Creation and Flood
Facts, Myths And Legends

"Explore the Word. Change the World"
 Home  | Contact  | Become a Christian  | Lessons  | 700+ New Messianic Prophecies  | Modern Science In The Bible

> Lessons
> Symbols
> Glossary
> Daniel
> Revelation
> Creation and Evolution
> Time Line
> Maps
Study Help
> The Occult
> The Mystery of God
> The Gospel in the Sky
> Creation Legends
    » Aztec Cosmogony
    » World Tree Myths
    » Yggdrasil
> Flood Legends
    » Table of Nations
> The Dispersion
    » The Continents
    » Animals
    » People
    » Language
    » Legend
> Ark Science
> The Destruction
> Time and the Four Ages
    » The End of the World
    » The Final Battle
        • Megiddo (Jewish)
        • Hamon Gog
        • Armageddon
        • Evangelical
        • Catholic
        • Persian
        • Islam
>A Great Deception

Religions Of The World
The Judeo-Christian religion has many more elements in common with other religions than one might think. The origin of the common elements in beliefs can be explained.

Scholars and critics promote the following false assertions when they compare Christianity to the stories of other religions.

Noah: The Original Source.
Religion Chronology
Year Elapsed Event
4004 0 Creation
2348 1656 Flood
2247 1852 Babel
Nations and Stories Separated
1921 2083 Judaism Abraham called
1491 2728 Judaism Exodus, Torah
1491 Sin. 40 years in the desert
1489 2726 Other Hinduism
605 BC Jewish apostasy and captivity
618 BC 3648 Other Zoroastrianism
535 BC 3695 Other Buddhism
500 BC 3722 Other Shinto
440 BC 3808 Other Taoism
420 BC 3788 Other Janism
31 A.D. 4036 Sect of Judaism Christianity
538 Christian apostasy and captivity
610 4839 Other Islam
1530 5759 Other Sikh
The emergence of other religions corresponded to the exile of the church for apostasy
In examining these stories, I am proposing that the stories originated with the history that Noah and his family held. So now, there are up to eight minor or major variations of the same story. It is possible that while they had the same memory of the flood, that any of the three sons and the daughters-in-law could have held many personal opinions about the origins of the problems between God and Satan. They did emerge from a decadent society.

The time line in the Bible shows that from the call of Abraham, Judaism existed long before any of the surviving religions. And while the Jews were exiting Egypt, other religions were just being formally organized. Therefore, the Judeo-Christian version given in the Torah is the oldest, complete account of the history of the human race. And the differences in stories is a fascinating account of how stories develop and change as the oral tradition is passed down from one generation to another and as one culture interacts with another to modify their legends.

The Superiority Of The Hebrew God.
I am also proposing that there is no evidence that the Jews stole the theology of the Persians and Egyptians. The most complete writings on the subject are the Jewish writings which scholars choose to reject. Accepting speculation instead. The Jews were conquered by the Assyrians, Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks and Romans. It is just as valid a concept that they influenced the religion of their captors, than that they were influenced by it. This is the testimony of the bible. YHWH, the God of the Jews became famous for His ability to predict the future and demonstrate extraordinary miracles and power over the earth.

The Development Of The Myths, Legends And Stories
God Abyss Creation Sin Flood Dispersion Hebrews The End
Light Darkness World Garden of Eden Snake sacrifice
Noah Ark Rainbow Tower of Babel Abraham Last battle
Heaven Sea Adam, Eve Tree of Life Fruit 8 people Animal pairs Covenant Languages Exodus
Animal Creation Myths Snake World Tree Myths Ark Flood Myths Dispersion Moses and
The Torah,
End Time Myths
Sun Cosmogony Myths Sacrifice Common Ancestors Tribes Separated
Common Memories and Legends National Histories (Divergence Begins)
Many errors crept into the oral tradition as time and recitation of the stories continued. That is the innocent way in which errors and changes emerged. As distance and isolation continued and memories faded, regional changes evolved. And, as families rejected God their ancestors probably learned to fear nature as they sought to understand the world. Over the generations as people sought to make sense of their primitive world, more changes were introduced. As tribes and families separated, the opinion of the dominant male or the spiritual leader influenced the elements of the stories.
Satan also existed to assist in distorting the original knowledge. But God intervened on Mount Sinai to restore the truth to Moses. But these are the myths and legends that should share some common information.

El ElyonChief GodZeus Jupiter
Common Themes
It is not a coincidence that the common legends appear to explain life before the flood and the resolution at the end of time. They explain how it began and how it will end. The rest of their legends involve history that is unique to the culture.


Similarities of Sacred Objects
CherokeeHebrew Comment
One Great Spirit One God Monotheistic
YOWA YHWH The name sounds alike
Quartz crystals Urim,
Sacred gemstones
The Ark The Ark A sacred ark in a holy place
Council House Sanctuary The Ark and sacred objects were kept there
Seven Seven
The number seven is sacred
Chief (Uku) Dance Land Sabbath Festival every seven years
Smoke Incense Prayer, the messenger
Eagle Eagle One of the four faces of the cherubim
Rattlesnake Serpent Satan is important
Corn Grain Used in sacrifices

The Cherokee Religion.
The Cherokee consisted of seven nations whose territory covered the western half and central United States. Let us compare this religion to the Hebrews to find some very surprising similarities.

» Name of God. They believe in one supreme being name YOWA whose name was so sacred that only certain priests were allowed to say it. The Jews also would not say or write the name of God named YHWH (YAHWEH).
Although they are monotheistic, the Cherokee believe that YOWA was a unity of three beings called "The Elder Fires Above" (CHO TA AUH NE LE EH). The Jews have no trace of this plurality except in the plural words used for God, such as Elohim.
» Fire God. God is always pictured in vision as being on fire from His feet to His waist. His throne sits above the stones of fire.
» Sanctuary. Inside the Council house was the Ark which contained a large quartz crystal. Inside the Most Holy Place was the Ark of the covenant which contained the ten commandments written on a blue sapphire stone called lapis lazuli.
» Sacred Objects. Eagle, eagle feathers, rattlesnake, fire, smoke, sun, moon, corn, seven, quartz cyrstal and the ark.
» Symbols. Some of the symbolic objects in the sanctuary were given human qualities.

MonthCherokeeHebrew Comment
March? Passover First new moon of Spring
SeptemberDonagohuni New wine, oil Ripe corn ceremony
SeptemberElawatalegi Yom Kippur Bouncing Bush feast
OctoberNuwatiegwa Trumpets Great new moon ceremony
OctoberAtohuna Tabernacles Friendship ceremony
7 YearsUku Dance Land Sabbath Jubilee and land Sabbath
Feast Days. Although most cultures appear to celebrate important feasts in spring and autumn, the Cherokee festivals have some other similarities. Tabernacles is a friendship ceremony with God.
The similarities in these cultures can be explained by one common ancestor. Although God formally introduced these ceremonies to the Jews 4000 years ago, it is obvious that they were given to Adam and Noah. The fact that the Cherokee have so much less corruption in their ancient religion points to the fact that they may have separated and migrated very early after the flood and their ancestor was loyal to YHWH. The other remote possibility is that they are descendants of the Jews or Gentiles who met Moses or faithful Jews.

The Navaho Hogan.
The Navaho traditionally build their living space with certain key features placed in designated directions. The placement is similar to the sanctuary.

Sin And Death.
Besides the concept of the nature of God, Satan has concentrated the bulk of his distortions on the mystery of sin and death. These are unwanted common experiences in our current reality. But the fear and mystery surrounding them has created many myths.

In many myths, Satan tries to give himself an equal status with God. In doing this he not only raises his stature, he also lowers the nature of God so that God is vulnerable and is also capable of evil. One universal image of Satan is the serpent. He is the serpent in the sea that surrounds the earth and he is the serpent in the world tree who is an integral part of the structure of the world. This symbolism is supported by the Bible. But is the symbolism also based in reality as many of the other biblical symbols are?

The Bible says that Satan was responsible for luring the first humans into sin. As a consequence, he was restricted to the earth. Many people have tried to speculate about his nature. Is he invisible, occupying the same coordinates as the human race as an unseen peeping Tom. Or does he also have a visible form? Does he also have an assigned physical place on the earth? If it is visible and concrete, where could this place be?

Many beliefs consistently assign him to living in the sea and controlling hell somewhere under the ground. The fact that the dead must be buried under the earth even links these concepts symbolically.
The surface of the earth is over two thirds ocean and mostly unexplored. Does Satan physically live in the depths of the unexplored ocean, under the sea and under the earth? If that is so, is that the source of the beliefs that hell is now underground and the legends about the dragon who is restricted to the sea?

The City Of Atlantis. Is this the source of the legends of Atlantis, the city under the sea and the reports of unidentified flying objects entering and leaving the sea? If so, then we cannot go there because God has set boundaries and Satan is the source of UFO reports. Satan lives under the sea and launches plots and schemes to confuse and terrorize humans.
The Legends of Atlantis and Lamuria (Mu) could also be the result of stories told by the children of Noah. If they described the incredible civilization and technology that existed before the flood that is now lost under the sea it would be the truth behind this legend. So Atlantis is not a city that was built under the sea, it is a city that was submerged under the sea at the time of the flood.

The bible is very clear about the stages of the exile of Satan.
TimeBefore Sin After Sin Millennium
LocationHeaven Sea Earth
Physical Heaven Thrown from Heaven.
Dragon lives in the sea
Sea Sea Dries Up.
Dragon in the abyss
Earth Destroyed. Sea gone
Symbolic Good Angels Wicked People The wicked are all dead
Status No evil in Heaven Satan is restricted to the earth (ocean) Satan is restricted to the surface of the earth

The sea is symbolic of the wicked and the persecuting dragon of Revelation 12-13 is restricted to the sea. He controls the wicked. So, when symbolism and reality merges, Satan is the serpent who lives in the sea, who also controls the sea of wicked people. Satan is the architect of death who lives under the surface of the earth and greets all the unconscious dead bodies who go back to the earth.

So the vast majority of the distortions about our concepts of God are related to the nature of God and death. Changes to common stories are related to these distortions and the gradual loss of detail after years of the oral tradition.
So we can assume from the common remaining elements that there is a God, there was a flood, a serpent and there was darkness and a great sea at the beginning of creation.


The flood story is the most common and persistent legend around all cultures. Many of them only have a few things in common. There was a flood that destroyed the world, a human and some animals were saved by going up a high mountain in a sealed vessel and life restarted afterwards. The inclusion of a rainbow and the dispersion of races by language appears in a few legends.

