History Of The Empires In Bible Prophecy
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The History of Israel
This is a summary of the history of Israel and the descendants of Abraham. The dates that are used up to 722 BCE are a result of our own chronology.
|Assyria||Captivity of Israel and Samaria (Northern Tribes)|
|Babylon||Persia||Greece||Rome||Britain||State of Israel (1948)|
|(Mishkan)||Captivity of Judah (Southern Tribes)|
|13 High Priests
|18 High Priests (410 Years)
|300 High Priests (420 Years)
and Geon Yaacov
» Capital (1000 BCE). David captures Jerusalem.
» First Temple (950 BCE). Solomon builds it.
» Kingdom Divided (924 BCE). Capital of Judah.
» Babylon (586 BCE). Temple destroyed, exiled.
» Persia (539 BCE). Jews and temple treasures.
» Second Temple (515-492 BCE). Zerubabbel.
» Walls (445 BCE). Nehemiah rebuilds in 52 days.
Ptolemies and Seleucids fight over Jerusalem for 125 years after the death of Alexander in 323 BCE.
» Greeks (333 BCE). Alexander conquers.
» Ptolemy (323 BCE). Ptolemy takes Egypt.
» Ptolemy (320 BCE). Ptolemy I takes Jerusalem.
» Seleucid (198 BCE). Antiochus III takes over.
» (167 BCE). Antiochus IV religious persecution.
» Hasmonean Period (164 BCE). Maccabeans.
Independence. After 500 years the Jews rule Jerusalem and Judea for the next 80 years.
» Roman (63 BCE). Pompey captures Jerusalem.
» (40 BCE). The Persians (Parthians) help the Hasmonean king Antigonus to take Jerusalem back from the Romans.
» (37 BCE). Herod the Great is appointed by Rome.
» (26 AD). Herod rebuilds the temple.
» (70 AD). Titus destroys the temple.
» (135 AD). Hadrian exiles Jews from Jerusalem and renames it Aelia Capitolina.
» (614 AD). Persians take Jerusalem from Byzantines.
» (620 AD). Byzantine emperor Heraclius recaptures Jerusalem from Persians.
» Islamic Conquest (638 AD).
Islam spreads across the region and occupies Palestine (Judea).
» (692 AD). Dome of Rock is built by Caliph Abdel-Malik on the top of the ruins of the Jewish Temple.
» (1070 AD). Seljuk Turks conquer Fatimids.
» Crusades (1099-1291 AD). The Holy Roman empire orders crusades to liberate Jerusalem.
» Battle of Hattin (1187 AD). Saladin defeats the Crusaders. Jews settle in Jerusalem.
» (1229 AD). After the sixth crusade Muslims retained the Temple Mount and Christians have access to their holy sites.
» (1244 AD). Jerusalem is sacked by Turks.
» Mamluk Dynasty (1250 AD). Founded by a slave who murdered the sultan.
» Damascus Rules (1310 AD). Jewish Quarter.
» Spanish Inquisition (1492 AD). Spain defeats the Muslims and 200,000 Jews are expelled.
» Ottoman (1517-1917 AD). Mamluks defeated.
» (1831 AD). Egyptians conquer Jerusalem.
» (1840 AD). Ottoman Empire takes Jerusalem back and has to maintain Egyptian reforms.
» (1856 AD). The Crimean War.
» (1873 AD). Jerusalem becomes an independent province reporting to Jerusalem.
» (1882 AD). British conquer Egypt and establish themselves as a political power in the region.
» (1914 AD). World War 1. Turkey is with Germany.
» Balfour Declaration (1917 AD). British general Allenby captures Jerusalem.
» Arab Revolt (1936-39 AD).
» Two State Solution (1937 AD). Partition.
» One State Solution (1939 AD). Britain.
» (1947 AD). November 29. United Nations adopts two state solution.
» Modern Israel (1948 AD). May 14.
» Jerusalem Divided (1949). Israel and Jordan.
» Jerusalem United (1967). June 5. Six day war.
» Yom Kippur War (1973 AD). October 6.
» Jerusalem Capital. On 30 July 1980.
» Oslo Peace Accords (1993 AD). September 13. Israel and PLO on Palestinian statehood and future status of Jerusalem.
A Jewish Homeland
So the Jews have lived in the land since 1500 BC, occupying a region as far north as Lebanon and across the Jordan river over 40 miles within the border of Jordan down to the borders of Egypt in the south. A series of foreign occupation, attempts at genocide, exiles and expulsions have scattered them across the globe and their culture has survived assimilation despite the incredible odds against them. Throughout this they have always retained a presence in the land, until the were about one third of the population when the state of Israel was created.
On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram saying, "To your descendants I will give this land, from the river of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphrates." (Genesis 15: 18)
The descendants of Abram were Isaac and Ishmael and sons of another concubine, Keturah. Isaac fathered Jacob (Israel) and Esau. Abraham gave all the children except Isaac, the land to the east of Israel (Genesis 16: 12 and Genesis 25: 5-6). Ishmael and Esau live east of Israel as far as the Euphrates (Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, northern Saudi Arabia and southern Iraq).
Israel's inheritance was from the Mediterranean to east of the Jordan including the Arnon valley, the Arabah and mount Hermon, north in Lebanon as far as Sidon and south to the river of Egypt (Joshua 12-13).
Prophecy of Israel's Future
|Assyria is not mentioned in the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation because they were not a power who threatened or will threaten Israel when the prophecies were given.|
|Map of the Assyrian Empire|
|Assyrian Invasions of Israel|
|Year||King||Tribes Deported||Bible Text|
|740 BC||Tilgathpilneser III||Reuben, Gad, Manasseh (east), Naphtali||I Chronicles 5:26, |
II Kings 15:29
|725 BC||Shalmaneser V||Siege||II Kings 17: 3-6; 18: 11|
|722 BC||Sargon II||Samaria captured||Isaiah 20: 1|
|700 BC||Sennacherib||Invaded southern Israel and tried to conquer Judah||II Kings 18: 3-5; 19|
Nineveh was the capital of Assyria which was founded by Nimrod (Genesis 10: 8-12). It was located near the city of Mosul, Iraq on the east bank of the Tigris at the junction of the Khosr river which runs through the city. By 668 BC it surpassed Thebes as the largest city in the world. According to Jonah, it took three days to walk across the city (Jonah 3: 3). The walled city was 3 by 8 miles, but it had suburbs which extended 14 miles north and 20 miles south.
And they shall make a spoil of thy riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise: and they shall break down thy walls, and destroy thy pleasant houses: and they shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the midst of the water. (Ezekiel 26: 12)
Tyre was a rich Phoenician port city which angered God by the way they treated Israel (Joel 3: 4-6). So God prophesied their destruction in Ezekiel 26: 1-14.
|Kings of Assyria and Babylon|
|Shamshi Adad I||1810-1771||Middle |
|Ashur Uballit I||1379-1341|
|Adad Nirari I||1310-1281|
|Ashur Nirari II||909-889||Dynasty X|
(Assyria and Babylon)
|Tukulti Ninurta II||888-884|
|Ashur Nasirpal II||883-859|
|Shamshi Adad V||823-810|
|Adad Nirari III||791-782|
|Ashur Dan III||771-764|
|Tiglath Pilesar III (Pul)||745-727|
|Marduk-apal-iddina II |
| Sargon II the |
| Sennacherib |
| Esarhaddon |
| Ashurbanipal |
|Ashur Etil Llani||626-621|
|Ashur Uballit II||611-605|
|612 BC. Nineveh falls to Babylon|
|Chaldou||640-627||Dynasty XI |
| Amel-Marduk |
|Nabonidus and son |
|539 - Cyrus the Great of Persia captured Babylon
Mentioned in the Bible
The Rise of Ancient Babylon.
Babylon came to power by defeating the two superpowers of the day, Egypt and Assyria.
After this the other nations in the region submitted to Babylon.
The Battle of Carchemish (605 BC). On three separate occasions the Assyrian army was defeated and had to move their capital. In 612 BC Nineveh was defeated and the capital moved to Harran which was captured by Babylon in 610 BC and the Assyrians moved the capital city to Carchemish. When the Babylonians attacked in 606BC, Egypt marched to help their Assyrian allies. However, Pharaoh Necho (Neco) and the Egyptian army was delayed by King Josiah in the battle of Megiddo. It was not until 605 BC that the Egyptian army met the Babylonian army. Egypt was defeated and never became a dominant power again. Assyria ceased to exist.
The Battle of Meggido (608 BC). While on his way to battle the king of Babylon at Carchemish, Egyptian pharoah Neco was delayed by Josiah, King of Judah in 608 BC. Josiah was killed and his army was defeated and he was succeeded by his son Jehoahaz who ruled for three months until he was deposed by Neco and died in exile. Neco placed his brother Eliakim on the throne and renamed him Jehoiakim. He reigned for eleven years, paying tribute to Pharoah Neco until Babylon defeated Egypt in 605 BC and Israel came under Babylonian control.
The Defeat of Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar made three attacks against Jerusalem.
1. Daniel Exiled (605 BC). The first attack against Jerusalem was in 605 BC during the reign of King Jehoiakim, he seized a selected group of captives which included Daniel and his three friends. He also confiscated some of the sacred vessels of God's temple. He trained these captives for government service. In ancient times, is was customary for a conquering nation to capture princes from the conquered lands. The prince would be trained and educated and when the throne of the conquered nation became available, the captured prince who was now friendly towards his conquerors would be installed as king. This practice ensured peace between the nations, first because the king would not want to see his captured heir harmed and second, because they made the next generation their friend.
2. More Exiles (597 BC). The second attack was in 597 BC when King Jehoiakim rebelled and was killed. In this invasion, Nebuchadnezzar took even more captives than before from the upper class of Judah including the new king Jehoiachin. He was exiled to Babylon and his uncle Mattaniah, another son of Josiah, was made king and his name was changed to Zedekiah. Ezekiel the prophet went into captivity during this invasion. He also seized a much larger portion of the Temple's treasures.
3. The Destruction of Solomon's Temple (586 BC). Nebuchadnezzar came for the last time again because after ruling for nine years King Zedekiah was rebellious and leaning towards an alliance with Egypt. Determined that rebellion would never rise again, this time Nebuchadnezzar decided to destroy Judah. At the end of an extended siege, he leveled the city of Jerusalem and completely destroyed the temple.
|City of Babylon|
|Timeline of the Fall of Babylon|
|Winter||Nabonidus orders all cult statues of outlying cities to be brought to the capital|
|Winter||Cyrus captures Elam and Susa|
|September||Battle of Opis. Babylonians defeated|
|October 10||City of Sippar siezed without battle. Nabonidus fled to the capital, Babylon|
|Gubaru's troops enter Babylon and detained Nabonidus|
|October 29||Cyrus entered Babylon and arrested Nabonidus|
The Fall of Ancient Babylon.
In 539 BCE (540 BC), the kingdom of Babylon was invaded in one night when Cyrus dammed up the river Euphrates, this dried up the Euphrates river
and the soldiers entered the city under the walls and conquered the empire.
He placed Darius the Mede as the ruler.
» The Euphrates River. This river flowed north to south through the walled city of Babylon.
Prophecy of Babylon's Future
Babylon will be destroyed and never rebuilt. This prophecy of Isaiah written about 100 years before Babylon became a super power is remarkable.
. . . The day of the Lord is at hand; it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty . . . Look, I will stir up the Medes against them . . . And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldeans` pride, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. It shall never be inhabited . . . neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there, neither shall shepherds make their flocks to lie down there. But wild beasts of the deserts shall lie there. (Isaiah 13: 6, 17,19-20)
100 years after Isaiah's prophecy, Jeremiah writes the following when Babylon was about to attack Jerusalem.
Look, I will raise up against Babylon a destroying wind . . . Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed . . . Prepare against (Babylon) the nations, with the kings of the Medes . . . Babylon shall become heaps (ruins), a dwelling place for jackals, an astonishment and an hissing, without inhabitant . . . The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly overthrown, and her high gates shall be burned with fire . . . O Lord, You have spoken against this place to cut it off, that none shall dwell therein, neither man nor beast, but it shall be desolate for ever . . . (Jeremiah 51)
Great cities are rebuilt when they are destroyed. But not Babylon.
|The Fall of Babylon|
So Babylon's fate is to be uninhabited by neither man nor beast (except for wild beasts).
The fall of Babylon came in several stages over many centuries.
The soil became saturated with mineral salts, and a crust of alkali formed over the surface, making agricultural use impossible.
200 years later, Babylon was still a populous city, but by the third century AD, the historian Dio Cassius described a visitor to Babylon as finding
... nothing but mounds and stones and ruins. (LXVIII, 30).
Its people survive today in another location as part of Iraq.
Saddam Hussein. Saddam Hussein was busy with a grandiose and extravagant project to rebuild ancient Babylon, with his name engraved repeatedly in the bricks of its walls. He planned to remove the capital from Baghdad. His plans came to a halt when he ran out of money and became involved in the Iraqi War in 1990 with the United States helping Kuwait. The place was further destroyed when Polish soldiers made a base there in the 2003 war with the United States. During the war, depleted uranium has contaminated the site making it radioactive.
