, the mistake was immortalized because the native Americans are still called "Indians" and the Caribbean Islands are called the "West Indies".
It was the Portuguese explorer, Ferdinand Magellan, who reached the east by sailing west in 1519-1522. He set sail aboard the Trinidad on 10 August 1519 with five ships and 251 men and returned on 6 September 1522 with only 18 men aboard the Victoria.
The British explorer Sir Francis Drake was the second to circumnavigate the globe in the years 13 December 1577 to 26 September 1580 and was knighted on 4 April 1581. He set sail aboard the Pelican (renamed The Golden Hind) with 164 men and 4 other ships.

Prophecy Prophecy: The Discovery Of America.
The treatment of the native Americans and Columbus' belief in forced slavery and forced conversions leave no doubt that his voyage was not the will of God. Yet, Daniel predicted that a new land would be opened up for the people fleeing persecution in the old world. The formerly persecuted even continued this legacy of entitlement, slavery and mistreatment.
And the serpent poured water like a river out of his mouth after the woman, so that he might cause her to be swept away with the flood. But the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and drank up the river which the dragon poured out of his mouth. So the dragon was enraged with the woman, and went off to make war with the rest of her children, who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus. (Revelation 12: 15-17)
The events are the classic method of biblical wrath. The people upon whom wrath will fall are the architects of their own destruction. It is the serpent who sends the flood. However, in the middle of this catastrophe God carves a way out for His people but the destructive flood still reaches the new world. The Jews and Protestants made the new land their new home.
» The Church Is Helped. The native Americans helped the European strangers and they were even greeted as gods in South America.

The United States Of America
Prophetic points     Prophetic Footprints
The United States
  1. Christian country
  2. Helps persecuted church
  3. Powerful abilities
  4. Last super power
  5. Economic power
  6. Will unite with the church
  7. Will make worldwide religious laws
  8. Will persecute the people of God with the help of the church
  9. Will act like ancient Babylon
  10. Will be defeated from the east by God.
Columbus discovered the new world in 1492. Although persecution and genocide abounded, North America became a refuge for fleeing Jews (1654) and Protestants (1620).
The United States of America came about as a direct result of European colonialism in the fifteenth century. Starting with the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the New World was opened to the strong European monarchies of Britain, France and Spain. In 1620, it became a haven for Protestants fleeing Catholic persecution in Europe when the pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.

Having fled persecution, the Protestants in New England were guilty of such activity to a lesser extent. They were intolerant of immoral and non-Christian behavior.

By 1776, the nation became independent after it waged a war of independence against Britain because of the high taxes paid to the British government. They were assisted by the French, who were rivals and enemies of the British. As a British colony, it participated in the slave trade through the kidnapping and forced slavery of Africans. This was condoned by the mostly Christian, agricultural South because the slave labor was an important part of their economy and because they justified their activity from the Bible, maintaining that slavery was condoned in the Bible. The northern states were based more on an industrial economy. Enmity between the North and south finally broke out into the civil war. Initially, slavery was not the issue, only unity of the country and free trade along the rivers. But the North eventually made slavery a moral issue in the war, to the objections of many in the north.
So the United States became a Protestant nation that was anti-Catholic or highly suspicious of the Catholic political and religious agenda until the election of the first Catholic President - John F. Kennedy. Several groups still believe that a church-state Catholic global domination will emerge at the end of time in fulfillment of a prediction in Bible prophecy and this will be accompanied by a United States global domination.

Economic Power. The country did not achieve real dominance until after World War II, with the European countries devastated by the war and the American economy booming because of the war. They quickly became an economic giant.

Cold War. With the threat to peace posed by Russia after World War II, both countries entered into a period of Cold War with the Soviet Union trying to establish communism and the United states trying to promote democracy around the world. During this period, both sides created powerful military weapons and became political super powers. America won the cold war by also becoming a powerful economic force.
Becoming a Super Power
Event Lessons Learned or Significant Activity
(1776) War of IndependenceBecame a sovereign nation
The Constitution (1776)Drafted a legal document that would become the basis for democracy and human rights
Civil War Moved the country out of the agricultural economy
World War I International military action. No longer isolationist. Industrial economy
World War II Became a global political and economic force while Europe declined
Cold War The arms race built up military strength, technology and external espionage and surveillance
Vietnam war Learned the importance of managing the propaganda war at home
Fall of Soviet Union (1989)Cooperated with the church to achieve political gain
Persian Gulf War (1991)Symbolically overthrew the first Babylon and became the undisputed only superpower
Terrorist attack on New York and Washington D.C.Instituted persecution laws and the systems to shift focus to internal surveillance
Afghanistan War (2001) Expected to be quick, it is the longest war
Iraq War (2003)Unjust war. Started acting like a dragon. Became Babylon the Great