All major religions include a final destruction, a final battle and a new creation after a steady decline in morals and nature. This has resulted in two views of time. One is linear and the other cyclic. Linear time has only one final new creation, while cyclic time has an infinite number. Reincarnation is a feature of cyclic time.

Creation And Cosmogony Legends

Sound: From The Voice Of God.
The Structure of the Universe
God exists
Sea of Glass
2HeavenOuter space
1 The sky above
1 Earth Land sea Leviathan
2 Sheol (the grave)
Day Creation
1 Brought light. Made day and night.
2 Separated sea and sky
3 Separated sea and earth. Made trees
4 Sun, moon and stars
5 Fish and birds
6 Land animals and humans
7 The Sabbath rest and the week
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. Then God said "Let there be light"; and there was light. (Genesis 1: 1-3)
Most creation legends begin with a dark void of nothingness. YHWH also created time and the physical world from nothing, or from "things that cannot be seen". He spoke and the physical objects, including time, were created in seven days.

By faith we understand that the ages were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things that are visible. (Hebrews 11: 3)

» Earth. In Genesis 1, the Judeo-Christian story also begins with a void in the part of space that would become our universe. The world emerged from the will of God by the sound of the voice of God. So the thing that cannot be seen is the electromagnetic waves of the sound of the voice of God. God created with sound waves, by using His voice and speaking the physical world into existence. This is absolutely scientific. All atoms are a bundle of electromagnetic waves. However, God already existed and the story does not attempt to explain how He came to be. So the Bible only describes the creation of our universe.
» Sea. The creation continued when the earth and heavens were carved out of water. The story supports the idea that while the earth sits in water, there may be a ceiling of water that exists outside the heavens that we see. Beyond outer space.
Symbolically, the salty sea that is part of the earth is where the snake Leviathan lives. The symbols of God always have a basis in reality. Perhaps when Satan and his angels were banished to earth, they were confined to living their physical existence under the ocean. And there must be a law in place that prevents our physical worlds from colliding. And perhaps the myths about hell being located under the earth is based on the fact that Satan lives there.
» Underworld. The underworld is simply the earth where the dead are buried beneath the surface of the earth. They are unconscious and unaware in Sheol. The breath of God which also gave them life goes back to God. But it is not a conscious entity living in a particular place. It probably contains information about our memories and personalities so that God can recreate us with new bodies.
» Heaven. The New Testament adds one other detail about this cosmology. There are three levels of heaven. The first is the sky and atmosphere that we can see. The second is outer space. The third is the highest heavens where God lives.
I know a man ... such a man was caught up to the third heaven. (2 Corinthians 12: 2)

» The Sea of Glass. This could be the layer of waters above the earth, between outer space and the earth that we cannot see. Revelation states that God will come from the east and that we will stand on "the Sea of Glass" as we go back to heaven (Revelation 15). Adventists also think that God will come through the constellation of Orion. The schedule of the actions of God seem to indicate that the Second Coming will happen during the time of the Feast of Tabernacles. This is between September to October. A meteor shower which is caused by Halley's comet appears in the Orion constellation in late October.

The Dark Abyss Of Water
I chose a few examples of the creation from a dark void. Either an egg or a person was produced from this void. In these myths, water was a part of the beginning. It is interesting that science concludes that water was needed to start life and that the planets were once covered in water.
These stories also shared some other common features. The order of creation was the abyss, darkness, fire or light, sea, sky and earth, sun, moon and stars, then plants and animals and man.

From The Mind Of God.
Hindu legends vary. Brahma is sometimes said to be self-created, or born from a lotus out of Vishnu's navel, or hatched from the cosmic egg. In another myth, creation came from the tears of Prajapati.

Hindu. In the beginning there was a single soul who looked around and saw nothing but itself. Since it was lonely it wanted a companion so it split into two, a man and a woman. They had intercourse and other human beings were born. Then the woman thought that it was wrong to have intercourse since they came from the same soul. So she tried to hide herself and became a cow. He became a bull and had intercourse and all cattle were born. Then she changed herself into a mare and he became a stallion and horses were born. This continued until all creatures down to the smallest insect were created.
After this, the man realized that he is creation. This created world will last 4,320,000,000 years.
Mixtec. When all was chaos and confusion, the earth was covered with water, there was only mud and slime on the surface of the earth. At that time there became visible, the god One-Deer, who had the surname Snake of the Lion. There was also a goddess, very genteel and beautiful, whose name was also One-Deer, and whose surname was Snake of the Tiger. They are the beginning of all other gods. As soon as these two gods became visible on earth in human form, with their power and wisdom they made a large stone on which they built a very sumptuous mansion. The stone was called "the place where the heavens were", which was their seat and residence on earth. This large stone and the mansion was on a very high hill. A garden was planted on the mountaintop.

The Cosmic Egg.
Theory of Natural Selection and the Survival of the Fittest.
The world emerged from an egg that holds the seeds of life. The shell became the structure that held the sky and the earth. After drawing the representation of the cosmos that I think is correct, I realize that it looks like an egg. The yolk is represented by the earth. And it is surrounded by air and water. So it makes me wonder if the ancients used an egg to explain how the cosmos is structured and it was morphed into the cosmic egg. It would also explain the belief that we are the center of the universe. Even the connection to the heavens by a bridge over the sea of glass reminds me that the yoke is connected to the shell with a string.

Like Ymir, the earth was created with the body of PanGu. But he also supported the egg before he died.
Chinese. In the beginning there was nothing in the universe except a formless chaos. However this chaos began to coalesce into a cosmic egg for eighteen thousand years.
» PanGu, The Giant. When the opposing principles of yin and yang became balanced within the egg, PanGu emerged from the egg. He is usually depicted as a primitive hairy giant dressed in furs. PanGu began the task of creating the world. He separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth (murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, PanGu stood between them and took up the Sky. This task took eighteen thousand years, with each day the sky grew ten feet higher, the Earth ten feet wider, and PanGu ten feet taller. In some versions of the story, PanGu is aided in this task by the four beasts; the Turtle, Qilin, Phoenix and the Dragon
» The World. After the eighteen thousand years had elapsed, PanGu was laid to rest. His breath became the wind his voice the thunder, his left eye the sun and right eye the moon. His body became the mountains and his blood formed rivers. His muscles formed the fertile lands and his facial hair made the stars and milky way; His fur became the bushes and forests, his bones were the valuable minerals, his bone marrow is sacred diamonds and his sweat fell as rain.
» Humans. The fleas on his body carried by the wind became human beings all over the world.

Hindu. This universe existed in the shape of darkness, unperceived as if it were in deep sleep. Then the Divine Self-existent appeared with power and dispelled the darkness. He is eternal and he contains all created beings and shone forth of his own will. He first created the waters with a thought and placed his seed in them. That seed became a golden egg, as bright as the sun. In that egg he himself was born as Brahma. The Divine One resided in that egg during a whole year, then by his thought he divided it into two halves. And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters. From himself he also drew forth the mind and self-consciousness. He created the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation and all beings.
» The Time Cycle. They believe that the world is created and destroyed in cycles of 4,320,000,000 years.

Mithraism . Mithra was born from a cosmic egg on December 25.

Greco-Roman Chaos. Chaos was the primordial void that existed before order became imposed on the universe and from which all created things originated, including the gods. Proceeding from time, Chaos eventually formed a huge egg from which was issued his children Nyx (darknos), Eros (gravity) and Ge or Gaia (Earth).
» The World. Gaia created Ouranos, the starry sky. Ouranos, Gaia and Eros created the mountains, sea, rivers, lakes and the Titans.
The Covenant Curse
Notice how the elements of the curses in the covenant are in the struggle between Ouranos and Kronos.
» Circumcision. Cutting off the foreskin of the penis was almost like castration.
» Cannibalism. The people will be forced to cannibalize their children and even eat their afterbirth (Deuteronomy 28: 54-58)
In the curse, Satan forced Christ to be cut off and childless, while the people symbolically chewed Him up like cannibals.

» Titans, The Giants. Ouranos entombed the Titans in the earth, so Gaia conspired with the Titan, Kronos to hurt Ouranos. Kronos removed the testicles of Ouranos with a sickle. The blood flowed to the earth and created the Erinyes who were the punishers of crime against nature and God. When Ouranos threw the testicles into the primeval sea, Pontos, it foamed and produced Aphrodite, the goddess of love. So Kronos and the Titans ruled the world. The cycle of sun and moon, day and night and death were established during their rule. Helios, Selene, Promethus were also born.
Kronos married his sister Rhea and she gave birth to five children, Hestia, Hers, Demeter, Poseidon and Hades. Kronos ate them in his jealousy. Gaia and Ouranos helped their daughter Rhea to hide the sixth child, Zeus. They tricked him into swallowing a stone instead. Zeus would later revolt against his father and the Titans. Kronos was forced to give birth to the five children he swallowed. They also fought their father. The Olympian gods succeeded and the Titans were banished to Tartarus. Chronos escaped to Italy and ruled as Saturn during the golden age.
Jesus is Ouranos and the Titans are Satan and his angels. God banished Satan and his angels to the earth. With the help of humans and the Romans, they circumcised Christ at the crucifixion.
» Humans. Life on the earth and humans evolved as the gods and the Titans fought. Zeus gave birth to Athena, Apollon, Artemis, Hermes, Ares, Hephaestos and Persephone and Dionysos. These shared their gifts and knowledge with humans.
Roman Version: Prometheus Creates Man. At the time of the creation, the new Earth was covered with vegetation, and creatures of all kinds. Eros thought that he should give them instincts to help them to preserve and enjoy the life they had received. So he called two titans, the youngest sons of Iapetus (Prometheus and Epimetheus) to help him. He told them to make gifts to all living creatures and create a superior being, called Man, to rule over all the others. They used clay to mold an image similar in form to the gods. Then they asked Eros to breathe into its nostrils the spirit of life, and Minerva to give it a soul. Then man lived.

Prometheus observed man and longed to bestow upon him some great power, unshared by any other creature of earth, which would raise him far above all other living beings, and bring him nearer to the perfection of the immortal gods. So he stole fire from Olympus and gave it to man. When Jupiter discovered the theft he sentenced Prometheus to eternal suffering. He was chained to a rock on the Caucasian Mountains where a vulture fed on his liver each day. The liver grew back at night causing him a cycle of eternal punishment. After many centuries of woe, Hercules, son of Jupiter and Alcmene, found Prometheus, killed the vulture, broke the adamantine chains, and liberated the long-suffering god.

From The Body Of A Giant.
Monster Mutation Theory.
The world was created from the parts of a god or a giant dead body. Our ancestors were giants over ten feet tall, so they appear in every myth. The dimensions of the ark supports the occupation of people twelve to fifteen feet tall. For an emergency vehicle, there is no reason why each floor was so high unless the adult humans were extremely tall.