He was doomed to failure, like Napoleon, Hitler, Charlemagne and others who attempted to defy the prophecies of God by reviving kingdoms which were to remain destroyed.
See Map of the empire of Babylon. Map of the city of Babylon. Map of Iraq and the Holy Land.
|Kings of Persia (Achaemenid Dynasty)|
|1||Cyrus II the Great||559-530||Ezra 1: 1-4|
|2||Darius the Mede||539-536||None|
|Persian Rulers Only|
|2||Gaumata (false Smerdis)||522||None|
|3||Darius 1 (the great)||522-486||Ezra 6: 7-12|
|4||Xerxes 1 (Ahasuerus)||486-465||Esther|
|He warred against the Greeks|
|5||Artaxerxes 1 (Longimanus)||465-425||Ezra 7: 11-12 |
|Alexander the Great||330-323||Greek Empire|
|Cyrus left Darius the Mede in charge as governor|
|Achaemenes, Teispes, Cyrus 1 and Cambyses ruled before the conquest of Babylon|
» Death. Cyrus died around December 530 BC and was succeeded by his son Cambyses II, who immediately killed his brother Smerdis (Bardiya). He then went to the eastern front and captured Egypt just before he died in 522 BC. He was succeeded by an imposter, Gaumata, calling himself Smerdis. After only seven months he was killed by Darius the Great, the grandson of Arsames.
The Persian and Greek Wars.
Decrees to Rebuild Jerusalem. When the Jews left Babylon, it took three decrees before the city was finally rebuilt. The first two had little effect, but the final decree provided financial aid in the rebuilding.
Prophecy of the Future of Medo-Persia
Persia was to remain until the end of time. But it would never receive its former glory. The old nation of Persia now survives as Iran.
The Largest Army. Before the Greeks conquered Persia, Darius III assembled the largest army ever created to try and stop the progress of the Greeks (over 1,000,000 men from 40 different nations). He was still defeated by Alexander, who had no money and only 35,000 men, in the Battle of Arbela (also known as the battle of Gaugamela). Alexander was only 25 years old. The independent, warring Greek states allied themselves to fight for their freedom.
|Rulers of Greece|
|Philip II||359-334 BC||-||Macedonia||Argead|
|Alexander III the Great||334-323 BC||Liquor||Greece|
|Perdiccas||323-321 BC||Diadochi |
|Greece||Perdiccas was Regent, then Antipater|
|-||Arridaeus (Philip III)||323-317 BC||Greece|
|-||Alexander IV||323-310 BC||Greece|
|1||Ptolemy||323-30 BC||Octavian||Egypt, Palestine||Diadochi |
|2||Seleucus||312-63 BC||Pompey||Syria, Persia, Babylon|
|3||Lysimachus||323-281 BC||Seleucus||Thrace, Asia Minor|
|4||Antipater, Cassander||321-168 BC||Aemilius Paullus||Greece, Macedonia|
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great 356-323 BC is respected as the most powerful and brilliant of all military leaders. He had defeated much of the known world in 13 years by the age of 33.
Succeeded to the throne in 336 BC as king of Macedon on the death of his father Philip II. He was tutored by Aristotle. Alexander first conquered the Greek states and then, as head of the Greek army, continued east in 334 BC to conquer the rest of the world in 8 short years. The battles of Alexander included:
|Perdiccas||Regent by will||321 BC|
|Philip III Arrideus||Retarded half brother||317 BC|
|Alexander IV||Son (Now 13)||Poisoned (311 BC)|
|Heracles||Illegitimate son||Executed (309 BC)|
Alexander the Great Meets the High Priest
The Talmud relates that when Alexander the Great and his conquering legions advanced upon Jerusalem, they were met by a delegation of elders, led by the High Priest Shimon Ha Tzaddik (Simon the Righteous). When Alexander saw Shimon approaching, he dismounted and prostrated himself before the Jewish Sage. To his astonished men, Alexander explained that each time he went into battle, he would see a vision in the likeness of this High Priest leading the Greek troops to victory. In gratitude, and out of profound respect for the spiritual power of the Jews, Alexander was a kind and generous ruler. He canceled the Jewish taxes during Sabbatical years, and even offered animals to be sacrificed on his behalf in the Temple. Unfortunately, history would prove that Alexander's heirs failed to sustain his benevolence.
|Rulers of Greece (Diadochi)|
|Greece, Macedonia||Thrace, Asia Minor|
|Cassander (son of Antipater)||316-297|
|Antigonid||Demetrius I Poliorcetes||294-288|
|Seleucus 1 Nicantor||281-281||Seleucus 1 Nicantor||281|
|Antigonid||Ptolemy Ceraunus (Keraunos)||281-279||Battle of Curopedium / Curupedium. 281 BC. Lysimachus is killed by Seleucus 1 Nicantor|
|Antigonus II Gonatas||277-239|
|Demetrius II Aetolicus||239-229|
|Antigonus III Doson||229-221|
A Kingdom Divided
After his death in 323 BC, the empire was divided among his generals - the Diadochi (successors). They included Antipater, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, Perdiccas, Eumenes and Craterus.
» Battle of Ipsus (301 BC). These successors struggled for the empire until the battle of Ipsus in 301 BC when Antigonus was defeated by a coalition of four leaders. Antigonus I Monophthalmus was the ruler of Asia Minor with his son Demetrius I Poliorcetes. In 306, Antigonus declared himself king of the Greek empire so the coalition moved against him. Antigonus and his forces of 70,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 horses were defeated by Lysimachus, Ptolemy and Seleucus and their elephants. Lysimachus took Asia Minor and the former Greek empire was divided among them:
» Battle of Corupedion (281 BC). Finally, 20 years later, Lysimachus was defeated by Seleucus in the battle of Corupedion (281 BC) and gained the largest section of the old Persian empire in the north and east. Therefore the Greek kingdom was finally divided into two:
Although they were divided, the former Greek empire of diverse people were united by the Greek language and Greek civilization.
The Kingdoms of the North and South
|Rulers of the Greek Empire (Diadochi)|
|Egypt, Palestine||Syria, Babylon, Persia|
|King of the South||Year||King of the North||Year|
|Ptolemy 1 Soter||323-285||Laomedon||319-314|
|Seleucus 1 Nicator||312|
|Ptolemy II Philadelphus||282-246||Antiochus 1 Soter||280|
|Antiochus II Theos||261|
|Ptolemy III Euergetes||246-222||Seleucus II Callinicus||246|
|Ptolemy IV Philopator||222||Seleucus III Soter||226|
|Ptolemy V Epiphanes||205||Antiochus III, the Great||223|
|Cleopatra 1 Syra||180-178||Seleucus V Philopator||187|
|Ptolemy VI Philometor||180-146||Antiochus IV Epiphanes||175|
|Cleopatra II||170||Antiochus V Eupator||164|
|Demetrius 1 Soter||162|
|Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator||145-144||Antiochus VI||145|
|Demetrius II Nicator||146-139|
|Ptolemy VIII Physcon||145-116||Trypho||142|
|Cleopatra III||116-101||Antiochus VII Sidetes||138|
|Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyrus)||116-107|
|Antiochus VIII Grypus||125|
|Antiochus IX Cyzicenus||116|
|Ptolemy X Alexander||107-88||Antiochus X Eusebes||94|
|Ptolemy XI Alexander II||80||Demetrius III Eucerus||92-87|
|Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Auletes||80-58, |
|Philip 1 Philadelphus||92-83|
|Berenice IV||58-55||Tigranes II of Armenia||83-69|
|Cleopatra VII Thea |
|Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator||51-47||Antiochus XIII Asiaticus||88-64|
|Philip II Philoromaeus||66-53|
|Ptolemy XIV Theos Philopator II||47-44|
|Ptolemy XV Caesarion||44-30|
|Battle of Actium (31 BC). Augustus Caesar defeats Cleopatra and Mark Anthony||Pompey (63 BC). Conquered Judaea and Syria|
|Titles. Soter = Savior. Theos = God. Epiphanes = Manifest or illustrious.
Nicator = Conquerer. Callinicus = Victorious. Ceraunus = Thunderbolt.
|The Hasmonean Dynasty|
|Jerusalem Occupied (164 BC)|
|Jerusalem Liberated from Seleucids|
|John Hyrcanus 1||Son||134-104|
|Pompey Captures Jerusalem||63 BC|
|The House of Herod (67 BC-100 AD)|
|Herod 1 The Great||Son||37-4BC|
|Birth of Christ||4 BC|
|Herod 2 Antipas||Brother||4BC-39AD|
|Herod Agrippa 1||Nephew||39-44|
|Herod Agrippa 2||Son||50-100|
|Temple Destroyed||70 AD|
|People Exiled||136 AD|
For the Roman and the Jewish people: May things be well on sea and land forever! May sword and enmity keep far from them!
But if war is made on Rome first, or on any of its allies and their domains, the Jewish nation will be their wholehearted allies as the occasion requires ...
In the same way, if war is made on the Jewish people first, the Romans shall be their active allies as the occasion requires ..."
Septuagint, 1 Maccabees 8:1-27
|Rulers of Egypt|
|Amenemhet 1||1991-1962||12th (Hebrew Slaves)|
|Senusret 1 (Senwosret 1)||1956-1911|
|Second Intermediate||1783-1539||13-17 (Hyksos)|
|Ramesses I||1295-1294||19th (1295-1187)|
|Shoshenq I (Shishak)||945-924||22nd|
|Shepsesre Tefnakht I||725-720||24th|
|Psammetichus I |
|Nekau (Necho) II||610-595|
|Cambyses II||538-522||27th |
The 30th Dynasty was the last of the Egyptian born Pharaohs.
These kings affected Israel.
|Macedonian||332-323||Greco Roman Period (332 BC-395 AD)|
|Roman Emperors||30 BC - 324 AD|
|Abbasid ... Fatimid ... Ayubbide Mamlukes||634-1516||Islamic Period (750-1517)|
|Map of the Egyptian Empire|
Prophecy of the Future of Greece
Greece would exist until the end of time, but it would not be a significant empire anymore. The next empire would also accept the culture of Greece.
See Map of the Greek Empire.
See Map of four divisions of Greece after the death of Alexander
The Treasures of Egypt. The treasures, mummies and buildings of Egypt have been looted by Greece, Rome and France. These foreign invaders preyed on the pyramids and the structures at Heliopolis, the City of the Sun. Heliopolis is near the Cairo airport.
|The Obelisks of Egypt and Rome|
|1500 BC |
|Karnak||Constantius II Sixtus V||Lateran, Rome|
|?||Central Park, New York|
|1300 BC |
|Heliopolis||Augustus||Flaminian, Rome. |
Piazza del Popolo
|Heliopolis||Clement XI||Pantheon, Rome. Piazza della Rotonda|
|Heliopolis||?||Piazza de Termini|
Memorial to soliders killed at Dogali
|600 BC |
|Heliopolis||Augustus. Pius VI||Palazzo di Montecitorio|
|Apries||Sais||Alexander VII||Piazza di S. Maria Sopra Minerva|
|150 BC |
|10 AD |
|Alexandria||Caligula||St. Peter, Vatican|
|Mausoleum of Augustus||Sextus V||Esquiline, Rome|
|Pius VI||Quirinal, Rome|
|90 AD Domitian||Campus Martius||Innocent X||Piazza Navona, Rome|
|120 AD Hadrian||-||?||Sallust, Rome|
|Porta Maggiore||Hadrian||Piazzale del Pinico|
Memorial to Antinous
After Augustus defeated Cleopatra in 30 BC, he took the obelisks of Ramses II and Psammetichus II.
Over the next 300 years Roman emperors moved about 13 obelisks from Egypt to Rome and merged the gods of Egypt with the gods of Rome, just as they had taken the gods of Greece.
In adopting the Egyptian culture they also took their titles and started the dynasty of the Ptolemies.
» Isaeum-Serapeum Campense. The Obelisk of Domitian was built to honor the Egyptian gods Isis and Serapis and placed in a large complex of temples dedicated to these Egyptian gods. This complex was located in an area between the Pantheon and the Via Flaminia and was filled with small obelisks from Egypt.
Most obelisks were broken into pieces in the sixteenth century until they were rescued by Pope Sixtus V, repaired, embelished with Christian symbols and moved to the center of a piazza or in front of a basilica.
Monuments to the gods of Egypt, Greece and Rome now became Christian monuments.
Prophecy of Egypt's Future
The former empire of Egypt was now the southern Greek empire. Egypt was the first great super power mentioned by the Bible. They enslaved Israel for 430 years after which God made an example of them by staging the most spectacular rescue of a people under the leadership of Moses during the exodus.
Thus says the Lord God: at the end of forty years will I gather the Egyptians from the peoples whither they were scattered . . . and will cause them to return to the land of Pathros [in upper Egypt, the original seat of Egyptian power], into the land of their birth; and they shall be there a base kingdom (RSV, a lowly kingdom). It shall be the basest of the kingdoms; neither shall it exalt itself any more above the nations: and I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the nations . . . Thus says the Lord God: I will also destroy the idols and will cause the images to cease out of Noph (Memphis); and there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt ... (Ezekiel 29:13-15; 30:13).