Gulf War. Eventually, with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 and after the clear superiority and advanced technology exhibited by the American troops in the Gulf War against Iraq (the old nation of Babylon) - the United States was declared the only remaining Super power in the world.

The new Babylon symbolically defeated the old Babylon.
It was both a military, political and economic force and it intends to remain the only power. The South Bend Tribune reported that

In a broad new policy statement that is in its final drafting state, the Defense Department asserts that America's political and military mission in the era after the Cold War will be to ensure that no rival super power is allowed to emerge in Western Europe, Asia, or the territory of the former Soviet Union.

The Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001
On the morning of September 11, 2001 two hijacked passenger planes from Boston were flown directly into each of the North and South twin towers of the World Trade Center at 8:45 AM and 9:03 AM. Within an hour both 110 story buildings collapsed killing about 3000 people.

At 9:43 AM, another hijacked plane was crashed into the Pentagon in Washington D.C. collapsing one side of its structure and killing about 100 people. A fourth hijacked plane bound for either the White House, Camp David or the Senate, crashed in a field in Pennsylvania at 10:00 AM after brave passengers heard about the other three doomed flights and decided to take over.

Within a month, a war was launched against the country of Afghanistan for its support of the terrorists and Osama Bin Laden, a Saudi millionaire who sponsored these attacks. Simultaneously, a war on terrorism began in the country, with the creation of a new government office directly responsible to the President - Homeland security and the passage of the U.S.A. Patriot Freedom Act of 2001 which gives enormous power (contrary to the United States Constitution) to the police to eavesdrop on all communication, conduct secret searches and detain anyone suspected of terrorism.

By March 2003, another war was launched against Iraq, unjustly blaming them for planning to attack the United States with weapons of mass destruction.

Romancing the Pope. We are at the point of prophetic history where the final powers are courting each other. The American politicians currently do this for ideology or for political survival. The Catholic church does this for world domination.

At least since 1989, this is the known involvement of the government with Catholic goals.

Speaking of the growing power of the church in the top layers of government, "The Central Intelligence Agency", page 271 Jim Marrs.

Politically, she looms ever larger in the White House, in the Senate and in the Congress. She is a force in the Pentagon, a secret agent in the FBI and the most subtly intangible prime mover of the S.S. wheel within a wheel.

If I were a betting person, I would say that we will soon have talk about making Sunday a national day of rest, if Bush has not already passed a secret executive order or signing statement.

Babylon II - The Final Super Power
The Muslim world may already recognize the Catholic church as the only legitimate spokesperson for the West that they trust, giving legitimacy to the global political aspirations of the church as a peace broker and force for moral influence. So the final superpower will be a combination of the United States and the Roman Catholic Church and at a later point, the nations of Europe against the people of God. The growth and development of these two powers is close to their peak, and the establishment of laws within the United States that could be used to enact persecution is seen as the final nail in the coffin as this final power embraces brutality as a legitimate tool of control.

Historical Dates
Dating a Document. In ancient times most calendars were based on the month beginning with the new moon. But the designation of the year was a problem. Before the designation of the birth of Christ as year 0 for the modern era, each culture designated the year by a significant event. So all documents were dated relative to that significant year. Usually, the event was the reign of a king.

Parker and Dubberstein
EventYear (BC)
Nebuchadnezzar (Accession year)August or December 605
Jerusalem destroyed587
Cyrus conquered539
Persian Empire ends331

The chronology of Parker and Dubberstein has been almost universally accepted as the standard for over fifty years. But one historian, Crowley, consistently dates events one year earlier than them. And there seems to be an effort to push back historical dates about three years.