We believe that Adam and his children were very tall and the average age was over 700 years. After the flood, the population grew much smaller and lived an average age of 70 years.
Norse Ginnungagap. Before creation there was a vast, empty chasm named Ginnungagap. It was between Niflheim in the north and Muspelheim in the south. Muspelheim was the land of fire. Niflheim was the land of darkness, cold and ice and it is the source of all rivers. In Niflheim was a frozen spring called Hvergelmir from which the Elivagar flowed. This was eleven rivers named Svol, Gunnthra, Fiorm, Fimbulthul, Slidr, Hrid, Sylg, Ylg, Vid, Leiptr, and Gioll.
» Ymir, The Giant. Life began in the middle of the abyss. Here water from Niflheim met fire from Muspelheim and melted the Hvergelmir and formed the primeval giant named Ymir and the cow named Audhumbla. Ymir drank her milk for food. Ymir became the father of a race of frost giants. As he slept, his sweat produced a male and female giant and his legs formed a male giant. The cow licked a block of ice into the shape of a man named Buri, who was the first God. He was the grandfather of Odin, Vili and Ve. Ymir eventually became evil and was killed by Odin, Vili and Ve. His body was used to create Yggdrasil, the tree of life that supports the cosmos.
» The World. With Ymir's dead body Odin and his brothers created the world in the middle of Ginnungagap. Of Ymir's blood the sea, of his flesh the fertile land, of his bones the mountains, of teeth and shattered bones came cliffs, boulders and loose rocks. From his skull the heavens were created, from his hair came trees and plants, from his brain the clouds. Midgard was created between his eyebrows. The sun, moon and stars were created from sparks in Muspelheim.
» Humans. The first man and woman (Askr and Embla) were created from trees lying on the beach.

Babylon. Tiamat is a huge female dragon that personifies the saltwater ocean, the water of chaos. She is also the primordial mother of all that exists, including the gods themselves. Her consort is Apsu, the freshwater God. From their union, saltwater with freshwater, the first pair of gods were born. Their descendants started to irritate Tiamat and Apsu so they decided to kill them. The offspring discovered their plans and one managed to kill Apsu while he was asleep. Tiamat flew into a rage when she learned about Apsu's death and wanted to avenge her husband. She created an army of monstrous creatures, which was to be led by her new consort Kingu, who is also her son. Eventually, Tiamat was defeated by the young god Marduk, who was born in the deep freshwater apsu.
» The World. Marduk cleaved her body in half. He created the sky from the upper half and he made the earth from the lower half. The clouds came from her water and her tears became the source of the Tigris and the Euphrates.
» Humans. Kingu also died, and from his blood Marduk created the first humans.

Giant Task
On The Backs Of Giants.
Capture Theory.
While the following do not tell how the world was created, they explain how the world is being supported. Previous examples show how the universe has been supported internally while it was being formed. Now we see how the current world is being supported externally.

The Four Corners Of The World.
The Flat Earth
Until the nineteenth century everyone believed that the earth was flat. And, if you sailed far enough you could fall off the edge of the earth or be gobbled up by sea monsters waiting there for hapless sailors.

Geologic Column Theory.
If you conceive the world as a flat disc, then one way to support it is by lifting the four corners with strong creatures or with columns. The sky is also supported by pillars so that it remains separated from the earth and does not crush us.

The Bible also describes the earth as being set on pillars. So this theory dates back to the beginning of time. We will explore this below.

String Theory.
The World on a String
Another way to support the earth is to suspend it on strings.

Cherokee. The earth is a great island floating in a sea of water, and suspended at each of the four cardinal points by a cord hanging down from the sky vault, which is of solid rock. When the world grows old and worn out, the people will die and the cords will break and let the earth sink down into the ocean, and all will be water again.
» Humans. Men came after the animals and plants. At first there were only a brother and sister until he struck her with a fish and told her to multiply, and so it was. In seven days a child was born to her, and thereafter every seven days another, and they increased very fast until there was danger that the world could not keep them. Then it was made that a woman should have only one child in a year, and it has been so ever since.

The Axis Mundi (The Pole Star).
So the world has been created and it is being supported, so why is it spinning?
Since they could discern a pattern of revolution in the heavens, the ancients theorized that the universe revolved around a pole, or a cosmic axis. This pole came through the center of the earth at the navel or the world axis. This does not destroy the other theories, it just places everything on a spin cycle. The shape of this pole is either a pole, a cone or an hour glass.

Omphalos (The Navels of the World).
There were many places that were considered the navels of the world, the center of access to God.

Aztec Cosmogony: Cipactli, The Serpent In The Void.
This legend places the entire heavens and earth inside of a creature, spinning around a central world axis in Mexico.

Section WorldOccupant Serpent Cipactli
13HeavenOmeyocánOmeteotl Head
9-12All other gods
7 Blue heaven
6 Night sky
1-5 Sun, moon, stars, comets, planets
1Earth WestQuetzalcoatl Tlaticpac
(for the Dead)
ChalmecacivatiBabies, children
Tamoanchan Pregnant Women
Tlalocan Drowned
(Under World)
Baator Treacherous riverTail
2 Acheron Mountains shake
3 Avalas Huitzilopachtli
4 Ocanthus Xiuhtecuhtli
5 Mechanus -
6 Arcadia -
7 Mt. Celestia Quetzalcoatl
8 Arborea Tlalocan
9 MictlanNine rivers, rest South is traditionally to the left
Note: The names of the first eight levels of hell may be incorrect

Aztec Creation. In the beginning there was nothing but a void. Then Ometeotl, the first god who was both masculine and feminine created himself. Ometeotl spawned four children who created our visible world. These children are separate, yet the same, and they are referred to as the four manifestations of one god, Tezcatlipoca. After 600 years they began creation. They created water, the god Tlaloc and his goddess. and then they created Cipactli, the serpent that floats in the void. They created the whole universe within the body of Cipactli by dividing his body into two parts. One part made the heavens and the other part made the earth and the underworld. The central region where the humans lived was called Tlaticpac.
» Pole Star. The earth was divided into four regions with the world axis (Axis Mundi) at the center navel. Four sacred trees were used to support the heaven and earth. The pole star is the pivot point of the Aztec universe with thirteen domed regions revolving around it and nine underworlds below.
» Heaven. Thirteen heavens exist in Cipactli's head. Ometeotl lives by himself in the thirteenth heaven.
» Earth. The earth is a great, flat disc located in the middle of Cipactli's body and is surrounded by the Celestial Waters. So it is called Cem-á-nahuac, which means "that which is surrounded by water". The world is divided into four quadrants with the navel at the center. » Underworld. Nine underworlds go down the length of Cipactli's tail. Souls of those whose manner of death failed to call them to various paradises in the north were sent on a four year journey of trials through the nine hells of Mictlan. At the first level they cross a treacherous river with the help of the dog headed god, Xolotl. Then they must pass through the shaking and crashing mountains and other trials. These tests are a gigantic snake, a large lizard, eight deserts, eight hills, and a wind with obsidian knives. In the lowest level the last obstacle is crossing the extension of the Nine Waters of the great river Chicunanhuapan on the back of a red dog. Then they reach the region of rest. Mictlan is a vast cave filled with skeletons.
» Humans. Humanity was created by Quetzalcóatl in an act of self sacrifice. With the help of his twin, Xólotl, the dog-headed god, he succeeded in reviving the dried bones of the old dead in Mictlan by sprinkling them with his own blood. The sun and moon were also created by an act of self sacrifice. When the gods, assembled in the darkness at Teotihuacán they built a huge fire. Then two of them, Nanahuatzin a small deity covered with ulcers, and Tecciztécatl, a richly bejeweled god, threw themselves into the flames. Nanahuatzin became the sun and Tecciztécatl became the moon. Then the sun refused to move unless the other gods gave him their blood. They were compelled to sacrifice themselves to feed the sun.

The Tree Of Life Myths
Instead of a pole that unites heaven to earth, many cultures have a myth about a world tree which sustains the Universe and unites Heaven and Earth. God lives in the top where the tree meets the heavens. The roots are the underworld where the dead exist. The source of this myth is from a combination of the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. These trees caused the separation of the worlds when sin began.

Mayan Cosmogony: Yaxche, The Great, Green, Ceiba Tree Of Abundance.
The tree of life was set up as a pillar of the sky and the axis of the earth was set up when the world was created. The roots lie in the nine levels of the underworld, Xibalba. The trunk is in mid earth and the leaves are in the thirteen levels of heaven.
There are also four trees in the earth that are planted in the four directions. A white tree in the north, red in the east, yellow in the south and black in the west.

Whac Chan (Wakah Chan). This is another name for the tree of life that is also the Milky Way.

Norse Cosmogony: Yggdrasil, The World Tree.
The Norse myth about the tree named Yggdrasil is the most complete and elaborate of these myths. It is not only a simple tree of life as in Christianity, it is the structure by which the whole cosmos is maintained. We will use this to demonstrate the equivalent realities in Christianity.
Norse MythologyChristian Equivalent
Yggdrasil World TreeTree of Life
1Asgard Warrior godsHeaven God
2Vanaheim Nature gods God
3Alfheim Light elves Good angels
4Midgard HumansEarth Humans
5Svartalheim Dark elves Evil angels
6Jotunheim Giants Giants (Nephilim)
7Niflheim Ice, cold, darkHell
Darkness of the abyss
8Muspelheim Flame land Flames of Hell
9Helheim Dead Dead (Sheol)
Mountain MountainMount Zion
Ginnungagap The GapThe Abyss at creation
Bifrost Rainbow BridgeSea of Glass
Ragnarok Last battleArmageddon
Nidhogg Eats yggdrasilSatan, the snake who destroys
Jormungand Snake in the seaSatan, the snake Leviathan

The Nine Worlds of Yggdrasil.
These are interesting because they are the representation of where certain people and events occur in the past, present and future of Christian beliefs.

Persian Cosmogony: The Seven Karshvars And The Saena Tree.
Seven Karshvars LocationComment
1Vourubaresti North West Details are not known
2Vourugaresti North East
3Arezahi West
4Savahi East
5Fradadhafshu South West
6Vidadhafshu South East
7Hvaniratha Center Land of Humans
Mount Hara (Alburz) Source of light and water
Chinvat Bridge Bridge of Judgment
Gaokerena tree Gives immortality to the resurrected
Veh Daiti (Veh Rod) East river
Raha? West river
Vourukasha Sea Gathering point of all water
Harahvaiti (Arax) River that feeds the Vourukasha sea
White Bull First animal. Source of all animals
Saena Bird Head of a dog and body of a fowl
Gayomartan He was the first man
Rivas plant Source of a mortal man and woman
Saena Tree Tree of all remedies, tree of all seeds
After 6000 years, the evil Ahriman dug a hole in the ground and created hell and purgatory.