Egypt as a kingdom was not to be destroyed. It was to survive, but with greatly reduced power - "a lowly kingdom", never presuming to exert power over the surrounding nations any more. It would also cease to have a monarchy. This probably was fulfilled when the Egyptians were removed from the throne and replaced by the Greeks with the Ptolemaic dynasty. Their dynasty would fall in the battle of Actium in 31 BC. It has remained a lowly kingdom for over 2500 years. It will never regain its former glory.
Rome - Pagan
In 197 BC when Carthage was no longer a rival, Rome defeated Macedonia and set up the Greek states under her own protection. Rome was dominant in the West and she was now pointing towards the nations of the east and the old Greek empire.
Conquering the three remaining divisions of the old Greek empire was a process. By 168 BC, only one was conquered but the other two could not make a move.
By 30 BC, all three were formally conquered.
Rome was cruel. Sometimes whole cities were destroyed. Corinth was destroyed in 146 BC. People who were not destroyed or subjugated were used as slaves or sold into slavery.
Some of the Roman territory was obtained peacefully by inheritance. In 74 BC Nicomedes III gave his entire kingdom of Bithynia to Rome on his deathbed. King Attalus III left his kingdom of Pergamum to the Roman Empire in his will (133 BC) and it became the province of Asia in 129 BC.
|Roman Conquest of Greece|
|168 BC||Macedonia||Aemilius Paulus|
|168 BC||Epirus||Anicius Gallus|
|133 BC||Pergamon||Attalus III wills the kingdom to Rome|
|Roman Persecutions (67-313 AD)|
Roman Governors and Other Rulers.
One third of the Roman citizens were slaves.
The Kings and Priests of Israel During the Time of Jesus Christ
Born in Bethlehem, Judea about 4 BC while the Jews were under Roman occupation. He was born around the time Augustus Ceasar issued taxes and baptized in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar 29 AD. These are the rulers of Palestine at the time of Christ.
|Julius Caesar||27 BC||Augustus Caesar||13 AD||Augustus and Tiberius||14 AD||Tiberius Caesar||37 AD||Caligula||41 AD||Claudius|
|37 BC||Herod |
|1 BC||Herod |
|39 AD||Herod |
|44 AD||Herod |
|The Disciples Ministered|
|The High Priests|
|Roman Emperors||The House of Herod|
| Julius Caesar |
|Herod Antipater II (67-43 BC)|
|Augustus (Octavian) (27BC - 14AD)||Herod 1 the Great (39-4 BC)|
(4 BC-37 AD)
|Herod 2 Antipas |
(4 BC-39 AD)
|Annius Rufus (12-15)|
|Valerius Gratus (15-26)|
|Pontius Pilate (26-36)|
|Marcellus (Marulus) (37)|
|Herennius Capito (37-41)|
|Herod Agrippa 1 (37-44)|
|Claudius (41-54)||Cuspius Fadus (44-46)|
|Tiberius Alexander (46-48)|
|Ventidius Cumanus (48-52)|
|Antonius Felix (52-60)||Herod Agrippa II |
|Porcius Festus (60-62)|
|Clodius Albinus (62-64)|
|Gessius Florus (64-66)|
| Titus besieged Jerusalem. |
Temple Falls (70 AD)
First Jewish Revolt (66-73)
|Mount Vesuvius Eruption (24 August 79) |
Fire burns Rome for 3 days and nights (80 AD)
Plague erupted during the fire in 80 AD
|Hadrian (117-138)||Bar Kochba Jewish Revolt (132-135) |
Jews Exiled From Jerusalem (136 AD)
|Roman Procurators: Procurators of Judaea (6-41). Procurators of Palestine (44-66)|
Reign of Herod. At this time it was that the fight happened at Actium, between Octavius Caesar and Anthony in the seventh year of the reign of Herod; and then it was also that there was an earthquake in Judea, such a one as had not happened at any other time ... Page 320, Book XV, Chapter V, Section 2.The battle of Actium was September 2, 31 BC, so Herod's first year must have been 37 BC.
|Kings of Judah and Israel|
|985||Rehoboam (17)||985||Jeroboam (22)|
|967||Abijam (Abijah) (3)||967|
|964||Asa (41)||962||Nadab (2)|
|938||938||Zimri (7 days)|
|938||938||Omri (6) (Tibni/Omri)|
|922||Jehoshaphat (25)||905||Ahaziah (2)|
|896||Jehoram (Joram) (8)||902||Jehoram (12)|
|888||Ahaziah (1)||890||Jehu (28)|
|887||Athaliah (6)||862||Jehoahaz (17)|
|881||Joash (Jehoash) (40)||845||Jehoash (16)|
|840||Amaziah (29)||829||Jeroboam (41)|
|811||Uzziah (Azariah) (52)||-|
|Zachariah (6 month) |
Shallum (1 month)
|742||Ahaz (16)||759||Pekah (20)|
|727||Hezekiah (29)||739||Hoshea (9)|
|697||Manasseh (55)||722||Shalmaneser V |
|640||Josiah (31)||Egyptian (Pharaoh Neco) |
|609||Jehoahaz (Shallum) (3 months)|
|608||Jehoiakin (Eliakim) (11)||Nebuchadnezzar |
|597||Jehoiachin (3 months)|
|597||Zedekiah (Mattaniah) (11)|
Death of Herod. ... When he had done those things, he died, the fifth day after he had caused Antipater to be slain; having reigned, since he procured Antigonus to be slain, thirty-four years; but since he had been declared king by the Romans, thirty-seven. Book XVII, Chapter VIII, Section 1.
"did neither rebuke them, nor reject their impious flattery. A severe pain arose in his belly, and began in a most violent manner. And when he was quite worn out by the pain in his belly for five days, he departed this life in the fifty-fourth year of his age, and seventh of his reign."On an appointed day Herod, having put on his royal apparel, took his seat on the rostrum and began delivering an address to them. The people kept crying out "the voice of a god and not of a man!" And immediately an angel of the Lord struck him because he did not give God the glory, and he was eaten by worms and died. (Acts 12: 21-23)
The High Priests
High priests were appointed for life by law as the scriptures suggest (Numbers 35: 25, 28). However, in this corrupt era the office of high priest was bought and sold and the priest could easily be deposed by the Roman leaders. Therefore, several men who had served as high priests could coexist as Luke reported (Luke 3: 2). Therefore, at the time of the crucifixion the gospel described two men as high priests, Annas and his son-in-law Caiaphas (John 18: 13). Annas was a Saducee who had five sons, a son-in-law and a grandson as high priest. Josephus comments in the (Jewish Antiquities XX, 9.1):
|Sanhedrin||The High Priests||Year|
|?||Ananelus Appointed by Herod the Great||37-36 BC|
|Aristobulus III||36 BC|
|Joshua ben Fabus||30-23 BC|
|Hillel the Elder |
|Simon ben Boethus||22-5 BC|
|Mattathias ben Theophilus||5-4 BC|
|Joazar ben Boethus||4 BC|
|Eleazar ben Boethus Appointed by Herod Archelaus||4-1 BC|
|Joshua ben Sie||3 BC-6AD|
|Annas (Ananus ben Seth) Appointed by Quirinius, the imperial governor of Syria||6-15|
|Ishmael ben Fabus Appointed by Valerius Gratus||15-16|
|Shimon haNasi||Eleazar ben Ananus||16-17|
|Simon ben Camithus||17-18|
|Gamliel 1||Jonathan ben Ananus Appointed by Vitellius||36-37|
|Theophilus ben Ananus||37-41, 44|
|Simon Kantheras ben Boethus Appointed by Herod Agrippa 1||41-43|
|Matthias ben Ananus||43-44|
|Elionaius (Aljoneus) son of Kantheras||43-44|
|Josephus ben Camydus (Kami) Appointed by Herod of Chalcis||44-46|
|Ananias ben Nebedeus||46-52|
|Ishmael ben Fabus (Phiabi) Appointed by Herod Agrippa II||56-62|
|Joseph Cabi ben Simon||62-63|
|Ananus ben Ananus||63|
|Joshua ben Damneus||63|
|Joshua ben Gamaliel||63-64|
|Mattathias ben Theophilus||65-66|
|Shimon ben Gamliel||Phinnias, son of Samuel Appointed by The People||67-70|
|Temple Destroyed||70 AD|
|Relatives of Annas (Annanius). ("ben" means "son of")
Son Grandson Son-in-Law
|Josephus Flavius (Joseph ben Matthias), the Jewish historian, was born around 37-39 AD. He was the son of Matthias ben Theophilus, the grandson of Annas.|
It is said that the elder Ananus was extremely fortunate. For he'd five sons, all of whom, after he himself had previously enjoyed the office for a very long period, became high priests of God - a thing that had never happened to any other of our high priests.
The Romans conducted ten formal persecutions against the Christians and Jews, starting with Nero. When half of Rome was burned in a fire in 64 AD, Nero accused the Christians of starting it and began the first Roman persecution.
The Destruction Of The Temple
After the death of Nero, the seventeen year old son of Herod Agrippa was considered too young to ascend the throne, so Jerusalem fell under direct Roman rulers. This caused animosity and civil war and eventually a riot which killed 20,000 Jews.
Trouble broke out in Caesarea between the Jews and the Greeks (who tried to insult the Jews). This led to a siege of the Roman garrison Antonia and the assault on Masada.
The trouble intensified when two massacres occurred on the same day. The Jews in Jerusalem killed some Roman soldiers and the Greeks massacred 20,000 Jews in Caesarea. This caused all Jews to resort to retaliation and armed conflict. Many Roman soldiers were killed as they tried to maintain order. Judea was now in rebellion against Rome.
Meanwhile, in Jerusalem and other cities, the country was plagued by civil wars against violent zealots who murdered and openly robbed homes and tried to maintain hostilities. The Romans offered no help because they hated the Jews. A leader of the Zealots, Phanias (Phinnias), managed to remove the high priest and set himself up in that office, increasing the civil war and causing the death of 85,000 people.
Nero died around this time and was succeeded by Vespasian who waited a year hoping that the Jews in Jerusalem would weary themselves with their internal struggles while he subdued rebellion in smaller cities. He then sent Titus to subdue Jerusalem.
Cestius. In 66 AD, before the final siege, Cestius came against the city and withdrew for some unknown reason. Some sources say that he was defeated by the Jews on August 8. Many Christians took that as a sign to flee the city.
Titus. Then the army returned with Titus in 70 AD to besiege the city for 143 days. He would become the next emperor from 79-81. His reign was filled with tragedy and national disasters which caused people to speculate that his reign was cursed because he destroyed the temple in Jerusalem.
The Siege and Fall of Jerusalem.
|Map of Jerusalem|
|Map of Ancient Israel||Map of Modern Israel|
Signs of Doom. "Thus there was a star resembling a sword, which stood over the city, and a comet, that continued a whole year. Thus also before the Jews' rebellion, and before those commotions which preceded the war, when the people were come in great crowds to the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan], and at the ninth hour of the night, so great a light shone round the altar and the holy house, that it appeared to be bright day time; which lasted for half an hour. This light seemed to be a good sign to the unskillful, but was so interpreted by the sacred scribes, as to portend those events that followed immediately upon it.
Flavius Josephus, War of the Jews, Book VI, Chapter V, Sn 3
The Fall of Jerusalem. Now, as Titus was on his march he chose out 600 select horsemen, and went to take a view of the city, when suddenly an immense multitude burst forth from the gate over against the monuments of Queen Helena and intercepted him and a few others. He had on neither helmet nor breastplate, yet though many darts were hurled at him, all missed him, as if by some purpose of Providence and, charging through the midst of his foes, he escaped unhurt. Part of the army now advanced to Scopos, within a mile of the city, while another occupied a station at the foot of the Mount of Olives.
» Warring Factions Unite. Seeing this gathering of the Roman forces, the factions within Jerusalem for the first time felt the necessity for concord, as Eleazar from the summit of the Temple, John from the porticoes of the outer court, and Simon from the heights of Sion watched the Roman camps forming thus so near the walls. Making terms with each other, they agreed to make an attack at the same moment. Their followers, rushing suddenly forth along the valley of Jehoshaphat, fell on the 10th legion, encamped at the foot of the Mount of Olives, and working there unarmed at the entrenchments. The soldiers fell back, many being killed. Witnessing their peril, Titus, with picked troops, fell on the flank of the Jews and drove them into the city with great loss.
The Roman commander now carefully pushed forward his approaches, and the army took up a position all along the northern and the western walls, the footmen being drawn up in seven lines, with the horsemen in three lines behind, and the archers between.
Jerusalem was fortified by three walls. These were not one within the other, for each defended one of the quarters into which the city was divided. The first, or outermost, encompassed Bezetha, the next protected the citadel of the Antonia and the northern front of the Temple, and the third, or old, and innermost wall was that of Sion. Many towers, 35 feet high and 35 feet broad, each surmounted with lofty chambers and with great tanks for rain water, guarded the whole circuit of the walls, 90 being in the first wall, 14 in the second, and 60 in the third. The whole circuit of the city was about 33 stadia (four miles). From their penthouses of wicker the Romans, with great toil day and night, discharged arrows and stones, which slew many of the citizens.