EmpireModern DateOlympiad Date Ptolemy's Canon Cuneiform Kings List
Ruler ReignYears Uruk ReignBabylon
Assyria 747-7348.1-11.3Nabonassar1414--
734-73211.3-12.1Nabu-nadin-zeri (Nadinu)216
732-72712.1-13.2Mukin-zeri and Pul521
727-72213.2-14.3Ululayu526
722-71014.3-Merodach-baladan1238
710-70517.3Sargon II543
705-70318.4No King245
703-70019.2Bel-ibni348
700-69420.1Ashur-nadin-shumi654
694-69321.3Nergal-ushezib155
693-68921.4Mushezib-Marduk459
689-68123.2No King867
681-66825.2Esarhaddon13100-
668-63128.1AssurbanipalNot Not listed21
Assyrian rulers of Babylon 668-64828.1Shamash-shuma-ukin20100Same
648-62633.1Kandalanu2212221
62638.3Sin-sumlisir and Sin-sariskunNot Not listed1 (governors)
Babylon626-60538.3 Nabopolassar2114321--
605-56243.4Nebuchadnezzar4318643--
562-56054.3Amel-Marduk21882--
560-55655.1Neriglissar41923 years, 8 months--
55656.1Labasi-MardukNot Not listed3 months--
556-53956.1-60.2Nabonidus1720917--
Persia559-53055.2-62.3Cyrus9218?--
538-52260.3-64.3Cambyses8226?--
522-48664.3Darius I36262?--
486-46573.3Xerxes I (Ahazarus)21283Lacuna
(missing)
--
46578.4Artabanus (7 months)Not Not listed--
465-42578.4Artaxerxes I41324--
423-40589.2-93.4Darius II19343--
404-35994.1-105.2Artaxerxes II46389--
358-338105.3-Artaxerxes III21410-
337-336111.1Arses2412
335111.2Nidin-BelNot Not listed?
335-330111.2Darius III44165
Greece
(Argead Dynasty)
334-323111.3Alexander the Great84247??
323-317114.2Philip Arrhidaeus74316??
323-310114.2Alexander IV12443Not6?
Greece
(Diadochi)
317-311115.4Antigonus [the one-eyed]Not Not listed in Ptolemy's Canon6??
311-281117.2Seleucus I Nicantor31257
281-261124.4Antiochus I Soter222032
261-246129.4Antiochus II Theos151552
246-225133.3Seleucus II Callinicus?2067
Greek rulers of Babylon226-223138.3Seleucus IIINot Not listed in Ptolemy's CanonNot Not listed in the Uruk Kings List387
223-187139.2Antiochus III3590
187-175148.2Seleucus IV Philopator12125
175-164151.2Antiochus IV Epiphanes11137
Greek rulers of Egypt

Ptolemaic
323-285114.2Ptolemy I Soter20463--
282-246124.3Ptolemy II Philadelphus38501
246-222133.3Ptolemy III Euergetes25526
222-205139.3Ptolemy IV Philopator17543
205-180143.4Ptolemy V Epiphanes24567
180-146150.1Ptolemy VI Philometor35602
145-116158.4Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II29631
116-80166.1Ptolemy IX Soter II36667
80-51175.1Ptolemy XII Nero Dionysus29696
51-30182.2Cleopatra VII Philopator22718
Rome30-14AD187.3-198.1Augustus Caesar43761
Assurbanipal appointed his brothers, Samas-suma-ukin and Kandalanu, to rule Babylon.
The Greek records have Xerxes ruling for 20 years and Artabanus for 7 months before Artaxerxes ruled 40 years