Many stories are about a tree that supports the entire world. But in one myth, humans came from a plant. An abyss existed for 3000 years then Ahuramazda created the universe in seven steps.
Origin of the Myth of Seven Worlds
How did these ideas develop? These seven worlds are separated by a salty ocean and that gives us a clue. From their position in the ark or on top of the mountain, Noah and his sons probably saw seven distinct, inaccessible islands or mountain peaks separated by water.
The flood caused salty water to come to the surface of the earth that had previously been fresh water. The great salty sea became prevalent in their myths because this was a new experience for them. They probably witnessed the breakup of the continents. In all these myths humans only lived on one of the worlds because Noah and his family lived on only one of these islands.
From his view above mount Ararat, 17000 feet (5137 m) above sea level, which mountain peaks could he have seen rising above the water?
In the area were Caucasus, Elburz, Zagros, Panrus, Taurus and Kurdistan mountains.
Further away were Everest (8848 m), Himalayas, Pamirs, Karakoram, Carpathian and the Alps.

  1. The great crystalline sky which was a round empty shell made of rock crystal, passing beneath as well as above the earth. It contained the sun, moon, stars and twelve constellations of the zodiac.
  2. The bright waters
  3. The earth with its rivers and oceans and continents
  4. Sweet vegetation which nourishes
  5. The beneficent animals
  6. Humans
  7. Fire

The cosmos is composed of seven disconnected karshvars or keshvar (zones, regions, earths or worlds). They are separated by an ocean. The Hindus also have a concept of seven dvipas (islands).

  1. Vourubaresti in the northwest.
  2. Vourugaresti in the northeast.
  3. Arezahi in the west.
  4. Savahi in the east.
  5. Fradadhafshu in the southwest.
  6. Vidadhafshu in the southeast.
  7. Khvaniras or Khvanirath or Hvaniratha in the center is the only karshvar that is inhabited by men. It is larger than all the other six regions combined.
    » Mountain. For 800 years Mount Hara (Alburz) grew in Khvaniras like a tree its roots, sinking deep underground to invisibly connect and nourish all of its chain. It took 200 years to reach the stars, another 200 years to reach the moon, then the sun and then the endless light. At the peak of this mountain is attached the Chinvat Bridge of Judgment over which pass souls freed from their bodies of earth to continue their unending progression through regions of bliss, or to purgation and hell. Alburz was the source of light and water. As it grew it sprouted 2244 other mountains. The stars, moon and sun revolved around this peak of Hara.
    » Water. The Vourukasha Sea was the gathering point of water. This sea occupied "one third of the earth, to the south. It was fed by a huge river, the Harahvaiti. Two great rivers flowed out from the sea to the east and the west, to form the boundaries of the inhabited world. The River Veh Daiti (Veh Rod) flowed to the east. The rivers were cleansed as they passed around the earth and, when they returned to the Vourukasha, their clean water was taken back up to the Peak of Hara.
    » Trees of Life.
    » Animals. The first animal in the world is a uniquely created white bull as bright as the moon. It lived on the bank of the River Veh Daiti. It was killed by Angra Mainyu, the Evil Spirit, and its seed was carried up to the moon. This purified seed produced many species of animals and It sprouted into plants when part of it fell to the ground.
    » People. On the opposite bank lived Gayomartan (Gayomard). He was the first man, who was as wide as he was tall and as bright as the sun. He was slain by Angra Mainyu (Ahriman), but the sun purified his seed and, after forty years, a rhubarb plant sprang from it. The Rivas or rhubarb plant which was born from Gayomard grows up and contains the bodies of the first mortal man and woman (Mashya and Mashyanag). They receive the breath of life. They were beguiled by Angra Mainyu and turned to him as the creator and committed the first sin.
    » Sin Begins. After 3000 years of good reigned under Ahuramazda, in the year 6000 of time, the 3000 year reign of evil Ahirman began. At the head of millions of fiends, he rushed into the material world, mixed smoke with fire, corrupted the waters, sowed thorns in the earth, covered the trees with bark, destroyed the vegetation, killed the Primeval Ox and distressed Gayomard, and created billions of noxious creatures such as ants, lice, locusts, and destructive beasts. He also dug a great hole in the earth and established there the infernal regions of hell and purgatory. He debased all mankind by filling them with evil thoughts and wicked desires; he made them vicious and corrupt. He filled the world with misery. Nature itself served his evil purpose, and generated storms, drought, earthquakes, and devastating cold. The human race seemed destined only for suffering, extinction, and the everlasting fires of hell. After 300 years he sent a devastating frost for seven years. It almost wiped out the world.
    Instead of peace and harmony, their world was filled with corruption and evil. Only after fifty years were they able to produce offspring, but the first twins were eaten by their parents. After a long period of childlessness another set of twins was finally born, and from these sprang the Persians race.

The Divine Comedy And Dante's Inferno: The Nine Levels Of Hell.
Here we see the Pagan structure of hell as a part of a Christian belief. It is the medieval world view of the afterlife. Around 1300AD, Dante claimed to have a vision of the structure of heaven, purgatory and hell and the journey of the dead.
The Nine Circles of Hell
Sin Occupant Terrain
1Limbo The unbaptized and virtuous pagans Green fields, castle
2Lust Blown by a violent storm, no rest Violent storms
3Glutton Consume their excrement Muddy, cold rain, hail
4Greedy Hoarded goods Push great weight against each other
Prodigals Squandered goods
5Wrathful They fight Swamp waters of the river Styx
Sullen Lie beneath the river
6Heretics Trapped in flaming tombs Flaming tombs
7Violent to others and property Homicide, vandalism Phlegethon, River of boiling blood
Violent to self Suicide Thorn bushes and trees chased by ferocious dogs
Violent to God and nature Blasphemers, sodomite, userer Desert of flaming sand and rain of fiery flakes
8 Those who perpetrate fraud Ten ditches connected by bridges
Panderer, seducer Scourged by horned demons
Flatter Immersed in Excrement
Simony Put head first in holes in a rock, with flames burning the soles of their feet
Astrologer, false prophet, sorcerer Head twisted back. They walk backwards
Corrupt politicians Lake of boiling pitch
Hypocrites Wear lead cloaks
Thieves Pursued and bitten by snakes
False Advisors Encased in flames
Sew discord and schism Hacked by demons with swords
Perjury, alchemy, counterfeit Diseases
9Betray family Caina Sunk in ice head down
Political traitors Antenora Gnawed on their heads
Betray guests Ptolomaea Heads up in ice
Betray benefactor Judecca Completely immersed in ice. Home of Satan
Seven Terraces of the Mountain of Purgatory
1Proud Carry giant stones on their back
2Envious Their eyes are sewn shut
3Wrathful They walk around in acrid smoke
4Slothful They must run continually
5Greedy Lay face down on the ground
6Gluttonous Abstain from food and drink. Passing cascades of cool water and forbidden fruit
7Lustful Burn in an immense wall of flame
Garden of Eden Located on the summit of mount purgatory
Nine Spheres of Paradise (Heaven)
1Moon Those who abandoned vows
2Mercury Did good for fame
3Venus Did good because of love
4Sun Wise
5Mars Those who fought for Christianity
6Jupiter Justice
7Saturn The contemplative, e.g. monks
8Stars All the blessed
9Primium Mobile Angels

Fairy Tales And Nursery Rhymes
Let us take a look at an ancient and modern fairy tale. It appears that they might have been used to tell biblical truths. If so they are based on common beliefs about sin and the plan of salvation, not simply on the imagination of the author. With that understanding, the basic teaching of the story is their truth because it is based on the author's belief that it is true.
Nursery Rhyme
Ring around the rosie
A pocket full of posies
Ashes, ashes
We all fall down!

This nursery rhyme became famous during "black death" or the plagues in Europe. A sign of the plague was the circular swelling on the body. People believed that posies or a bag filled with crushed flowers and herbs might protect them.
"Ashes, ashes" is the sound they made when they sneezed. Sneezing was a symptom of the plague. But eventually they "all fell down" or died.

Snow White. The names have changed but it is the same story. A woman disobeys a warning and eats a fruit that causes her eternal sleep. A prince on a white horse who comes from a far country will awaken her and they live happily ever after.

» Snow White. The perfect condition of Eve before she sinned.
» Warning. Seven dwarves warned Snow White not to open the door to strangers. God warned Eve not to eat the fruit.
» The Wicked Step Mother. Anger, jealousy and pride caused her to murder Snow White by giving her a poisoned apple. Just like Satan. He was full of pride and jealous of God. He tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit.
» Wicked Witch. This is Satan who tempts Eve.
» Eats an Apple. Eve eats a fruit which kills her and Snow White eats an apple which causes her to sleep forever.
» Falls Asleep. Eve also falls asleep and sleeps the sleep of death. Jesus refers to death as a sleep. It is possible that the act of sleeping came to the planet the moment she sinned, just like rain came to the planet after the flood. Sleep is a sign of the death that would come to her. If this is what happened then God is correct because she died the day that she sinned and began the process of physical deteoriation and her body began the process of repair which is a function of sleep.
» Washing. The dwarves washed her with water and wine. This is baptism and the blood of Jesus which gives new life.
» Resurrection. A prince saves her by removing the offensive apple. The story of Sleeping Beauty also uses this theme. A beautiful princess who was condemned to death because of a malicious fairy. But a good fairy changed the curse. The princess falls asleep instead and the entire castle falls asleep for a long time until a prince from a far away land awakens her with His love. The entire castle is also rescued.
When Eve sinned, the entire world fell asleep in death with her until Jesus comes from a far country to rescue them.
» The Prince. Jesus, the Prince of the Covenant, comes as a king on a white horse to rescue His bride.
» Punishment. The wicked queen was forced to dance in red hot shoes until she died. Satan will dance in the red hot fires of hell until he is dead.
» They Lived Happily Ever After. Heaven will last forever. The church is the bride of Christ and God lives with us.

The Whizard Of Oz. This is a modern story of the ancient struggle between God and Satan in which humans have gotten involved. But heaven has the remedy which will take us back home.