At three different places the battering rams began their thundering work, and at length a corner tower came down, yet the walls stood firm, for there was no breach. Suddenly the besieged sallied forth and set fire to the engines. Titus came up with his horsemen and slew twelve Jews with his own hands.
» First Wall Falls. The Jews now retreated to the second wall, abandoning the defense of Bezetha, which the Romans entered. Titus instantly ordered the second wall to be attacked, and for five days the conflict raged more fiercely than ever. The Jews were entirely reckless of their own lives, sacrificing themselves readily if they could kill their foes. On the fifth day they retreated from the second wall, and Titus entered that part of the lower city which was within it with 1,000 picked men.
But, being desirous of winning the people, he ordered that no houses should be set on fire and no massacres should be committed. The seditious, however, slew everyone who spoke of peace, and furiously assailed the Romans. Some fought from the walls, others from the houses, and such confusion prevailed that the Romans retired; then the Jews, elated, manned the breach, making a wall of their own bodies.
Thus the fight continued for three days, till Titus a second time entered the wall. He threw down all the northern part and strongly garrisoned the towers of the south. The strong heights of Sion, the citadel of the Antonia, and the fortified temple still held out. Titus, eager to save so magnificent a place, resolved to refrain for a few days from the attack, in order that the minds of the besieged might be affected by their woes, and that the slow results of famine might operate. He reviewed his army in full armor, and they received their pay in view of the city, the battlements being thronged by spectators during this splendid defiling, who looked on in terror and dismay.
Famine and Mass Crucifixions. The famine increased, and the misery of the weaker was aggravated by seeing the stronger obtaining food. All natural affection was extinguished, husbands and wives, parents and children snatching the last morsel from each other. Many wretched men were caught by the Romans prowling in the ravines by night to pick up food and these were scourged, tortured and crucified. This was done to terrify the rest, and it went on till there was not wood enough for crosses.
Sanhedrin Massacred. Terrible crimes were committed in the city. Matthias, the aged high priest who was deposed in 66 AD, was accused of holding communication with the enemy. Three of his sons were killed in his presence, and he was executed in sight of the Romans, together with sixteen other members of the sanhedrin.
Cannibalism. The famine grew so woeful that a woman devoured the body of her own child. At length, after fierce fighting, the Antonia was scaled, and Titus ordered its demolition.
Destruction of the Temple, August 10. Titus now promised that the temple should be spared if the defenders would come forth and fight in any other place, but John and the Zealots refused to surrender it. For several days the outer cloisters and outer court were attacked with rams, but the immense and compact stones resisted the blows. As many soldiers were slain in seeking to storm the cloisters, Titus ordered the gates to be set on fire. Through that night and the next day the flames raged through the cloisters. Then, in order to save the temple itself, he ordered the fire to be quenched.
» Fire In The Temple. On the tenth of August, the same day of the year on which Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the temple built by Solomon, the cry was heard that the temple was on fire. The Jews, with cries of grief and rage, grasped their swords and rushed to take revenge on their enemies or perish in the ruins.
The slaughter was continued while the fire raged. Soon no part was left but a small portion of the outer cloisters, where 6,000 people had taken refuge, led by a false prophet who had there promised that God would deliver His people in His Temple. The soldiers set the building on fire and all perished. Titus next spent eighteen days in preparations for the attack on the upper city, which was then speedily captured. By this time the Romans did not want to show any mercy. It was night that put an end to the carnage. During the whole of this siege of Jerusalem, 1,100,000 were slain, and 97,000 taken as prisoners.
In 71 AD, the Romans cut down every tree and salted the land in Israel to punish the Jews. In 73 AD, 900 Jews were killed at the fortress Masada.
The Bar Kochba Revolt (132-135)
A second Jewish revolt occurred during the years 132 to 135 AD and was led by Bar Kochba (Kokaba, Cocheba). He was originally named Shimon bar Kosiba and it was changed to Kochba "son of the star" in fulfillment of the prophecy by Balaam (Numbers 24: 17) about a star out of Jacob. He proclaimed himself to be the Messiah and it was quickly affirmed by Rabbi Akiva. Christianity was still largely seen as a sect of Judaism at this time. These events would cause a rift between Christianity and its roots.
Jewish Christians had to choose between Christ or Bar Kochba as the Messiah. If they chose Bar Kochba they would have to support the revolt. They chose not to support the revolt and were seen as traitors. It caused permanent hostilities between the Jewish and Christian communities.
» Emperor Hadrian. The culture of the Roman empire was full of incest, homosexuals and pedophiles. This was the practice adopted from the Greeks where young boys were expected to take an older male lover until they got married. When the Greeks took over the Egyptian dynasty, this practice of incest, homosexuality, adultery and pedophelia continued among the Ptolemaic dynasty. Herod adopted these customs and came under the condemnation of John the Baptist.
Emperor Hadrian's favorite was a twelve year old Greek youth named Antinous. He toured the eastern empire between 129-130 with a homosexual entourage and began the process unifying religons.
Rebuilding the Temple
The Bar Kokaba revolt happened because emperor Hadrian supported a plan to rebuild the temple and dedicate it to the Pagan God Jupiter. The Jews revolted.
Emperor Constantine also tried to rebuild between 313-324 it but was unsuccessful. He built Christian churches instead. Finally, in 363 emperor Julian tried to rebuild it. For this project, the Jews had to remove the remaining foundation stones. Now, there were no stones left of the original temple. Only parts of a wall that surrounded the complex remained. This still exists as the wailing wall. After the demolition, and before, the rebuilding could begin a series of natural disasters and unusual events prevented the efforts. An earthquake, followed by many explosions and balls of fire from the ground stopped the project.
Finally, the Muslims built the Dome of the Rock mosque in 691 and the Al-Aksa mosque in 715 on the temple mount. The political tensions prevent the destruction of the mosqe and the rebuilding of the temple.
Europe: The Division and Decline of Pagan Rome
|Tribe||Leader||Location and History|
|Gained control of the empire for the Papacy|
|8||Heruli||Odoacer||Germanic tribe from Sweden. Assimilated|
|Moved to North Africa, controlled western Mediterranean then disappeared in 534 after they were overthrown by the Romans|
|Conquered by the Romans|
|Map of the Divided Roman Empire|
|Tribe||Origin||Location and History|
|A||Bastarnae||German||Disappeared by the second century|
|Marcomanni||German||Disappeared after the fourth century|
|From the North Carpathian. Settled in the peninsula|
|Costoboci||Slav||Disappeared by 3 AD|
|Carpi||Slav||Disappeared by 273|
|Bulgars||Turks, Huns||Emerged in seventh century|
|Huns||Atilla (Asiatic)||Disappeared by the fifth century|
|Roxolani||Iranian||Disappeared by 68 AD|
|Sarmatians||Iranian||Defeated by the Goths and Huns in the third and fourth centuries|
|Central Asia, Iranian||800BC-600BC-300 AD|
|Umman-Manda (Scythians) drove the Cimmerians out of Europe to the region above the Black Sea|
|The region above the Black Sea|
|B||Goths||German||Moved to Italy by 488|
|Adopted Christianity in the fourth century. Split into the Visigoths and Ostrogoths and moved to Italy|
|C||Basques||Unknown||From northern Spain|
|D||Quadi||German||Disappeared with the Vandals|
|E||Gepidae||German||Disappeared by 567|
|Defeated by the Huns and Avars|
|Cumans||Turkish||Appeared around the twelfth century and later assimilated into the population|
|Tartars||Turkish||Bulgaria and Romania|
|Appeared around the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in the region of Bulgaria and Romania|
|Pechenegs||Turkish||Volga and Ural rivers|
|Emerged 8-9th century. |
Assimilated by the twelfth century
|Settled in the Ukraine by the sixth century. Defeated by the Franks in 827|
|Disappeared by the fifth century and settled in the northern Persian region. They had migrated to western Rome by 451|
|Berber||Unknown||From North Africa. Not part of the empire.|
|Celts (Gauls)||Indo-European||Conquered by 52 BC, assimilated by the native populations|
|Celts||Indo-Aryan||Future British empire|
|(Celts, Irish, Scots, Picts, Britons, Jutes) Part of the future British empire. Not part of the Roman empire|
Other Barbarians. There were other tribes who appeared before or after this period. Some were absorbed into the ten dominant tribes while others were destroyed. These are the reasons why these are not considered part of the final ten powers of the western Roman empire.
Byzantine (Eastern Rome). During this time, Rome decided to abandon Italy and to abolish imperial succession in Rome.
Rome Removed Political Structure. They also dismantled the rest of the roman political structure:
The Turkic Migration.
The Turks migrated from Central Asia into Europe and the Middle East between the sixth and twelfth centuries.
Turks also founded states between Mongolia and Transoxiana and were converted to Islam.
A great migration of Oghuz Turks (Turkomen) in the eleventh and twelfth centuries came into Asia Minor (Anatolia).
While eastern Rome eventually fell under the invading Turks and the religion of Islam, the papacy controlled western Rome.
The Rise of Papal Rome
Under the old Roman empire, the popes had no powers, but when the empire had disintegrated, the church became independent of the states and dominated religious and secular affairs.
In its rise to power in Rome, several important events happened.
The Holy Roman Empire.
With the empire divided into two and the Bishop of Rome the head of the western empire,
the church quickly established itself as the power behind all powers.
They approved, coronated, threatened and punished kings.
They had the power to ask governments to use their armies to execute the desires of the church.
The Visigoths converted to Orthodoxy/Catholicism in 589, but were later destroyed by the Muslims. After some fluctuations in their power, and periods of division, the Franks eventually, but briefly, created a vast empire, which was considered to be the continuation of the Western Roman Empire, comprising most of the then civilized lands of Central and Western Europe (with the exception of a large part of the Iberian peninsula, now belonging to the Muslims).
In the year 800, the Frankish King Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by the Pope, thus becoming a successor to the Roman Emperors of the past, only now it was felt that such a title could only be granted by the Church. Historians traditionally regard this event as the birth of the Holy Roman Empire Under the auspices of the Catholic Franks, the Papal States were created in central Italy, comprising Rome and the areas around her. The Frankish Empire was divided into a French and a German half a few decades after its formation. The Papal States would survive until 1871. In November 1793, all Christian churches in Paris, the center of the Revolution, closed down, and the Christian religion was officially banned.
During its reign, the states were separate powers often times at war with each other. But the church was a unifying force in that it installed and dethroned kings and could call the states at anytime to use its military power to enforce church laws and policy.
The Church under the Papacy
The reign of the papacy was marked by these events:
The Decline of Papal Rome
The political and religious decline of the church came in several stages, the most influential was the Reformation.
The church used many tactics to combat the rising tide of independence. They began with force.
Spain and the Inquisition
The nation of Spain is discussed because of the Spanish Inquisition. In 1478 Pope Sixtus IV issued a papal bull for the creation of the Spanish Inquisition, at the request of the Spanish rulers Ferdinand and Isabella. They used this system to unify the nation of Spain which was divided into various groups after Spain was retaken by the Christians in the Crusades.
The king and queen chose Catholicism to unite the nation. They drove out Jews, Muslims and other nonbelievers. In 1483, Tomas de Torquemada became the inquisitor general for most of Spain. He was responsible for establishing the rules of inquisitorial procedure and creating branches of the Inquisition in various cities.
The Spanish Inquisition was officially abolished in 1834.
One of the tasks assigned to the Jesuits at the Council of Trent was to fight the reformation by inquisition, torture and theology.
The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534 and was officially approved by Pope Paul III in 1540. Loyola was a devotee of the virgin Mary whom he credited with giving him the spiritual exercises that is practiced among the group. They are bound by a vow of obedience to the pope and are governed by a general in Rome who is elected for life. This general is sometimes referred to as the "Black Pope". In this case "black" means hidden or evil activities. He is thought to be the most powerful in the Roman Catholic Church.
Their work mainly centered on foreign missions, education and working with outsiders. As such they became spiritual advisors to kings and taught the sons of leading families. These activities (education and political influence) are two of their primary means of promoting Catholicism.
The Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648)
The Protestant Reformation (1517) and the printing of the Bible in the common language brought religious chaos to Europe. It eventually helped to start the Thirty Years war which was basically a war of religion involving several nations. It eventually became a political war as other Catholic countries (France) became fearful of the growing Spanish power.
The Spanish Hapsburgs joined the Austrians to form the Catholic League. They would be at war with several nations for the next thirty years.
The French Revolution
The final demise of the church came during the French Revolution. By 1789, the French treasury was bankrupt. The problem precipitated a political upheaval that eventually affected the whole world.
France was politically and socially divided between three groups. The clergy (First Estate), the nobles (Second Estate), and the common people (Third Estate). The Estates-General met from 5 May-June 1789 for the first time since 1614, to discuss their financial problems caused by debts incurred for Americans who were fighting their old enemies - the British.