God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God. Romans 8: 28 Time: 600 minutes
Print: 101 pages
Copyright     Updated : April 2010
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (May 2008)
Images were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.
Credits:
• Assyria. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria
• Babylon. URL: http://www.livius.org/ba-bd/babylon/babylonian_empire.html
• Medo-Persia. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Empire
• Greece. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece
• Rome. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome
• Europe. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Europe
• Dating of the Kings of Judah was from my own calculations in reading the Bible.
Verse by Verse Commentary on Daniel and Revelation from the SDA Bible Commentary.
Daniel and Revelation by Uriah Smith.
• Epidemic information from Medic-Planet epidemics
• High Priests of Israel. URL: http://pursiful.com/chronology/kohanim.html
• What was the story with Shimon the Tzadik and Alexander the Great? URL: http://www.askmoses.com/article.html?h=591&o=541
• List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jewish_leaders_in_the_Land_of_Israel
• Sanhedrin. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanhedrin
• The Tribe: The Cohen-Levi Family Heritage. URL: http://www.cohen-levi.org/the_tribe/timeline_of_kohanim_and_levites.htm
• Jerusalem on My Mind (Jerusalem History Timeline). URL: http://www.jerusalemonmymind.com/history.html
• The Land Question in Palestine. URL: www.zionism-israel.com
• Lateran Pacts of 1929. URL: http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/treaty.htm
• Lateran Treaty Changed - Endtime Issues April 2003. URL: http://www.endtimeissues.com/articles/60/
• Milestones on the road to European unification. Presse und Informationsamt der Bundesregierung
• Allah - The Moon God. URL: http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/moongod.htm
• Muslim Conquests. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_conquests
Disasters.
• Historic Worldwide Earthquakes. URL: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/historical.php
• Historical earthquakes. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_earthquakes
• Earthquake Facts and Statistics. URL: http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqstats.html
» Earthquake Information for the 1990s, 2000s
• Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World. URL: http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqsmosde.html
• Death Toll Disasters-War. URL: http://www.geocities.com/dtmcbride/hist/disasters-war.html
• Pandemics. URL: http://www.apocalypse-soon.com/pandemics.htm
• Climate changes of 535-536. URL: wikipedia.com
• List of natural disasters by death toll. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_disasters_by_death_toll
• Historic tsunamis. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historic_tsunamis
Inventions.
• Chemical engineering timeline. URL: http://www.pafko.com/history/h_time.html
• Twentieth Century Inventions. URL: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventions/
• Materials Science Timeline. URL: http://matse101.mse.uiuc.edu/timeline.htm
• Timeline of Historic Inventions: URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_historic_inventions
• Car History - Early Cars. URL: http://www.cybersteering.com/trimain/history/ecars.html
• A Brief History of Transportation. Dr. Robert Scott Seitz, III. University of Alabama, Huntsville.
• History Of Agriculture. URL: iPedia.net copied from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History Of Agriculture
• Cultural Astronomy: Navigational Tools. URL: http://cuip.uchicago.edu/~christie/adler/templates.htm
• A Timeline of Britain. URL: http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/british.html
• A Timeline of the USA. URL: http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/american.html
History of Money.
• Ascent of Money. Niall Ferguson. PBS documentary. 10-17 September 2009
• Frontline: The Warning. October 20, 2009. PBS television broadcast on the collapse of LTCM.
• Frontline: The Card Game. November 25, 2009. PBS television broadcast. Lowell Bergman, producer.
• Frontline: The Madoff Affair. May 12, 2009. Martin Smith, producer.
• Crash of 1929: American Experience. Aired on PBS. 26 October 2009.
• Civilian Conservaton Corp: Aired on PBS. 2 November 2009.
• List of stock market crashes. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_stock_market_crashes
• How Venice Rigged the First, and Worst, Global Financial Crash. Paul Gallagher, The New Federalist, and The American Almanac. URL: http://members.tripod.com/~american_almanac/pbgbardi.htm
• Ponzi. URL: http://www.crimes-of-persuasion.com/Crimes/InPerson/MajorPerson/ponzi.htm
• Mercantilism. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantilism
• Feudalism. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feudalism
• Christopher Columbus. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus
• The MAAFA (enslavement of Africans) Timeline. URL: http://www.swagga.com/maafatimetable.htm
• The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. URL: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm?rd=1
Historical Dates.
• The Chronology of Ezra 7. Siegfried H. Horn, Ph.D. URL: www.thebibleproject.com
• Ptolemy's Canon of Kings URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canon_of_Kings
• URL: http://www.livius.org/cg-cm/chronology/canon.html
• Elephantine papyri URL: http://www.harvardhouse.com/prophetictech/new/index.htm
• Egyptian Kings (Pharaohs), Governors and Rulers. URL: http://www.touregypt.net/kings.htm
• Olympiad Dates. Jerome Chronicles (2005) pp.188-332
• Dum Diversas. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dum_Diversas