» Dorothy. The lost girl who wanted to go home to Kansas. Eve is the lost woman who wanted her previous life.
» Cowardly Lion. He needed courage. We need courage.
» Silly Scarecrow. He needed a brain. We need wisdom.
» Emotionless Tin Man. He needed a heart. We need love.
» The Wicked Witch of the West. She was killed by melting her with water. The power of evil is broken by the power of the Holy Spirit. Water is used to represent the Spirit and our cleansing.
» The Good Witch of the East. She gave Dorothy the ruby shoes and told her to follow the yellow brick road to the emerald city. Jesus comes from the East to rescue His people.
» Field of Dreams. They encounter a poppy field where the evil witch tries to make them fall asleep. This is the sleep of death that Satan lured us into when Eve sinned. This field of dreams is death.
» Ruby Red Shoes. This will get her home, like the red blood of Christ.
» Yellow Brick Road. Heaven has streets of gold.
»The Emerald City. In heaven, God sits with an emerald rainbow surrounding His throne.
»The Whizard of Oz. A kindly old gentleman who controls everything. He disguises himself to strike terror in the hearts of evil. He helps Dorothy and her three friends to achieve their dreams.

While one might not immediately think of fairy tales and plays as reservoirs of religious teachings, there are many modern tales that do. The Pilgrim's Progress and the Chronicles of Narnia are two of the best known modern fairy tales on Christianity. From these we can agree that the story was not simply made up from random ideas, it was made to preserve a religious truth in symbols.

Flood Legends
The flood is recorded in Genesis 6-9. Noah preached for 120 years while he made the ark. But only his wife and three sons and their wives were saved.
It had never rained on the earth because of the geological structure. The earth was floating on an aquifer like a controlled swamp. There were no vast oceans to generate rain clouds. So underground water watered the earth at night in a mist. Therefore nobody believed and obeyed Noah when he described rain.

Region Civilization People Boat AnimalsBirdsMountain
Middle East

Hebrew Noah, wife, 3 sons Ark Pairs of Animals Raven, dove, dove Ararat
Mesopotamian, Sumerian Utnapishtim, family, friends Boat Seed of all living things Dove, swallow, raven Nisur
Babylonian Atrahasis and family Boat Cattle, wild animals, birds - -
Chaldean Xisuthrus, wife, daughter, pilot Boat Pairs of animals Birds sent 3 times Corcyraean
Zoroastrian Yima Vara Pairs - -

Norse Bergelmer, wife Chest Blood Legends. Blood from the wounds of the giant Ymir caused the flood. For the Celts, the blood spilled when heaven was cut up. Icy water flowed from the wounds in Scandanivia Jotunheim
Scandinavian Bergelmer, family Boat -
Celtic Man, woman Boat -
Welsh Dwyfan, Dwyfach Boat Animal pairs - Pyrdain
Lithuanian People on a mountain Nutshell Animals on the mountain Rainbow -
Greco-Roman Deucalion, Pyrra Boat - - Parnassus
Asia Hindu (India) Manu Boat Every species - Manu's Descent
Miao (South China) Nuah and Gaw Bo-Lu-En, 3 sons, wives Boat Male and Female Dove -

Miao and Yao (South China) Fu Xi, Nu Gua Gourd Gourd Legends. The Asian legends involve the marriage of a brother and sister who were saved by being sealed in a hollowed out log (a drum). They all explain the beginning of the different races as humans who came from a gourd.
In the Burmese legend only one man and a cow were saved. There was a gourd inside the cow and the humans emerged from it. Other gourds held animals, plants and rivers.
Jino (China) Mahei, Maniu Sealed hollow Log
Kammu (Thai) Brother, sister
Lisu (China) Brother, sister Gourd
Shan (Burma) Lip-Long and a cow Raft
Oceania Hawaii Nuu, family Ark Reef forming legends. Most legends tend to explain their physical environment Mauna Kea
Mangaia (Cook Islands) Rangi and people Walked Rangimotia
Palau Isles Milathk Raft -
Africa Komililo Nandi Ilet - Hospitality legends. Tinderet
Mandingo Brave people Canoe Jefferson
(East Africa)
Tumbainot, 2 wives, 6 sons Ark Pairs of Animals Dove, vulture and 4 rainbows The Steppes
North America Pima Suhu, good people Walked Animal Helper legends. Animals play a major role.Crooked Top Mountain
Squamish Man, woman, all babies Canoe Baker
Cowichan Wise People Raft Cowichan
Algonquin Michabo, muskrat Walked - Raven, otter, muskrat -
Ottowa Giant, maiden Canoe Pairs Beaver, muskrat, raven -
Central America Aztec Tapi, wife Boat Pairs Dove Mountain
Aztec Cocox, Xochiquetzal A hollow tree - Dove Colhuacan
Toltec 7 friends and wives A closed chest - - -
Huicol Man, dog Box Animal Transformation Legends. Man marries dog who is transformed into a human wife. Others are transformed into different animals because of disobedience.
Tlapanac Man, dog, chicken Box
Cora (Mexico) Man, dog, sandpiper, woodpecker, parrot Boat
Totonac (Mexico) Man, dog, dove Ark
South America Jivaro (Ecuador) 2 men, two parrots Walked Man marries parrot
Inca (Peru) Man, woman Box People lived in caves after the flood Tiahuanacu
Inca (Peru) Giants -Giants

Names of the Patriachs
Bible Names Miao LegendChinese Sovereigns
Adam Dirt -
The word Adam means dirt
Seth Se-Teh -
Enos Lusu
Methuselah -
Lamech Lama -
Noah Nuah Nüwa
Shem Lo Shen Shennong
» Elam Elan -
» Asshur Ngashur -
Japheth Jah-Hu -
» Gomer Gomen -
Ham Lo Han Huang, Han
» Cush Cu-Sah -
» Mizraim Mesay -
» Sinite - Shi

Panda Chinese. Some Chinese legends about their ancestors (three sovereigns and five emperors) are similar to the flood legends in terms of timeline, the sound of names and the possible behavior of the ancestors.
The Miao People of South China. The legend of the Miao people says there was a man named NuWah (Nuah) with his wife (Gawboluen) three sons (Lo Han, Lo Shen and Jah-Hu) and three daughters who escaped the flood in a ship. The flood happened around 2300 B.C. After the flood they built a tower and their speech were broken up into six languages.
The sons of Noah had sons who had similar sounding names as the sons of the Miao legend. The sons of Lo-Shen were Elan and Ngashur. The sons of Lo-Han were Cu-Sah and Mesay. The son of Jah-Hu was Gomen.
Rainbow Chinese. There was a quarrel between two of the more powerful gods, they decided to settle it with a fight. When the water god Gong Gong saw that he was losing, he smashed his head against Mount Buzhou, a pillar holding up the sky. The pillar collapsed and caused the sky to tilt towards the northwest and the earth to shift to the southeast. This caused great floods and suffering to the people. Nüwa cut off the legs of a giant tortoise and used them to replace the fallen pillar and alleviate the situation. She seals the broken sky using stones of seven different colors, but she was unable to fully correct the tilted sky. Now the sun, moon, and stars move towards the northwest, and rivers in China flow southeast into the Pacific Ocean.

Giraffe Masai. Tumbainot, a righteous man, had a wife named Naipande and three sons, Oshomo, Bartimaro, and Barmao. When his brother Lengerni died, Tumbainot, according to custom, married the widow Nahaba-logunja, who bore him three more sons, but they argued about her refusal to give him a drink of milk in the evening, and she set up her own homestead.
The world was heavily populated in those days, but the people were sinful and not mindful of God. However, they refrained from murder, until at last a man named Nambija hit another named Suage on the head. At this, God resolved to destroy mankind, except Tumbainot found grace in His eyes. God commanded Tumbainot to build an ark of wood and enter it with his two wives, six sons and their wives, and some of animals of every sort. When they were all aboard and provisioned, God caused a great long rain which caused a flood, and all other men and beasts drowned. The ark drifted for a long time, and provisions began to run low. The rain finally stopped, and Tumbainot let loose a dove to ascertain the state of the flood. The dove returned tired, so Tumbainot knew it had found no place to rest. Several days later, he loosed a vulture, but first he attached an arrow to one of its tail feathers so that, if the bird landed, the arrow would hook on something and be lost. The vulture returned that evening without the arrow, so Tumbainot reasoned that it must have landed on carrion, and that the flood was receding. When the water ran away, the ark grounded on the steppe, and its occupants disembarked. Tumbainot saw four rainbows, one in each quarter of the sky, signifying that God's wrath was over.

Ark Greek. Deucalion was warned by his father Prometheus of a great flood with which Zeus planned to destroy humanity. He built an ark and survived it. Afterwards, he and his wife Pyrrha successfully begged Zeus to recreate humanity, which he did by having them toss stones behind them.

Rain Roman. As the world got worse, the immortals agreed to wash mankind off the face of the earth by a mighty deluge. The winds were instructed to gather together the rain clouds over the earth. Neptune let loose the waves of the sea,and told them to rise, overflow, and deluge the land. Then the elements obeyed. The winds blew, the rain fell in torrents, lakes, seas, rivers, and oceans broke their bonds. So the terrified mortals forgot their petty quarrels in a common impulse to flee from the death which threatened them, climbed the highest mountains, clung to uprooted trees, and even took refuge in the light skiffs they had constructed in happier days. Their efforts were all in vain, however, for the waters rose higher and higher, overtook them one after another in their ineffectual efforts to escape, closed over the homes where they might have been so happy, and drowned their last despairing cries in their seething depths.

Zoroastrian. Six thousand years after the creation the thousand year rule of Aharman began. He destroyed the creation, created dangerous animals and created the regions of hell and purgatory. He filled man with evil thoughts and sent misery, earthquakes, drought and storms. Then, three hundred years later, in 3300 BC, he sent seven continuous years of cold and frost that almost exterminated mankind. But the god Ahuramazda saved the good man Yima and a remnant in a cave filled with supplies.

Norse. The three brothers Odin, Ve and Vili killed Ymir. As Ymir fell, his blood caused a giant flood, drowning all the creatures of darkness except the frost giants Bergelmer and his wife. They escaped in a small boat and arrived on the mountain of (Jotunheim), which became the home of the giants.

Elephant Cowichan. The world was over populated and people began quarreling over territory. Some wise old men all had the same dream about a coming flood. They decided to build a raft by tying many canoes together. Some people listened but others laughed at them. One day the rains came and they took some food and tied the raft to a rock on Mount Cowichan. After the flood they rebuilt their homes and after a long time the land was full of people again. This time they separated into tribes and clans and spread out over the earth.
Leopard Aztec (Mexico). A pious man named Tapi lived in a valley in Mexico. The creator told Tapi to build a boat to hold his wife and a pair of every animal. Everyone thought that he was crazy. When the boat was finished, it rained and flooded the valley. The people fled to the mountains but they were drowned. After the rain ended, Tapi sent a dove. When the dove did not return he knew that the waters had receeded.