The discontent with the French government was due to the financial crisis, disaffection with the privileged clergy and nobility fuelled the rebellion of the underprivileged classes against feudal oppression. Louis XVI convened the States-general at Versailles on May 5, 1789, for the first time since 1614 to deal with the financial problems. This forum was used by some deputies to press for sweeping political and social reforms that far exceeded the assembly's powers.
|French Revolution Timeline|
|1787||February 22||Assembly of Notables installed by the king|
|-||The Assembly revives the estates-general|
|1789||July 14||Storming of the Bastille. Revolution began|
|August 14||Nationalization of Church property|
|August 26||Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen|
|1791||-||Academy of scientists asked to rationalize weights and measurements|
|1792||August 10||Monarchy overthrown|
|September 2-7||September Massacres. 1500 prisoners killed|
|Republic: (21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795)|
|September 21||The "Convention" abolishes monarchy, sets up republic|
|September 28||Danton declares that the revolution is a revolution against all kings|
|November 19||The Convention declares its willingness to help all subjected peoples to achieve their liberty|
|December 26||King Louis XVI was brought to trial|
|1793||January 15||Louis XVI condemned by 351 out of 700|
|January 21||Louis XVI executed on the guillotine|
|February||War declared on Britain and Holland (February 1). Spain (March 7)|
|March 10||Revolutionary Tribunal to judge "enemies of the republic"|
|April 6||Committee of Public Safety, the official terror organization of the state|
|July 13||Charlotte Corday stabbed Jean-Paul Marat|
|September 5||Reign of Terror begins|
|October 5||New Republican calendar with new time (year, month, week, hours) retroactive to 22 September 1792|
|October 16||Queen Marie Antoinette guillotined|
|November 10||The Festival of Reason in Notre Dame|
|Religion Banned for about 3.5 Years|
|November 22||Roman Catholicism banned and churches closed. Bibles burned|
|1794||February 5||The Great Terror. Mass executions. 250,000 killed. Some sources say 500,000 to a million|
|June 8||The Festival of the Supreme Being worshipping Bacchus and nature. Robespierre starts the cult of the supreme being and is called "the prophet of the new dawn" and the "Messiah who would renew the earth". This festival resembles Mardi Gras|
|June 10||Law of 22 Prairial. Great Terror|
|June 27-28||Robespierre is accused, condemned and executed after a failed suicide attempt|
|July 28||Reign of Terror ends|
|September 18||State no longer pays expenses and salaries of the church|
|1795||April 1||Food shortages and riots|
|February 21||Freedom of worship and separation of church and state is official|
|May 20-23||Bread riots and white terror in Paris|
|Directory: (27 October 1795 to 10 November 1799)|
|November 3||The Directory begins, 1795-1799|
|1796||April 11||Italy invaded|
|1797||April 18||Electors turn against the Directory|
|Religion Returns after 3.5 Years|
|August 24||Repeal of laws against the clergy|
|1798||The Fall of the Papacy and The Fall of Egypt|
|February 10||France captures Rome and declared a republic|
|February 15||Pope flees|
|February 20||Pope imprisoned and taken to Siena then to Florence|
|April 3||Mandatory 10 day week|
|July 1||French land in Egypt|
|July 21||French victory of the Pyramids against the Mamelukes|
|August 1||Battle of the Nile. Admiral Nelson defeats the French fleet at Aboukir Bay|
|1799||April 16||Napoleon, with 600 men reinforcing 1500 soldiers of general Kleber, defeats 25,000 Turks at the Battle of Mt. Tabor on the plains of Megiddo|
|August 22||Napoleon deserts his army|
|August 29||Pope Pius VI dies in Valence, France|
|October 9||Napoleon returns secretly to France|
|Consulate: (November 1799 to ?)|
|November 9-10||Coup d'etat. Napoleon overthrows directory|
|December 12||Napoleon becomes first consul|
|1800||July 26||Free to worship on any day|
|1801||July 15||Concordat signed with the Papacy|
|1803||April 30 - December 20||Louisiana Purchase. France sells 530 million acres to the USA for $15 million|
|1804||-||Napoleon crowned himself emperor, taking title from the pope|
|1805||September 9||Sunday was the official rest day|
|1806||January 1||France returns to Gregorian calendar|
|1812||June-December||Invaded Russia with 600,000 men. Retreated in winter with less then 100,000 survivors|
|1814||January 11||British hire Rothschilds to finance the war with war bonds|
|1814||April 11||Forced to abdicate, exiled to Elba. Escaped|
|1815||June 12-18||Napoleon defeated at Waterloo|
|1815||June 22||Surrenders. Exiled to St. Helena. Died at age 51|
"... virtue without which terror is evil, terror without which virtue is powerless"
Robespierre was executed after a coup d'etat of 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794), and the Directory came into existence under the new constitution of 1795.
Their reign was plagued with corruption and was finally ended by Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire and the establishment of the Consulate.
Thus ended the French Revolutionary Wars, the beginning of the Napoleonic empire (1804) and the Napoleonic wars in which the French tried to spread their revolutionary ideas and liberalism and communism across Europe.
Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo and exiled.
The Death Of God In France. During the revolution, the people revolted against the Catholic church and the monarchy. The people had been tortured and repressed for so long, that when they revolted they rejected all of Christianity and the word of God.
For 3 and ½ years beginning November 24, 1793 to April 1797 religion was banned and a substitute put in place. They even changed the calendar to show their new found love for natural law and hatred of Sunday.
Beginning with that period (November 24, 1793 or 3rd Frimaire in Year II), the churches of Paris were closed and the public reading of the Bible forbidden. Immediately, almost all parts of the town renounced religion, closed parish churches and reopened them as temples of reason. In these temples, a prostitute, Désirée Candéille, was installed as the Goddess of Reason after she paraded naked through the streets of Paris.
The goddess, after being embraced by the president, was mounted on a magnificent car, and conducted, amid an immense crowd, to the cathedral Notre Dame, to take the place of Deity. There she was elevated on a high altar, and received the adoration of all present.
At the end of the period, the churches of Paris were reopened and the public reading of the Bible was encouraged among the Protestants. All non-Catholic groups (Protestants and Jews) were granted freedom of religion. The French Protestants had been subjected to millions of deaths in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, the slaughter of Protestant Huguenots at the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV, Albigensian Inquisition and Crusade, and the persecution of the Huguenots.
In their animosity towards the Catholic church, the members of the government appealed to Napoleon to destroy the papacy. Christianity and the French Revolution page 151 quotes a letter written to Napoleon from the Directory of France who appealed to him with these words:
The Roman religion would always be the irreconcilable enemy of the Republic. It must be struck in France. It must be struck in Rome ... that is to destroy, if possible, the center of the unity of the Roman church; and it is for you, who unite in your person the most distinguished qualities of the general ... to realize this aim.
The Demise of the Papacy. By 1798, General Berthier entered Rome and seized Pope Pius VI and placed him in prison on February 15, 1798. He made his entrance into Rome, abolished the Papal government and established a secular one. This temporarily ended 1260 years of Papal rule and their loss of prestige around the world. They were brought to power by the French General Belisarius and removed from power by the French - Napoleon and General Berthier.
The Loss of Power in Italy.
In 1870, the new government of Italy seized the Papal states, including Rome.
On 13 May 1871, it passed the "Law of Papal Guarantees" granting the pope a salary, religious freedom and the right to receive ambassadors.
Civic Isolationism. Pius IX refused to acknowledge this law and in May 1873, the state seized all Catholic schools, hospitals and religious orders. During this period, Leo XIII developed an official position on religious liberties and church-state relations, which demanded that states must not only care for religion but must "recognize the true religion professed by the Catholic church." These policies would be implemented by Vatican II.
The Papacy Rises Again.
The Lateran Treaty (11 February 1929). It was not until the Lateran Treaty, when Mussolini gave the Vatican City to the Church that the secular power began to be restored. The Lateran treaty had three sections.
Concordat (3 June 1985).
This treaty with Italy replaced the Lateran treaty. It gave the papacy more international power, but the church was no longer the official state religion.
The church has signed concordats with many governments. These agreements guarantee certain rights of the Catholics within the country.
International Power. The international power of the church grew. By 1989, the world would learn that the church was instrumental in cooperating with the United States to bring an end to communism since 1981.
Attempts to unite Europe
Several peaceful and violent methods have been used in an attempt to unite the divided kingdom of Europe into one political entity under one ruler.
1. European Unity by Marriage
The European monarchies attempted to bring peace and unity by marriage. This type of activity picked up around the eleventh century and was the norm by the 1800's. All these intermarriages eventually failed to bring about one political union similar to the days of the Roman Empire under the caesars. During the middle ages, the church brought about a religious union, and the pope was able to influence the monarchs on the basis of religious action as if he were the head of all those states. But still this was not a complete political union. The kingdom remained divided.
Many attempts were made to unite by war or marriage. The most significant was the reign of Queen Victoria, the 'grandmother of Europe', she married a German prince and they had 9 children whose marriages were made to strengthen their ties with the other royal houses. Many times this caused brother and sister to be at odds with the British position and with each other. Despite all the relationships, there was always enmity or war between Britain and France, Prussia and Denmark and between Hungary and Prussia. Following are just a few examples of some primary unions. Relationships of the spouses to other royal houses were not considered.
Grandmother Of Europe
*Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German). They had 9 children.
The Ruling Classes. Four major families dominated the old Roman empires and their reigns ended in 1917 at the end of World War I.
See Map of Old Europe.
The Decline of Monarchies
|Country||Type of Monarchy||Year Ended|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||Kingdom||Ceremonial|
|Hesse and by Rhine||Grand Duchy||1918|
|Saxe-Coburg and Gotha||Duchy||1918|
|Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach||Grand Duchy||1918|
|Waldeck and Pyrmont||Principality||1918|
2. European Unity by War
All these attempts to unite Europe eventually failed to annex an area equal to the area of the old Roman empire under any conditions (war or peace).
God Almighty has been too much for me.
See Map of unification areas.
3. European Unity by Religion
After the year 538, the Western European nations were successfully united by the Church of Rome. The nations still remained sovereign nations and many times were fighting against each other. They never achieved the political unity of the old Roman empire - but they did achieve a false religious unity. This unity of the people under religion was maintained by the church and state under the threat of death, persecution and torture. Although there was still national and political strife, Europe was united in maintaining their Catholic Christian identity until the reformation.
To maintain this purity of religion, the popes were able to influence the governments to declare internal wars against Protestants, or to go on crusades against Muslims and Jews. The ability to influence the states decreased after the capture of the Pope by General Berthier in 1798. Consequently, there are no more overt declaration of wars against heretics that are legally enforced by the state.
At least not yet.
4. The European Union - an Economic Union
The European Union formed as a more integrated trade group. Each nation remains sovereign, but attempts to standardize, trade, standards and eliminate export tariffs are just a part of the economic goals. By the year 2001, the official currency of the participating nations changed to the Euro dollar.
Others see an attempt to integrate more deeply into the political lives by standardizing criminal law and elevating the leadership of the union to a more political one. They are now attempting to go beyond the original goal of economic unity to form a military alliance.
The leaders of 15 European countries decided Thursday to make the European Union a military power for the first time in it's 42 year history. Sacramento Bee, June 4, 1999
The European Union - A Prophecy
The prophecies of Daniel 2 state that after the Roman empire is divided it will never unite as one political entity until the Second Coming of the Messiah. A certain level of unity has been achieved under religion and this may also happen under the current economic plans. But prophecy states that no political union under one ruler will be achieved in the Old Roman empire.
What will happen in the future, is that we will see a revival of the religious union like the one that influenced Europe during the years 538-1798. The Bible states that they would attempt to unite by marriage but they will not stay together. There will never be one Europe (from the old Roman Empire) under one real leader - but there will again be a Europe dominated by the church. The current economic union is said to have been a brain child of the church. It was a long term strategy to once again regain religious control - at the right moment.
Already, influential people in the United Nations are calling for this type of church control of Europe and the West, to avoid Muslim take over of the world.
Muslims will not take over the world. The Catholic church will. But as you see the Muslim threat you will fall under the control of the church and the United States by accepting their plans. That is the message of the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation.
See Map of the Roman Empire. Map of the ten divisions of Rome. Map of the breakup of the empire by religion.
The Byzantine Church In The East
While Rome had their problems in the west, the Byzantine church (Orthodox and Coptic) were being overrun by Islam. The church of Rome and the kings of the Holy Roman Empire made frequent assaults through formal crusades on Palestine to save Jerusalem from infidels, but eventually Islam won.
By the seventh century, eastern Rome came under the attack by the followers of Mohammed. They conquered Syria and Egypt and all the Persian territories but not Byzantium. In 670 and 717, they tried, unsuccessfully, to conquer Byzantium with a large fleet. By the ninth century, the Byzantine empire began to reconquer their territory and were once again powerful in the region of Greece to Arabia.
The worst assault on the Greek division of the empire lasted from July 27, 1299 to 1449 when the Turks were at war with the Greek empire.
Crusades. However, in 1071, the Turks conquered the Byzantine army and quickly took all of the empire. The Byzantine empire turned to the western empire for help, and this brought the crusades. The crusaders even attacked the city of Constantinople in 1204, but the empire continued to function in Greece until 1261 when they retook the city.
The Byzantine empire finally fell in 1453, when the Ottoman Turks conquered the city and renamed it Istanbul. Constantinople was captured after a siege lasting from April 6, 1453 and May 16. Crusades were launched against the empire in 1366, 1396 and 1444 - without success.