Aztec. In Atonatiuh, the epoch of water, a large flood covered the earth and all people were changed into fish. Only Coxcox and his wife Xochiquetzal survived by hiding themselves in a hollow Ahahuete, cypress tree. When this landed on the summit of Colhuacan, they reproduced themselves. But these children were all born dumb. A dove imparted tongues to their children, thus enabling them to speak languages (Toltec, Aztec, and Acolhuas). But these languages were so different that they could not understand one another.
Variation. The men who survived the deluge were transformed into apes, but recovered speech and reason by degrees.
Nahui-Atl. The people perished in the flood or were turned into fish and in a single day everything perished. However, a man named Nata and his wife Nena had been warned, and advised to build a ship from a cypress tree. Titlacahuan closed the door behind them and so they were saved. They prepared a fire inside and grilled fish. Citlallinicué and Citlallatonac were surprised to see this fire and it angered Titlacahuan Tezcatlipoca.
Cora Indians. The survivors of the flood escaped in a canoe. When the waters abated, God sent the vulture out of the canoe to see whether the earth was dry enough. But the vulture did not return, because he devoured the corpses of the drowned. God then turned the vulture black instead of white. Then the ring dove was commanded to go out and the earth was dry. The beasts drank the rivers dry.
Hopi Indians. On the bottom of the seas lie all the proud cities, the flying patuwvotas [shields] and the worldly treasures corrupted with evil. To escape the disaster, some people hid inside the earth while others escaped by crossing the ocean on reed rafts, by going from island to island.
Toltec Indians. In this legend the first world lasted 1,716 years and was destroyed by a great flood that covered the highest mountains. A few men escaped the destruction in a "toptlipetlocali," (a closed chest). After the great flood, they began to multiply and built a very high "zacuali," or great tower, to provide a safe place if the world were destroyed again. However, the languages became confused, so different language groups wandered to other parts of the world. The Toltecs claim they started as a family of seven friends and their wives who spoke the same language. 520 years after the great flood they crossed great waters, lived in caves, and wandered 104 years till they came to Hue Hue Tlapalan (southern Mexico).

Ape Mesopotamian. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Once upon a time, the gods destroyed the ancient city of Shuruppah in a great flood. But Utnapishtim, forewarned by Ea that Enlil was sending a flood, managed to survive by building a great ship. It was a cube that was 120 cubits on each side. It had six decks, so that there were seven compartments. Each floor was divided into nine sections. He caulked it with tar and asphalt. The frame was built on the fifth day and the ship was finished in seven days. On the ship he was told to take the seed of every living thing. He filled it with the best animals, gold, silver, his family and the craftsmen. Then the rain lasted for seven days and rested on Mount Nisir. He waited seven days and sent a dove, then a swallow and a raven which did not return. Then everyone exited and he made a sacrifice. His immortality was a gift given by the repentant god Enlil.

Comparison Of The Flood Stories By Region
All the flood stories have two or more of the following elements in common in this order of appearance.
  1. The Cause
  2. A flood kills most creatures
  3. A family is saved
  4. The boat
  5. The pairs of animals
  6. The birds
  7. Mountain
  8. Rainbow
  9. Creation of languages
  10. Dispersion of the races
Before the flood the earth was one continuous land. The races dispersed 100 years after the flood, then the "land was divided" (Genesis 10:25)
The Dispersion of the People and Animals of Pangea After the Flood
Pangea Dispersion

The land was not divided before the flood. This division was probably tribal and geographical so that at the time the land was breaking up, the nations were being separated by language. It took that long for the deep layers to dry and begin to crack. It began to break apart into our current continents after the flood. Pangea is the scientists name for the unified land before the continents broke apart and floated on the tectonic plates. It had mountain ranges in the north and south. The description is remarkably like the New Jerusalem. This is the new earth that is supposed to be a recreation of the perfect old earth. So we used the model of Pangea to theorize about the dispersion which occurred 100 years after the flood. All migration must start at the region of Mount Ararat and there must be a route for land and marine animals. All these routes followed water so marine animals could swim and people could use canoes.
» America. Land animals traveled west across North Africa. Marine animals, like the penguin, swam through the Mediterranean and down the Atlantic river. Small canoes could even be used by people as the separation between the continents increased.
Ark rested on Ararat One Group, One Land Babel Pangaea Separates Abraham
Ararat Giraffe Elephant Leopard Ape Lamb Penguin 100 Years (Animals Migrate) Sloth Babel 400 Years (Humans Migrate) Covenant

Genetic and Environmental Changes
We do not currrently see genetic changes that cause immediate structural changes. In fact we can only speculate by population studies that certain genetic differences are due to certain persistent, local and environmental factors. But we cannot find a testable and repeatable mechanism by which this happens.

Several huge changes occurred after sin that points to sudden changes. These are the withdrawal of the light of God that existed on the first day, rain, change in diet and the speed of light.
• The sun and moon became the prominent source of light.
• After the flood, and probably after the sin they began to eat animal flesh. Their life span immediately dropped from 1000 years to 100 years.
• The size of the creatures decreased to about 33-50% of the original. The forces required to support giant animals require a smaller force of gravity. So gravity might have increased after sin. Given the law of gravity, this could only occur if the mass of the earth grew larger. The mysterious layer of water from the heavens could be this source.
• Death and probably sleep occurred.
• The final change that occurred is that the speed of light probably dropped quickly.

So how does a sudden introduction of new genes, and a drastic change in radiation and increase in gravity permanently effect the body? Our genes are probably too contaminated and altered to have a controlled experiment. We have no perfect specimens remaining.
» Australia. We also show that Australia fits next to East Africa. So marine animal migration could have come to that continent from the Red Sea or the Persian Gulf. Land animals came from the horn of Africa and Arabia instead of the long trek through Africa and Antarctica.
» Europe, Asia and Africa. These continents could be reached at any time.
» Antarctica. This continent probably broke away early, because it is only populated with birds and penguins. Penguins are called "the birds of the ocean" because they travel very fast under water. No creature who walked seemed to have reached here, or they died because of the climate.
» Under the Sea. Most of the land under the sea was above water before the flood. The mountain ranges in the north and south probably formed a barrier. This land could have been mostly occupied by dinosaurs or very large creatures. The existence of pools of oil point to a rapid burial of organic material, not a slow erosion. This is why we find oil deposits from the vegetation and large creatures buried under the sea. However, the availability of tar (pitch) before the flood points to its possible existence at creation (Genesis 6: 14), but pitch can be made from wood.

Continental Drift: Separating Pangea.
According to our 6,000 year time line for the age of the earth, the flood occurred at year 1656 and the separation of the continents began as late as 100 years later. Abraham was called 400 years after the division. I am assuming that the "division of the earth" was not only by language, but by continent.
Two sons were born to Eber; the name of the one was Peleg, for in his day the earth was divided ... (Genesis 10: 25).

The theory of evolution says that the continents drifted apart over a period of 100-250 million years at the rate of 2.5 cm (1 inch) per year. The widest separation is the four thousand miles (6664 km) between America and Africa. We need the earth to move this distance in 400 to 500 years. So is it possible for the continents to separate by so many miles in such a short time?
4000 miles in 400 years is an average movement of ten miles (17 km) each year. This is six feet per hour (183 cm per hour) or (1.2 inches (3 cm) per minute).
Of course these values assume that only the continent of America moved the 4000 miles. Although I suspect that the American continent had the most movement, the Asian continent must have moved also. If both continents moved at the same speed then each would move only 2000 miles (3332 km) in opposite directions. This is three feet per hour (92 cm). So our requirements are a speed of 3 to 6 feet per hour (0.05 to 0.1 feet per minute). Can the earth move at such a speed? What do we know?

The Ring of Fire. The land was soaked with water from deep within its core and this should have made the land slide easier with much smaller earthquakes. The foundations of the earth were broken along the ring of fire on the outer edges of Pangea, and America moved west while Asia and Africa moved East. The ring of fire still exhibits the stress of the continents pushing together.

San Francisco Earthquakes. So I used the San Francisco geology as a model, because the earth after the flood was soft and San Francisco is built on soft earth and it is located in an active region. Even though the earth after the flood was much softer and unstable, and located on an incline into the Pacific, San Francisco should give us a model of the minimum types of displacements that were possible.

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake of magnitude 7.9 was centered 25 miles (40 km) below the surface and 150 miles (240) out in the ocean. In one minute it moved the soft earth 21 feet (640 cm) and broke apart for three hundred miles (500 km)! This is a speed of 21 feet (640 cm) per minute or 210 to 420 times faster than our requirements of a minimum of 0.05 to a maximum of 0.1 feet per minute. It is possible.

The Marianas and Puerto Rico Trenches. It would take a great rupture in the ocean to cause the continents to have the freedom to move. The deepest point in the Pacific is the Marianas Trench at 35827 feet (6.79 miles or 10.9 km).
The deepest point in the Atlantic is the Puerto Rico Trench at 30246 feet (5.73 miles or 9.2 km).
Could the earth be ruptured to this depth? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. Most earthquakes occur at a depth of 20-25 km, but 30% of earthquakes occur at depths below 70 km with some as far as 700 km. Since earthquakes can occur far below this point, it should be possible that an earthquake in very soft mud would rip the earth open like butter and the soft earth would crumble and slide in the sea.

The Pillars of the Earth.
Collapse of the Internal Pillars
1Eden 2Flood
3Continental Drift 4Today
We will continue to use legends to examine the nature of the planet. So we smiled at the idea of strings, turtles, elephants and the columns under the earth, but suppose the pillars were within the earth supporting it like a frame.
... for the pillars of the earth are the Lord's and He set the world on them. (1 Samuel 2: 8).
If God had a structural component in the earth that kept the land stable, then breaking one or more could set the continents adrift and submerge that part of the land into the ocean. These could simply be massive areas of pure rock that are the foundations of the plates and the same material as the core. They are probably curved walls. The African pillar seems to be very stable because that continent rarely gets earthquakes. The one that is west of the American continent broke, submerging most of the land into the Pacific, allowing the remaining to shift west.
The stability of the African plate was the will of the merciful God who kept the region where civilization was emerging stable. So that the ancients were oblivious to the earthquakes and large scale movements of the continents around them during the centuries after the flood. If fact, it was during the time of Moses that they experienced an earthquake as a "new thing".
If these men die the death of all men or if they suffer the fate of all men, then the LORD has not sent me. "But if the LORD brings about an entirely new thing and the ground opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that is theirs, and they descend alive into Sheol, then you will understand that these men have spurned the LORD." As he finished speaking all these words, the ground that was under them split open; and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, and their households, and all the men who belonged to Korah with their possessions. So they and all that belonged to them went down alive to Sheol; and the earth closed over them, and they perished from the midst of the assembly. (Numbers 16: 29-33)
If the region was subject to the same forces that were ripping apart the other continents then we might have some indication of how long the continental drift occurred. Instead, we have a region that is still stable 4000 years later.

  1. Eden. After the creation everything was stable. Most of the surface of the earth was land floating on water with low hills, rivers and lakes.
  2. Flood. An object broke the earth and tilted it, causing the waters below the earth to cover the earth. The most significant breaks occurred in the Pacific Ocean. The southern pillar and the land in the north collapsed under the weight. The land would be permanently submerged in the Pacific ocean and the northern hemisphere has a dent.
  3. The Shifting Continents. With the supports removed, the American continents were probably sliding west over the mantle of the earth. The stability of the earth under the African continent probably restricted its shift. Its resistance to the force probably makes its eastern edge at the ring of fire more unstable as the more flexible American continent pushes against it.
    Is there a force in the Atlantic ocean that makes the continent continue to move west? If the American plates are tilted west and the Asian plate tilted east then gravity is the force. The force caused by the direction of the spinning earth also helps to move the American continent west. So the continents are sliding down a shelf into a trench made by the impact in the Pacific when their structural supports collapsed under the plates.
    Submerged Continents. The only visual clue that the continents were once together is the fit between South America and Africa. Land was submerged under the Pacific, then Pangea started the continental drift when it was free to move. However, the continents could be in their present position not because they shifted to these locations but because the land between them collapsed into the ocean. In this case, our pillar theory still holds.

    The Lost Continent Under the Sea. These legends could have emerged from local catastrophes. But they could be remnants of stories about the land before the flood.
  4. Today. Water covers most of the surface of the earth. The drift created huge mountains and cracked the plates.

Continental Roots.
There is seismic evidence that the continent is as deep as 400-650 km not 200 km as originally proposed. This means that they extend all the way to the lower mantle. These are probably the pillars described by the Bible.

Active Faults and Tectonic Plates.
A visual examination of our map explains the reasons why certain areas are more active.

The Dispersion Of Animals.
Giant CreaturesHeight
AnimalRegion Meters Feet
HumanAmerica 3 10
HumanTurkey 4.2-4.8 14-16
Giant SlothAmerica 6 20
Giant BeaverAmerica 2.5 8
Giant Turtle- 3.6 12
Wooly Mammoth Siberia 4.5 15
Mastadon Africa 3 10
BearEngland 3 10
CockroachWorld 0.6 2
Dinosaur (Lizard)Argentina 45 146
AlligatorAmazon 12x2.4 40x8
Giant PenguinNew Zealand 1.5-1.8 5-6
KangarooAustralia 3 10
Giant squidOcean 17.4 57
A 47.24 inch (120 cm) human femur was found in the Euphrates valley in Turkey. This belongs to a human 14-16 feet tall with 20-22 inch long feet.
I believe the continental drift and land bridges explains the evidence better than submerged continents because it explains the migration of animals. The truth probably involves both phenomena.
Driven by an internal force to leave the area, the animals began migrating years earlier and migratory tribes later brought animals with them. Notice that larger and slower creatures are concentrated in Africa and Asia. They did not reach the American continent before the separation of the land began 100 years after the flood.
Leopard America. The fast, predatory animals and the ones who swung in trees made it to South America, probably over the African continent. If the lions claimed the territory around the Middle East, it probably pushed the other predatory felines further out. So leopards and panthers are found on the American continent. Animals that could live in the cooler climate stayed in the north. Bears and Buffalo herds walked across northern Europe and Greenland.
Sloth Sloth. Here we have an anomaly. In South America we find the slowest creature on the face of the earth. The sloth is a nocturnal mammal that lives in the trees of South America. Extinct species have been found in North America as far as Alaska and Antarctica. If we assume that they reached these places unaided, then we must get them to the eastern shores of the American continent within 100 years. They probably never met the leopard as they headed towards America because there were not enough animals to create a predator problem.
On the ground they move at the lightning speed of 90-180 meters per hour (30-60 feet). In the trees where it is safer they move at 180-299 meters per hour (60-100 feet). Trees would have covered the earth within five years.
If we assume that they are small, lazy and only travel eight hours each day, then they can travel an astounding 53-88 km (33-55 miles) in one year. So they can travel west 5100 km (3200 miles) to the American continent in 19-96 years.
To reach the Antarctic, they could travel south down the Arabian peninsula to Australia then to Antarctica.
Ark rested on Ararat Sloth 100 Years (Possible Sloth Migration Routes) Sloth Destination Babel
Time 10 Years 20 Years 50 Years 75 Years 100 Years Babel
Route1West Israel Egypt Libya AlgeriaSloth America
2 South Iraq Arabia Yemen Australia Antarctica
Distance 500 miles
(800 km)
1000 miles
(1600 km)
2500 miles
(4000 km)
3750 miles
(6000 km)
4200 miles
(6720 km)
From the American continent they had unlimited time to migrate north to Alaska or to South America.
And perhaps their ancestor, the giant sloth, was a good runner or covered more territory with each step.
The point is that even when using the worst case scenario, we can place the sloth on the American continent before the drift began.
Evolution. The theory of evolution claims that the animals made it 4000 miles from Africa to a separated America on floating rafts. In their defense, these rafts are randomly created tangled masses of vegetation, not basket weaving monkeys and sloths.
This is still a less sound explanation because each specie would have to experience this same lucky raft trip and survived starvation. And many creatures were giants! Even if we assume that they can live on salt water and lucky encounters with hapless fish, the raft would have to travel 100 miles per day to arrive in 40 days. This insults the intelligence in terms of the lucky formation of such a sturdy raft, for every lucky pair of species setting out on an adventure. In addition, survivability parameters state that we cannot go for more than 5-10 days without water and 21-42 days without food. Exposure under the hot sun would have pushed those parameters to the lower end.
Ape Africa and Asia. Anything that could walk made it to Africa and Asia because the continents were never separated from the Middle East. Those that preferred the warmer climates survived in Africa.
Koala Australia and Madagascar. They have some of the most unique animals. This can be explained by the fact that the original pairs probably migrated to the land before they multiplied in large numbers and before the land separated. This means that Australia and Madagascar probably separated first and stranded these animals.
The lemur was stranded on Madagascar. The kangaroo and koala were stranded on Australia.
Australia fits in the pocket below Arabia and east of Africa. So the creatures had access by land and through the Persian Gulf. Although the entire region was once a thick forest, Australia now has the same underlying geography as Arabia possibly pointing to similar structure. It is mostly desert.
Penguin South Pole. Penguins are only found in the south. They probably swam south to the Antarctic region along the coast of East Africa or the Mediterranean route to the emerging Atlantic Ocean on the coast of West Africa. They could not walk to the North Pole or Greenland. So they went in the cool waters and swam in the only possible direction, south. They populated the three places that met at that point in Pangea - South Africa, Antarctica and South America
Lamb Domesticated Animals. They stayed in the region until they were brought with migrating people or by ships to America.

The Dispersion Of People.
Communication problems began 100 years after the flood. God scrambled their language after they built the tower of Babel. This led to the dispersion. It is possible to walk 2,000 miles (3200 km) over very steep and rugged terrain in six months. This is an average of 11 miles or 18 km each day. The distance from the Middle East to America across northern Africa is 5100 km (3200 miles). This can be reached by walking in ten months. This is the first year of the separation, so they could still reach America. They would have been walking by a supply of water, so this is a logical route. Or, they could have traveled in boats on a route along the area of the current Mediterranean and down to Central America. That could have been fresh water, until the American continent split and allowed the salty Tethys sea to flood the area.
In 2008 a young man rowed 3000 miles across the Atlantic by himself in seven weeks, travelling about 50 miles per day.

» Africa, Asia and Europe. Genesis 11: 2 says they first journeyed east. They walked to these continents. The distribution of the nations shows an easterly path away from the central point in the Middle East. The Indo-Iranians who were descended from Japheth lived in the north near the Russian steppes. They separated into the Persians and Indians hundreds of years later. The Persians went west and the Indians went east. By that time the region of India had joined the Asian mainland.
We can see that the only other migration was south and west as the children of Ham who lived in the region of Egypt journeyed south in later years. Pyramids were found among the descendants of Ham in Egypt, Central America and in China. Mounds and other conical hills are found in many places but the greatest architecture is found among these groups. The earliest design probably resembled a ziggurat, or a step tower. It was their relatives who designed and supervised the building of the tower of Babel. So the basic design should be known to all people. Their ability to successfully copy the structure may have been dependent on the role their ancestors played in building the tower.
Sinite, the son of Ham went east and settled in China and eventually became the first two Chinese dynasties. So construction technology appears to have been kept among a certain group of the sons of Ham as a competitive advantage.
» America. Before the wide separation of the continents of Pangea, Native Americans could have made it across the Northern African land route to central and eastern America carrying the knowledge of building pyramids with them.
» Australia. Since this continent fits next to North East Africa and the Middle East they could have walked to it and traveled easily by boat or a raft before the separation was complete.
Skin Color
Middle Brown
MaMb Mamb maMb mamb
Adam MaMb MaMb
Mamb MaMb
maMb MaMb
mamb MaMb
One set of brown parents can produce all colors

Later Migrations.
We showed how the dispersion to each continent could have happened from Pangea. But there could have been a later migration from Asia to Alaska and then down through the American continent centuries later. By island hopping in the fifth century A.D., Polynesians could have traveled east by canoe to the Easter Islands and then to South America. The early Australians could have traveled by boat from East Africa or Southern China to Indonesia then to Australia and New Zealand.

The Origin of the Nations (The Theory of Relativity).
The human race started with Adam and Eve who were created from the clay. The name Adam means "red". And this may be a clue to his original color. All skin is the same color, the difference is the amount of melanin beneath the surface of the skin. It takes six genes to determine skin color. If both Adam and Eve were a middle brown color, they could produce all colors in one generation. We illustrate this using the dominant and recessive pair of genes of both parents. A similar distribution of other traits that create distinctive variations can just as easily produce other racial features.
Physical Features
Feature Color Texture Size
Skin Black - WhiteSmooth -
---- - -
Hair Black - BlondeCurly -
Short -
---- - -
Eyes Brown - BlueClear -
Round -
--- - - -
Lips Brown - PinkSmooth -
Full -
---- - -

Physical Features. Every trait that people have tried to designate as belonging to a particular race can be seen among every other group. The Australian Aborigines are black people with blonde hair.
The major groups are Negroes, Caucasians and Mongoloids. The physical traits people generally identify are color of skin, hair and eyes, the shape of the eyes, the texture and length of hair, structure of facial bones and sometimes height. But there are also chemical and biological features that are more common among some groups, such as blood group, ear wax and a compound in urine.