The Expansion Of Islam
In 100 years after the death of Muhammad, Islam had conquered the region by force of arms. They conquered the Pagan Arabs and attacked the two superpowers, Byzantine Rome and the Sassanids (Persians). They were stopped short of counquering western Rome by Charles Martel, "the hammerer".
History of Major Wars and Disasters
World War 1 (The Great War).
This war settled the fate of both the eastern and western empires. After this war, all monarchies lost their power as new forms of government took over. The Western monarchies were now figureheads. In the east, the Ottomans kings had lost their political power.
Although much of the European rulers were united by marriage, they were still constantly at war.
France, Britain and Germany would remain dominant powers because of their colonization of distant lands.
The ruin of Europe in the two World Wars was a direct cause of the emergence of the new super power - The United States of America.
|Year||War||End of War||Issues|
|431-404 BC||Peloponnesian||Peace of Nicias||Greeks. Sparta against Athens. 90,000 died in a plague|
|331 BC||Battle of Arabela (Gaugemela)||331 BC||Greeks under Alexander the Great defeated the Persians (Darius III) on October 1. With only 35,000 men Alexander defeated an army of one million.|
|168 BC||Battle of Pydna||168 BC||Romans defeated the Greeks (Macedonia) ending a four year war that started in 171 BC|
|31 BC||Battle of Actium||31 BC||Augustus Caesar defeated Mark Anthony and the Egyptian fleet of Cleopatra|
|1095-1272||Crusades||1272||Christians against the Turks, Wars authorized by the pope to fight against non-Christians (Muslims and Jews), heretics and Protestants|
|1311-1340||Genocide||-||35 million Chinese killed by the Mongols|
|1337-1453||Hundred Years' War||1453||England and France|
|1394||Battle of Nicopolis||-||Ottomans defeated the crusaders and captured many European leaders|
|1455-1485||War of the Roses||1485||British civil war|
|1562-1598||French Wars of Religion||1598||Huguenots and Catholics to suppress Calvinism|
|1618-1648||30 Years War||Treaty of Westphalia||An attempt to convert Protestant Europe to Catholicism by force. War between the French and the Hapsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain.|
|1688-1697||War of the League of Augsburg||Treaty of Rijswijk||Louis XIV against the alliance of England, Netherlands and Austria|
|1700-1721||Great Northern War||Treaty of Nystad||Russia, Denmark and Poland reduced Sweden's power. It led to Russia's rise as a major power.|
|1701-1714||War of Spanish Succession||Treaty of Utrecht||Louis XIV of France against the alliance of England, Dutch and the Austrians. The death of the childless Charles II of Spain started a war about who would inherit the throne.|
|1739-1743||War of Jenkin's Ear||1743||Britain and Spain|
|1740-1748||War of Austrian Succession||Treaty of Aiz-la-Chapelle||Prussia and Austria over the German states|
|1756-1763||Seven Years' War||Treaty of Paris, Treaty of Hubertusburg||Between Austria and Prussia and Britain, France|
|1775-1783||United States War of Independence||1783 Treaty of Paris||France, Spain and the Netherlands helped the 13 colonies to defeat Britain|
|1792-1802||French Revolutionary War||1802||France and neighboring states|
|1800-1815||Napoleonic Wars||1815||Napoleon's war to dominate Europe ended in the Battle of Waterloo June 18, 1815|
|1812-1814||War of 1812||Treaty of Ghent||United States and Britain over fair trade|
|1821-1828||Greek War of Independence||1828||Greek and Turkey. Britain, Russia and France later helped|
|1853-1856||Crimean War||1856||The Crimean War breaks out as a result of a quarrel between the Russian Orthodox monks and the French Catholics over who had precedence over the Holy Places in Jerusalem and Nazareth. England and France defeat Russians at the battle of Sevastopol and win more concessions from the Ottomans. They prevent Russian expansion after the Russians defeat the Turks in the Black Sea.|
|1861-1865||American Civil War||1865||23 northern and 11 Confederate South states about slavery and the Federal Union. 970,000 dead (620,000 soldiers)|
|1866||Austro - Prussian War||Unknown||Unknown|
|Boer Wars||1881||Britain's mastery of South Africa|
|1914-1918||World War I (the Great War)||Treaty of Versailles||Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy against Britain, France, Russia and the rest of the world. 37,000,000 dead|
|1915||Genocide||1918||Ismail Enver (Ottoman Turks) massacre 1,500,000 Armenian Christians (1915-20), 350,000 Greek Pontians, 480,000 Anatolian Greeks (1916-22), 500,000 Assyrians (1915-20)|
|1936-1939||Spanish civil War||Nationalist victory||Republicans (with the aid of Russia) against the Nationalists (with fascist Italy and Nazi Germany).|
|1937||Genocide||1954||Japanese massacre 200-300,000 Chinese in Nanking|
|1939-1945||World War II||1945||Germany, Italy and Japan against the allies (Britain, France, China, Russia, United States). 79,530,00 dead. War ended with the use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6 and August 9 1945.|
|Genocide||1939-1945||Nazi Holocaust kill 12 million people. 6 million were Jews|
|1941-1944||Genocide||1944||1 million Yugoslavians killed by Nazis, Chetniks, Ustashi after the Tito regime|
|1941-1945||Genocide||1945||Ante Pavelic (Croatia facist and Ustase movement) 359,000 (30,000 Jews, 29,000 Gypsies, 300,000 Serbs)|
|1946-1954||Indochinese War||1954||Vietnam and France|
|1950-1953||Korean War||1953||Communists and those who are not communists|
|1956||Suez War||1956||Britain, France, Israel against Egypt to regain control of the Suez canal|
|1956-1973||Vietnam War||1973||Communist North Vietnam against and South Vietnam. The United States became involved in 1961. 1-2 million dead|
|1966-1976||Indochinese War||1976||1 million Tibetans killed in Mao's cultural revolution|
|1967||Six Day War||1967||Israel against Egypt, Jordan and Syria with the support of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Sudan and Algeria|
|1970-1975||Cambodian War||1975||Cambodia, South Vietnam and United states against North Vietnam. 4 million killed (1970-80), 1.7 million between 1975-79 by Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge|
|October 6-22, 1973||Yom Kippur War||1973||Israel against Egypt and Syria with the support of Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Jordan|
|1980-1988||Iran - Iraq War||1988||Iran accused Iraq of trying to break up its country by supporting independence in some provinces|
|1982||Falklands Island War||1982||Britain against Argentina when it invaded the Falkland Islands|
|1988||Genocide||1988||Saddam Hussein used gas to kill 50-100,000 Kurds in the Anfal campaign|
|1991||Gulf War||1992||Iraq against the United States and 29 allies after Iraq invaded Kuwait. 100,000 Iraqis and 143 USA killed. 1 million more may have died in the sanctions afterwards|
|1991-1995||Genocide||1995||200-300,000 Bosnian Muslims and Croats killed by Serbs led by Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic|
|1995||8,000 men and boys (12-60 years) killed in Srebrenica|
|1994||Genocide||1994||1,000,000 most Tutsis killed by Hutus in 100 days|
|September 2001||Afghanistan War||Present||United States against terrorist organization supported by the clerics of Afghanistan. It was precipitated by the September 11, 2001 suicide attacks by hijacked commercial planes against key United States buildings.|
|March 2003||Iraq War||Present||The United States against Iraq searching for nonexistent weapons of mass destruction|
Natural disasters include many sudden or slow processes that destroy lives and property.
They include earthquake, hurricane, flood, tsunami, tornado, volcano,
drought, famine, disease and fires.
In addition, some disasters are caused by human activity. Industrial accidents, wars and environmental changes. Global warming and deforestation are the major human activity that contributes to the problem.
The Plague killed about one third of the population of Europe.
Disasters are caused by plague, famine and flood. Some of these are caused by human behavior such as war, environmental changes, immorality and greed. The fourteenth century experienced the worst period of wars, plagues and disasters.
Disasters - Diseases.
|Infectious diseases||Air, water||Before 1929||Worldwide||Killed 25% of children|
|Diphtheria||Air||.:||Africa||Killed many children in the eighteenth and nineteenth century.|
|Typhus||Air||430 BC||Athens||The unknown plague of Athens might have been typhus. 90,000 died in Athens. 20% mortality, in 7 days, gangrene of the fingers tips and toes, fever, vomiting, thirst|
|1991||Indonesia||New type of cholera|
|1991||Latin America||600,000 infected and 5,000 killed|
|1994||Rwanda||10,000 killed. The civil war killed 1,000,000|
|Smallpox||Air||Middle ages||Europe||Kills 30% of its victims. Officially eradicated in 1979. Some estimate the total number of victims to be 500,000,000|
|Bubonic Plague||Rats and fleas||Third Century||Rome||Killed 5,000 each day|
|165-180||Roman Empire||5,000,000 (Antonine Plague)|
|542-662||Constantinople||At its peak, 10,000 people died each week. 70,000 in the city were killed. Also called Justinian's plague|
|540-590||Asia, Europe, Africa||40,000,000 (Justinian's Plague)|
|1324||Europe and Asia||25 million were killed in 1347 - 1351. During the crusades, killing 30 - 40% of the population|
|1300-1720||Asia, Europe, Africa||100,000,000|
|1890||Asia||12.5 million killed 6 million were in India|
|1924||Los Angeles||San Francisco in 1900|
|Leprosy||Contact||Middle ages||Europe||Epidemic in Europe in the Middle Ages. India, Brazil and Myanmar continue to have major problems|
|Typhus||Air||1918||World War 1||150,000 soldiers died|
|Influenza (Spanish flu)||Air||1917-1918||Worldwide||Killed more people than the war. 50-100 million worldwide including 500,000 Americans. 40% of the United states population were infected|
|Asian Flu||Air||1957||Worldwide||4,000,000 pandemic|
|Hong Kong Flu||Air||1968||Worldwide||750,000 pandemic|
|Ebola||Contact||1977||Africa||Hemorrhagic fever. Also found in a research laboratory in Virginia in 1989. Causes death within 5 days. Currently isolated|
|Yellow Fever||Mosquito||.:||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Dengue Fever||Mosquito||.:||Hemorrhagic fever, not fatal, occurs in southern United States, the Caribbean, and subtropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, and Africa|
|Lassa Fever||Rodents||.:||Hemorrhagic fever|
|Anthrax||Contact||.:||Farming communities||Disease of animals transmitted to humans|
|Mad cow disease||Contact||2000||Europe||Many farm animals had to be destroyed|
|AIDS||Sexually transmitted||1981-2010||Worldwide||12 million died and 40 million infected by year 2001. 25,250,000 by 2010|
|MRSA||Contact||1990||Worldwide||Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Drug resistant. It kills more people than AIDS in the USA|
|MRSA||Contact||2000||United States||Flesh eating disease. Drug resistant|
|PVL||Contact||2000||USA, Australia, England, France||Panton-Valentine Leukocidin. Drug resistant. 75% Fatal. Associated with MRSA|
|C-Diff||Contact||2008||United States||Clostridium Difficile. Drug resistant hospital bacteria|
|CRE||Contact||2001||United States||Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Hospital bacteria. 50% fatal|
|Tubercolosis||Air||2009||World||Drug resistant strain|
|Escherichia Coli||Food||200||World||80% of antibiotics in the USA are given to animals not humans, creating drug resistant strain in foods. Europe banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed in 2005|
|Gonorrhea||STD/STI||200||World||Drug resistant strain|
|Chlamydia||STD/STI||200||World||Drug resistant strain|
|ESKAPE||Contact||Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter. They are a group of six bacteria that are becoming drug resistant|
|AIDS Pandemic||Sexually transmitted||1981-2003||World||20 million dead. 60 million infected (6 million children)|
|Tubercolosis||Air||2003||World||1.7 million died. 33% of the world is infected|
|Bird Flu||Air||2003||World||Pandemic warnings issued in 2004. Waiting for the event|
|Influenza||Air||Annual||USA||Normally kills 30,000|
A growing number of deadly pathogens are becoming resistant to all antibiotics because of insufficient course of treatment or the proliferation of antibacterial products.
Benzochlonium chloride sanitizers create superbugs.
Studies show that alchohol-based hand sanitizers do not cause bug resistance but the chemical in antibacterial soaps are making antibiotics ineffective.
In 2010 a deadly new class of superbugs was reported in patients who had surgery in India. These superbugs are able to make any bugs deadly by giving them the genes that will change them into superbugs.
Disease: Acquired Immune Deficiency Disease. There are many deadly diseases that still exist today. Of these, the HIV virus, that produces AIDs is the most troublesome. As of 2001, forty million people were infected, none are cured.
In the sub Saharan section of Africa alone 3.8 million new infections were reported in the year 2000 and 2.4 million deaths occurred. A total of 25.3 million people in that region are living with AIDS in that year 1.1 million of these are children. 55% of the women are HIV positive and 25% of women between age 20-29 are infected!
So far, AIDs has orphaned 12.1 million children under the age of 14 in Africa.
What started out as a disease in gay men in western countries in the early 1980's is quickly becoming a disease of the minority and underprivileged populations.
While there is still no cure for AIDS and it is largely a sexually transmitted disease, people can live with the disease for years. But there are other diseases that strike suddenly and kill within days. Ebola is the most feared of all. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person. No one is safe. There is no cure.
Disasters - Famine.
Famine caused 20 to 25 million deaths in the last quarter of the nineteenth century,
and about two million in the last quarter of the twentieth century.
|Famine||536 - 551||Europe||Unknown global disaster that cooled the planet|
|The Great Famine||1315-17||Europe||Millions died during the little ice age|
|Irish Potato Famine||1846-49||Ireland||1-1.5 million died of hunger or disease|
|Great Persian Famine||1870-1871||Persia||2,000,000|
|Northern Chinese Famine||1876-79||China||13,000,000|
|Southern and Central Indian Famine||1876-79||India||10,000,000|
|Horn of Africa Famine||1888||Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia||1,000,000|
|Chinese Famine of 1907||1907||China||24,000,000|
|Ukrainian Famine||1921-23||Russia, Ukraine||7 to 10 million killed by a man made famine|
|Chinese Famine of 1928-30||1928-30||China||3,000,000|
|Soviet Famine of 1932-33||1932-34||Soviet Union||5,000,000 as Stalin stopped the Ukraine independence movement|
|1936 Chinese Famine||1936||China||5,000,000|
|Chinese Drought of 1941||1941||China||3,000,000|
|Bengali Famine of 1943||1943||India||4,000,000|
|Vietnamese war famine||1943-45||Vietnam||2,000,000|
|Dutch Famine of 1944||1944||The Netherlands||18,000|
|Great Chinese Famine||1958-61||China||4.9 - 43 million died|
|Civil war Famine||1967-69||China||1 million died. 3.5 million starved|
|Bangladesh Famine||1974||Bangladesh||26,000 to 1,000,000|
|Famine in Ethiopia||1984||Ethiopia||1,000,000|
|North Korean Famine||1996-98||North Korea||1,200,000|
|Famine||Current||Africa||Caused by weather and war|
Natural and Accidental Disasters List.
Although atheists love to disparage religion as being the cause of wars and bloodshed, in their brief history atheists in power have been the cause of unspeakable carnage in a rate that exceeds that of religion for the purpose of wiping out non-believers.
Atheism on a societal scale began with the French Revolution.
|Genocide Event||Total Death Estimates|
|French Revolution||Reign of Terror||1792-94||250,000||1,000,000||500,000||400|
|Lenin||Russian Civil War, famine||1917-22||-||-||9,000,000||5,000|
|»||Forced famine in Ukraine||1932-33||-||-||7,000,000||19,500|
|Mussolini||World War II||1933-45||low||high||300,000||70|
|Adolph Hitler||World War II - All deaths||1939-45||50,000,000||-||79,000,000||37,000|
|»||6 million Jews, 6 million others||1940-45||-||-||12,000,000||6,500|
|»||3 million Russian POWs||1941-43||-||-||3,000,000||2,000|
|Pol Pot||Khmer Rouge purge of religion||1975-79||1,500,000||3,000,000||2,000,000||14,000|
|Mao Zedong |
|All deaths (excluding abortions)||1958-79||49,000,000||78,000,000||70,000,000||6,500|
|»||China's Great Leap Forward||1958-61||20,000,000||46,000,000||36,000,000||33,300|
|»||Labor camps (Laogai)||1950-60||15,000,000||27,000,000||27,000,000||7,500|
|13,000,000 forced abortions /year||1971-2009||-||-||336,000,000||24,560|
|Ho Chi Min||Vietnam||1953-56||-||-||200,000||185|
|North Korea||Invasion of South Korea||1950-53||-||-||3,000,000||35,000|
|Kim Il Sung||Purges and concentration camps||1948-94||-||-||1,600,000||100|
Inventions and Discoveries: An Increase of knowledge
» Energy. A cheap, versatile, reliable source.
» Infrastructure. Dispersion system.
» Transportation. Mobility, infrastructure.
» Communication. Long distance, wireless, instant.
» Information Systems. Data storage and retrieval.
» Medicine. A healthy work force
» Education. Relevant knowledge. Public schools.
» Financing. Money or supporters
» Market. A need must exist or be made for the product.
|Over 100,000 patents are required for the modern car||Genetic Engineering (GE)|
Old World Technology: The Evolution of Travel
Although technology allowed travel and exploration to expand greatly, yet other knowledge had to be acquired first so that the fear of the unknown would no longer prevent exploration.
The Evolution of Speed: Running "To and Fro".
In 500 BC it took over four months to travel about 700 miles (1125 km) from Babylon to Israel. By 1800 people and information were still travelling at about the same speed as they were since Noah, 4 to 10 miles per hour (6 to 16 kph).
The Next Frontier
The History of Money
"We grant you [Kings of Spain and Portugal] by these present documents, with our Apostolic Authority, full and free permission to invade, search out, capture, and subjugate the Saracens and pagans and any other unbelievers and enemies of Christ wherever they may be, as well as their kingdoms, duchies, counties, principalities, and other property [...] and to reduce their persons into perpetual slavery.It was followed on 8 January 1455 by "Romanus Pontifex", a papal bull reaffirming the right to enslave and telling other nations that Spain and Portugal had the right of patronage "jus patronatus" to trade and colonize the nations granted to them. Several other popes reaffirmed the right to enslave. Pope Calixtus III (1456), Sixtus IV (1481) and Pope Leo X (1514). So, armed with god's blessing and moral authority they made perpetual slaves of unbelievers. Finally, in 1537 pope Paul III condemned unjust enslavement of non-Christians although he sanctioned slavery in subsequent actions.
The Money Empire Falls: Market Panics, Bubbles, Booms and Busts
The history of banking shows that the powerful elite always ignored or changed the rules to perpetrate their fraud. Such disasters are often preceeded by a change in regulation that benefits the bankers at the expense of the population. When they operate by ignoring the law and all other sense of fair play, their wealth and apparent success are so powerful that it trumps any criticism and they are allowed to operate freely while we beg them to share their wisdom and give us a chance at Nirvana.
Bubbles appear to be created with new opportunities that are created through deregulation or new markets. Vultures take advantage of deregulation to build up speculation, lure the common people and the novices.
|1879||USA third rate power|
|1898||USA expands into Spanish territory|
|1914-18||World War 1|
|1920s||Fast money schemes|
|1926||Florida land boom and bust|
|1927||Mississippi River flood. 900,000 refugees|
|1929||Mosque of Omar bombed. Arab-Jewish conflict|
|1929||Stock Market Crash|
|1939-45||World War 2|
|1945||USA as superpower|
|1946||Communism (Iron Curtain)|
|1948||State of Israel|
Prior to 1984 it was difficult to obtain a credit card, but officials at Providian Financials counted on the fact that there are people who are desperate or naive enough who will take their products. These desperate souls will always carry a balance which can be misused to earn billions.
What is God thinking? We have violated all the rules that will trigger His wrath. While the bankers hear the clink of money when they see the desperate poor, He will hear the cries of these people. As corruption and greed seem to triump untouched and rewarded, the poor and middle class strain under the burden and they begin to respond to greed and short cuts to achieve more and more.
Prophecy: Global Economic Collapse
We spent a lot of time explaining the roots of an attitude towards people and finance that will be punished by God. Prophecy condemns evil people, clergy, wicked rulers and evil nations, but it only condemns one private system: bad businessmen, calling their trade violence.
The pursuit of money, capitalism and the free market will create conditions that will be just as evil as perpetual slavery, perpetual poverty and communism. In the end a flourishing, free-market economy will exploit the people. Whereas communism can reward laziness and suppress individual ambition, capital without regulation will reward a system of debt financing that will collapse, leading to global revolution and conflict that has never been seen.
» Self Destruction.
The classic method for the vengeance of God is to let the enemy destroy themselves by their own schemes.
A system based on greed, lies, crumbling infrastructure, tax burden on the mass, inflation, unbridled usury, lack of accountability and exploitation will collapse when the masses become a burden when they can no longer carry the burden.
So the final collapse must include unbridled greed and a Ponzi scheme so huge and unexpected that it will send central banks into a panic and we will be talking about it for millions of years.
After looking at the history of frauds I must conclude that the prestige of the church will probably be at the center of this massive fraud.
In His mercy, God sends repeated warnings as we are being herded down a path of no return and no useful options. Hearing the siren song of quick riches and "blessings of the Lord" we will not listen. We never learn.
The Accidental Discovery Of The American Continent
Christopher Columbus had a hair-brained scheme to reach the east by sailing west, thinking that he could sail to Japan (Cipangu) and India from the Canary Islands in search of spices, not knowing that an entire continent lay in between. He did not know where he was going and when he got there he did not know where he was and for decades after he still did not know where he had been.
» The Trade Winds. He discovered the great clockwise Atlantic ocean wind system during the early 1480s and tried to gain support for his trip in late 1483. He felt the west wind along the Portuguese coasts and in the Madeira Islands. He felt the trade winds in Africa, the Canary and Cape Verde Islands. He reasoned that he could make an Atlantic round trip using the circular winds by going down south to catch the trade winds "easterlies" which would blow him west, and return east with the westerlies at a higher latitude (35-65 degrees). The Romans have used the Monsoon winds in June and November to cross the Indian Ocean on the spice route since the first century AD. So Columbus knew that he could depend on the wind systems.
» Fifteenth Century Science And Technology. While most people believed that the earth was flat, some people believed the world was round, but they were not sure how big it was.
|Map of the Old World|
» A New Continent!!.
It was not until 1502-04 that Amerigo Vespucci published journals in which he reasoned that Columbus had discovered a new continent, not India.
The continent was named after him.
However, the mistake was immortalized because the native Americans are still called "Indians" and the Caribbean Islands are called the "West Indies".
It was the Portuguese explorer, Ferdinand Magellan, who reached the east by sailing west in 1519-1522. He set sail aboard the Trinidad on 10 August 1519 with five ships and 251 men and returned on 6 September 1522 with only 18 men aboard the Victoria.
The British explorer Sir Francis Drake was the second to circumnavigate the globe in the years 13 December 1577 to 26 September 1580 and was knighted on 4 April 1581. He set sail aboard the Pelican (renamed The Golden Hind) with 164 men and 4 other ships.
Prophecy: The Discovery Of America.
The treatment of the native Americans and Columbus' belief in forced slavery and forced conversions leave no doubt that his voyage was not the will of God. Yet, Daniel predicted that a new land would be opened up for the people fleeing persecution in the old world. The formerly persecuted even continued this legacy of entitlement, slavery and mistreatment.
And the serpent poured water like a river out of his mouth after the woman, so that he might cause her to be swept away with the flood. But the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and drank up the river which the dragon poured out of his mouth. So the dragon was enraged with the woman, and went off to make war with the rest of her children, who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus. (Revelation 12: 15-17)
The events are the classic method of biblical wrath. The people upon whom wrath will fall are the architects of their own destruction. It is the serpent who sends the flood. However, in the middle of this catastrophe God carves a way out for His people but the destructive flood still reaches the new world. The Jews and Protestants made the new land their new home.
» The Church Is Helped. The native Americans helped the European strangers and they were even greeted as gods in South America.
The United States Of America
|Columbus discovered the new world in 1492. Although persecution and genocide abounded, North America became a refuge for fleeing Jews (1654) and Protestants (1620).|
Economic Power. The country did not achieve real dominance until after World War II, with the European countries devastated by the war and the American economy booming because of the war. They quickly became an economic giant.
Cold War. With the threat to peace posed by Russia after World War II, both countries entered into a period of Cold War with the Soviet Union trying to establish communism and the United states trying to promote democracy around the world. During this period, both sides created powerful military weapons and became political super powers. America won the cold war by also becoming a powerful economic force.
|Becoming a Super Power|
|Event||Lessons Learned or Significant Activity|
|(1776) War of Independence||Became a sovereign nation|
|The Constitution (1776)||Drafted a legal document that would become the basis for democracy and human rights|
|Civil War||Moved the country out of the agricultural economy|
|World War I||International military action. No longer isolationist. Industrial economy|
|World War II||Became a global political and economic force while Europe declined|
|Cold War||The arms race built up military strength, technology and external espionage and surveillance|
|Vietnam war||Learned the importance of managing the propaganda war at home|
|Fall of Soviet Union (1989)||Cooperated with the church to achieve political gain|
|Persian Gulf War (1991)||Symbolically overthrew the first Babylon and became the undisputed only superpower|
|Terrorist attack on New York and Washington D.C.||Instituted persecution laws and the systems to shift focus to internal surveillance|
|Afghanistan War (2001)||Expected to be quick, it is the longest war|
|Iraq War (2003)||Unjust war. Started acting like a dragon. Became Babylon the Great|
Eventually, with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 and after the clear superiority and advanced technology
exhibited by the American troops in the Gulf War against Iraq (the old nation of Babylon) - the United States was declared the only remaining Super power in the world.
The new Babylon symbolically defeated the old Babylon.
It was both a military, political and economic force and it intends to remain the only power. The South Bend Tribune reported that
In a broad new policy statement that is in its final drafting state, the Defense Department asserts that America's political and military mission in the era after the Cold War will be to ensure that no rival super power is allowed to emerge in Western Europe, Asia, or the territory of the former Soviet Union.
The Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001
On the morning of September 11, 2001 two hijacked passenger planes from Boston were flown directly into each of the North and South twin towers of the World Trade Center at 8:45 AM and 9:03 AM. Within an hour both 110 story buildings collapsed killing about 3000 people.
At 9:43 AM, another hijacked plane was crashed into the Pentagon in Washington D.C. collapsing one side of its structure and killing about 100 people. A fourth hijacked plane bound for either the White House, Camp David or the Senate, crashed in a field in Pennsylvania at 10:00 AM after brave passengers heard about the other three doomed flights and decided to take over.
Within a month, a war was launched against the country of Afghanistan for its support of the terrorists and Osama Bin Laden, a Saudi millionaire who sponsored these attacks. Simultaneously, a war on terrorism began in the country, with the creation of a new government office directly responsible to the President - Homeland security and the passage of the U.S.A. Patriot Freedom Act of 2001 which gives enormous power (contrary to the United States Constitution) to the police to eavesdrop on all communication, conduct secret searches and detain anyone suspected of terrorism.
By March 2003, another war was launched against Iraq, unjustly blaming them for planning to attack the United States with weapons of mass destruction.
Romancing the Pope.
We are at the point of prophetic history where the final powers are courting each other.
The American politicians currently do this for ideology or for political survival.
The Catholic church does this for world domination.
At least since 1989, this is the known involvement of the government with Catholic goals.
Speaking of the growing power of the church in the top layers of government, "The Central Intelligence Agency", page 271 Jim Marrs.
Politically, she looms ever larger in the White House, in the Senate and in the Congress. She is a force in the Pentagon, a secret agent in the FBI and the most subtly intangible prime mover of the S.S. wheel within a wheel.
If I were a betting person, I would say that we will soon have talk about making Sunday a national day of rest, if Bush has not already passed a secret executive order or signing statement.
Babylon II - The Final Super Power
The Muslim world may already recognize the Catholic church as the only legitimate spokesperson for the West that they trust, giving legitimacy to the global political aspirations of the church as a peace broker and force for moral influence. So the final superpower will be a combination of the United States and the Roman Catholic Church and at a later point, the nations of Europe against the people of God. The growth and development of these two powers is close to their peak, and the establishment of laws within the United States that could be used to enact persecution is seen as the final nail in the coffin as this final power embraces brutality as a legitimate tool of control.
Dating a Document. In ancient times most calendars were based on the month beginning with the new moon. But the designation of the year was a problem. Before the designation of the birth of Christ as year 0 for the modern era, each culture designated the year by a significant event. So all documents were dated relative to that significant year. Usually, the event was the reign of a king.
|Accession Year (465 BC)||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||Year 7||8|
|December||Hebrew (Tishri)||October 464||463||462||461||460||459||October 458||458||457||October|
|August||Babylon||14 April 464||463||462||461||460||459||April 458||458||457||April 457|
|Hebrew (Nisan)||April 464||463||462||461||460||459||April 458||458||457||April 457|
|Hebrew (Tishri)||17 October 465||464||463||462||461||460||October 459||459||458||October|
|Egypt||17 December 465||464||463||462||461||460||December 459||459||458||December|
|Parker and Dubberstein|
|Nebuchadnezzar (Accession year)||August or December 605|
|Persian Empire ends||331|
The chronology of Parker and Dubberstein has been almost universally accepted as the standard for over fifty years. But one historian, Crowley, consistently dates events one year earlier than them. And there seems to be an effort to push back historical dates about three years.
|Document||Egyptian Date||King||Year||Hebrew||Modern Date (BC)|
|AP 1||Agreement||Epiphi 2||Darius||27||-||17 October 494|
|AP 2 |
|Contract for corn supplied to the garrison||Phaophi 28||Xerxes||?||-||?|
|AP 5||Grant of building rights||Pachons 28||Xerxes||15||Elul 18||September 8, 470|
|AP 6||A Conveyance||Thoth 7||Artaxerxes 1|
|18 Chisleu||30 December 464|
|Text: On the seventeenth day of Thoth, that is the eighteenth day of Kislev, year 21, the beginning of the reign of Artaxerxes I, the king.
Comments. This document was written in the ascension year of Artaxerxes, but year 21 of Xerxes
|AP 7||A case of Burglary||Phaophi 18||Artaxerxes ?||4||-||?|
|AP 8||A Conveyance||Mesore 1||Artaxerxes 1||5-6||Kislev 21||27 January 459/8|
|AP 9||Deed relating to the reversion of property||Mesore 1||Artaxerxes 1||6||Chisleu 21||?|
|AP 10||Loan contract||Thoth 4||Artaxerxes 1||9||Chisleu 7||13 December 455|
|AP 13||Loan contract||Mesore 11||Artaxerxes 1||19||Kislev 2||14 December 445|
|AP 14||Settlement of claim||Pahons 19||Artaxerxes 1||25||Ab 14||21 August 439|
|AP 15||Marriage contract||Epiphi 6||Artaxerxes 1||?||Tishri 25||464 - 423 BC|
|AP 17||Supplies for the garrison||Marcheswan 19||Artaxerxes 1||37||-||12 November 326|
|KP6||Kraeling Papyrus 6||Pharmuthi 8||Darius II||3||Tammuz 8||July 420 BC|
|KP7||Kraeling Papyrus 7||Epiphi||Darius II||4||Tishri 1||October 420 BC|
|AP 20||Settlement of a claim||Payni||Darius II||4||Elul||420 BC|
|30||Petition to Governor of Judea||20 Marcheswan||Darius||17||-||21 November 406|
|This document mentions Johanan, Sanballat, Delaiah and Shelemiah all from the book of Nehemiah and governor Bigvai of Judea mentioned by Josephus.|
|Olympiad||Persian King||Year||Event||Modern Date|
|72.1||Darius||30||The war that was waged in Marathon, and those things that are written about Miltiades and Aristides who was surnamed the Just||492 BC|
|73.1||Xerxes||1||Fifth of the Persians, Xerxes son of Darius, for 20 years||485 BC|
|74.4||Xerxes||5||Xerxes, when he had come to Athens, burned down the city, at the time of the leadership of Callias||481 BC|
|75.1||Xerxes||6||The war that was waged in Thermopylae and the naval battle off Salamis||480 BC|
|78.4||Artaxerxes||20||Sixth of the Persians, Artabanus, for 7 months, after whom, seventh, Artaxerxes, who was surnamed Long-Hand, for 40 years||465 BC|
|Empire||Modern Date||Olympiad Date||Ptolemy's Canon||Cuneiform Kings List|
|732-727||12.1-13.2||Mukin-zeri and Pul||5||21|
|Assyrian rulers of Babylon||668-648||28.1||Shamash-shuma-ukin||20||100||Same|
|626||38.3||Sin-sumlisir and Sin-sariskun||Not listed||1 (governors)|
|560-556||55.1||Neriglissar||4||192||3 years, 8 months||-||-|
|556||56.1||Labasi-Marduk||Not listed||3 months||-||-|
|486-465||73.3||Xerxes I (Ahazarus)||21||283||Lacuna |
|465||78.4||Artabanus (7 months)||Not listed||-||-|
|334-323||111.3||Alexander the Great||8||424||7||?||?|
|317-311||115.4||Antigonus [the one-eyed]||Not listed in Ptolemy's Canon||6||?||?|
|311-281||117.2||Seleucus I Nicantor||31||25||7|
|281-261||124.4||Antiochus I Soter||22||20||32|
|261-246||129.4||Antiochus II Theos||15||15||52|
|246-225||133.3||Seleucus II Callinicus||?||20||67|
|Greek rulers of Babylon||226-223||138.3||Seleucus III||Not listed in Ptolemy's Canon||Not listed in the Uruk Kings List||3||87|
|187-175||148.2||Seleucus IV Philopator||12||125|
|175-164||151.2||Antiochus IV Epiphanes||11||137|
|Greek rulers of Egypt |
|323-285||114.2||Ptolemy I Soter||20||463||-||-|
|282-246||124.3||Ptolemy II Philadelphus||38||501|
|246-222||133.3||Ptolemy III Euergetes||25||526|
|222-205||139.3||Ptolemy IV Philopator||17||543|
|205-180||143.4||Ptolemy V Epiphanes||24||567|
|180-146||150.1||Ptolemy VI Philometor||35||602|
|145-116||158.4||Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II||29||631|
|116-80||166.1||Ptolemy IX Soter II||36||667|
|80-51||175.1||Ptolemy XII Nero Dionysus||29||696|
|51-30||182.2||Cleopatra VII Philopator||22||718|
|Assurbanipal appointed his brothers, Samas-suma-ukin and Kandalanu, to rule Babylon.|
|The Greek records have Xerxes ruling for 20 years and Artabanus for 7 months before Artaxerxes ruled 40 years|
|God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God. Romans 8: 28||Time: 600 minutes
Print: 101 pages
Updated : April 2010
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (May 2008)
Images were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.
Assyria. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria
Babylon. URL: http://www.livius.org/ba-bd/babylon/babylonian_empire.html
Medo-Persia. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Empire
Greece. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece
Rome. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome
Europe. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Europe
Dating of the Kings of Judah was from my own calculations in reading the Bible.
Verse by Verse Commentary on Daniel and Revelation from the SDA Bible Commentary.
Daniel and Revelation by Uriah Smith.
Epidemic information from Medic-Planet epidemics
High Priests of Israel. URL: http://pursiful.com/chronology/kohanim.html
What was the story with Shimon the Tzadik and Alexander the Great? URL: http://www.askmoses.com/article.html?h=591&o=541
List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jewish_leaders_in_the_Land_of_Israel
Sanhedrin. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanhedrin
The Tribe: The Cohen-Levi Family Heritage. URL: http://www.cohen-levi.org/the_tribe/timeline_of_kohanim_and_levites.htm
Jerusalem on My Mind (Jerusalem History Timeline). URL: http://www.jerusalemonmymind.com/history.html
The Land Question in Palestine. URL: www.zionism-israel.com
Lateran Pacts of 1929. URL: http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/treaty.htm
Lateran Treaty Changed - Endtime Issues April 2003. URL: http://www.endtimeissues.com/articles/60/
Milestones on the road to European unification. Presse und Informationsamt der Bundesregierung
Allah - The Moon God. URL: http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/moongod.htm
Muslim Conquests. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_conquests
Historic Worldwide Earthquakes. URL: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/historical.php
Historical earthquakes. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_earthquakes
Earthquake Facts and Statistics. URL: http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqstats.html
» Earthquake Information for the 1990s, 2000s
Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World. URL: http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqsmosde.html
Death Toll Disasters-War. URL: http://www.geocities.com/dtmcbride/hist/disasters-war.html
Pandemics. URL: http://www.apocalypse-soon.com/pandemics.htm
Climate changes of 535-536. URL: wikipedia.com
List of natural disasters by death toll. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_disasters_by_death_toll
Historic tsunamis. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historic_tsunamis
Chemical engineering timeline. URL: http://www.pafko.com/history/h_time.html
Twentieth Century Inventions. URL: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventions/
Materials Science Timeline. URL: http://matse101.mse.uiuc.edu/timeline.htm
Timeline of Historic Inventions: URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_historic_inventions
Car History - Early Cars. URL: http://www.cybersteering.com/trimain/history/ecars.html
A Brief History of Transportation. Dr. Robert Scott Seitz, III. University of Alabama, Huntsville.
History Of Agriculture. URL: iPedia.net copied from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History Of Agriculture
Cultural Astronomy: Navigational Tools. URL: http://cuip.uchicago.edu/~christie/adler/templates.htm
A Timeline of Britain. URL: http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/british.html
A Timeline of the USA. URL: http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/american.html
History of Money.
Ascent of Money. Niall Ferguson. PBS documentary. 10-17 September 2009
Frontline: The Warning. October 20, 2009. PBS television broadcast on the collapse of LTCM.
Frontline: The Card Game. November 25, 2009. PBS television broadcast. Lowell Bergman, producer.
Frontline: The Madoff Affair. May 12, 2009. Martin Smith, producer.
Crash of 1929: American Experience. Aired on PBS. 26 October 2009.
Civilian Conservaton Corp: Aired on PBS. 2 November 2009.
List of stock market crashes. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_stock_market_crashes
How Venice Rigged the First, and Worst, Global Financial Crash. Paul Gallagher, The New Federalist, and The American Almanac. URL: http://members.tripod.com/~american_almanac/pbgbardi.htm
Ponzi. URL: http://www.crimes-of-persuasion.com/Crimes/InPerson/MajorPerson/ponzi.htm
Mercantilism. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantilism
Feudalism. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feudalism
Christopher Columbus. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus
The MAAFA (enslavement of Africans) Timeline. URL: http://www.swagga.com/maafatimetable.htm
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. URL: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm?rd=1
The Chronology of Ezra 7. Siegfried H. Horn, Ph.D. URL: www.thebibleproject.com
Ptolemy's Canon of Kings URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canon_of_Kings
Elephantine papyri URL: http://www.harvardhouse.com/prophetictech/new/index.htm
Egyptian Kings (Pharaohs), Governors and Rulers. URL: http://www.touregypt.net/kings.htm
Olympiad Dates. Jerome Chronicles (2005) pp.188-332
Dum Diversas. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dum_Diversas