Many of these traits that are common to a particular group can be explained by the fact that groups split off and were isolated. This could have been by choice or because they were rejected for some unwanted features. When they began intermarrying in isolation, certain features started to dominate.
The Amish are a isolated group that have a high percentage of some of the rarest disease and in some cases they have the only incidence of these diseases. This can be attributed to this phenomenon of isolation and a shallow gene pool.

After the flood, the nations emerged from the three sons of Noah and their wives. They had seventy descendants before the dispersion. The three brothers could have given similar traits to their descendants. While their wives could have added much variation. Centuries later, the effects of war, slavery, shipping, migration and imperialism brought the nations back from their isolation and produced many new mixtures. God mixed up the races as much as He mixed up the languages.

Table of Nations
JaphethIndo-European West Asia Africa, East Asia, America and Oceania
SonsGomer, Magog, Madai, Tubal, Meshech, Tiras, Javan Sons of Ham Cush, Mizraim, Put, Canaan
EuropeanAlpine Syrian
North East African Vietnamese
Lapp, Finns
Iberian European Afghan
South West
Australoid Chinese Native
Lebanese Turk Babylonian Indian
Babylonian Assyrian Berber Ethiopian Negro Mbuti Adamanese Cherokee
Jew Arab Cushite Egyptian Bantu TribalNew Guinea Eskimo
Moroccan Yemeni Arab Saudi Africa Barrineans Native American
Libyan North
Egyptian Ethiopian South
ShemElam, Asshur, Lud, Arpachshad, Aram Middle East HamNegro and Mongoloid

The Dispersion Of The Language.
Now the whole earth used the same language and the same words. It came about as they journeyed east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.
... Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, so that they do not understand one another's speech.
(Genesis 11: 1-2, 7)
Before the flood the people spoke one language. By the time of the dispersion 100 years after the flood, the three sons of Noah had become seventy nations. We do not know how many languages were created then. But there could have been from three to seventy languages. But now there are about 6,912 living languages that are the branches of over 100 language families.
Descendants of Noah Language Tree
SonsGrandsonsFamily Branch Languages
Shem Arphaxad, Elam, Aram Afro-Asiatic Semitic Arabic, Hebrew, Maltese, Aramaic, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Gurage, Harari, Geez. Syriac, Akkadian, Phonoecian, Punic, Ugaritic, Nabatean
Ham Mizraim Egyptian Coptic
Phut Berber Shluh, Tamazight, Riffian, Kabyle, Shawia, Tuareg, Guanch
Cush Cushitic Somali, Galla, Sidamo, Beja, Afar, Saho
Chadic Hausa
Nilo-Saharan Ethiopia Nubian, Dinka, Masai, Songhai
Niger-Congo West African Languages
Kwa Yoruba, Ibo, Ewe, Twi, Fanti, Ga, Adangme, Fon, Edo, Urhobo, Idoma, Nupe, Agni, Baule, Kru, Grebo, Bassa
Mande Mende, Malinke, Bambara, Dyula, Soninke, Susu, Kpelle, Vai, Loma
West Atlantic Fulani, Wolof, Serer, Dyola, Temne, Kissi, Gola, Balante
Voltaic Mossi, Gurma, Dagomba, Kabre, Senufo, Bariba
Eastern Zande, Sango, Gbaya, Banda)
Other Ijo (Ijo). Adamawan (Mbum). Efik (Efik, Ibibio, Tiv)
East and South African Languages
Bantu Swahili, Luba, Kongo, Lingala, Mongo, Ruanda, Rundi, Kikuyu, Kamba, Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Hehe, Chagga, Makonde, Yao, Ganda, Nkole, Chiga, Gisu, Toro, Nyoro, Nyanja, Tumbuka, Bemba, Tonga, Lozi, Lwena, Lunda, Shona, Fang, Bulu, Yaundé, Duala, Bubi, Mbundu, Chokwe, Ambo, Herero, Makua, Thonga, Sotho, Tswana, Pedi, Swazi, Zulu, Matebele, Xhosa, Venda
Khoisan South Africa Hottentot, Bushmen
Malayo-Polynesian Austronesian Polynesian Maori, Uvea, Samoan, Tongan, Niuean, Rarotongan, Tahitian, Tuamotu, Marquesan, Hawaiian, Rapa, Nui
Western Indonesian, Tagalog, Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Visayan, Malagasy, Achinese, Batak, Buginese, Balinese, Ilocano, Bikol, Igorot, Maranao, Pampangan, Pangasinan, Jarai, Rhade, Cham
Canaan Austro-Asiatic Mon-Khmer Khmer, Mon, Palaung, Wa, Bahnar, Sedang, Khasi, Nicobarese, So, Nancowry, Sengoi, Temiar
Viet-Muong Vietnamese, Muong
Iroquoian - Cherokee, Mohawk
Algonquian - Ojibwa, Cree, Blackfoot, Micmac, Cheyenne, and Delaware
Athapascan - Navajo, Apache
Uto-Aztecan - Hopi, Comanche, Tamahumara, Nahuatl, Kwakiutl
Oto-Manguean Mexico Otomi, Mixtec, Zapotec, Chiquihuitlan Mazatec
Sinite, Heth Sino-Tibetan Southern Miao, Yao, She
Tibeto-Burman Burmese, Tibetan, Yi, Lisu, Moso, Lahu, Karen, Kachin, Chin, Bodo, Garo, Meithei, Lushei, Newari, Murmi, Jonkha, Lepcha, Mizo, Manipuri
Tai Thai, Lao, Chuang, Puyi, Tung, Nung, Shan, Kam-Sui, Zhuang, Li, Be
Sinitic Mandarin, Wu, Gan, Min, Hakka, Xiang, Cantonese, Yue
Altic Japonic Japanese
Korean Korean
Mongolian Mongolian, Buryat, Kalmyk
Tungusic Evenki, Lamut, Manchu, Nanai, Sibo
Japheth Madai
(Medes )
Turkic Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Tatar, Bashkir, Uzbek, Uigur, Chuvash, Balkar, Nogai, Salar
Dravidian Southern Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu
Central Brahui, Gondhi, Kurukh, Kui. Elamite
Indo-European Indic Hindi, Bengali, Urdu, Punjabi, Konkani, Nepali, Assamese, Oriya, kashmiri, Sindhi, Gujerati, Sinhalese, Maldavian, Romany
Iranian Farsi, Kurdish, Pashto, Baluchi, Ossetian, Tadzhik, Persian, Avestan, Scythian
Javan Latin Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, Moldavian. Latin
Hellenic Greek. Koine, Byzantine, Mycenaean, (Attic, Doric, Aeolic, Ionic)
Gomer, Tiras Celtic Gaelic, Irish, British, Breton, Welsh. Manx, Cornish, Gaulish, Cumbrian
Germanic German, English, Dutch, Frisian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faerose. Visigoth, Vandal, Lombardo, Gothic, Frankish
Magog, Tubal, Meshech Slavic Russian, Bulgarian, Polish, Ukrainian, Czech/Slovak, Slovene, Serbo-Croat, Kashubian, Macedonian, Romany
Baltic Latvian, Lithuanian. Prussian
Uralic Finnic Finnish, Estonian, Mordvin, Udmurt, Mari, Votyak, Komi, Sami
Ugric Hungarian, Ostyak, Vogul
Caucasian Kartvelian Georgian, Laz, Svan, Chan, Mingrelian
Daghestanian Tsez, Hunzib, Beshta, Avar, Andi, Chamali, Lak, Dargwa, Lezgian, Tabasaran, Tsakhur
Because of conquests and trade and globalization, languages crossed the barrier from families to regions. Arabic, Latin, Greek, Spanish, French and English are some of the conquering languages. If we could eliminate the effect of conquest and subjugation, we could trace the original distribution of language.
Just as many different races and mixtures emerged from the eight original pairs, many languages emerged from the few original tongues. Noah had three sons, sixteen grandsons and seventy male descendants by the time of the separation. So the one hundred language families might represent the original languages of the original tribes.

Generating New Languages. It has been 4000 years since the flood. We had one language for 1750 years. Is it possible for over 6912 languages to develop from three to seventy languages over 4000 years? How fast is this process?


Old Low German • Low German (Old Saxon)
(Old, Middle, New)
Low Saxon • Middle Low German
• New Low German
Frankish Low Franconian Middle Dutch • Afrikaans,
• Dutch-Flemish
Anglo-saxon • English (Old, Middle, New)
• Frisian (Old, Middle, New) • West, • East, • North, • Saterfriesisch
High German • High German (Old, Middle, New) • Alemannic, • Franconian, • Swabian, • Yiddish
East Old Norse • Danish (Old, New), • Swedish (Old, New), • Gutnish
West • Faroese, • Icelandic, • Jamtska, • Norn
Years Number of Languages
1 3 16 36 50 70 70
2000 150 336 504 600 700 840
40007500 7056 6860 7200 7000 10080
Growth per language every 2000 years
Rate 50 21 14 12 1012
• Norwegian • Nynorsk, • Bukmal
East •Burgundian,•Lombardic,•Vandalic,
•Bastarnae, •Herulian, •Rugian, •Scirian
Gothic • Gepid, • West, • East

The island of Papua New Guinea has over 700, virtually a different one in each valley and some are not related. Mexico has 52 languages. India has over 800 languages and Nigeria has over 400. The Indo-European family has about 449 living languages. If we take the example of the Germanic branch, it became over fifty languages in about 1500 years. The Old English branch, which was spoken in the late seventh century, developed into about eleven languages in one thousand years. So if one language can become fifty languages in 2000 years, then those fifty would become 2500 in the next 2000 years. Therefore, three original languages could become 7500 languages in four thousand years! It is possible.

Since there were probably about seventy original languages, the low number of languages now may be due to the fact that the families were small and they did not split apart for centuries. Separation and isolation develops new languages and isolates distinctive features that we would describe as a new race. As the races interacted again, the languages changed quickly.
The growth table demonstrates that if one language becomes ten every 2000 years, then seventy will become 7000 in 4000 years. Similarly, if one language becomes fifty every 2000 years then three would become 7500 in 4000 years.

The Dispersion Of The Legend.
The successive conquest of Europe and Asia by the Persians, Greeks and Romans probably affected the legends of both the conquerors and the conquered. The Romans adopted the Greek culture. Earlier, the Middle East was also conquered by Assyrians. The Jews were slaves of the Egyptians, and God tried to replace knowledge of the Egyptian culture with knowledge of Himself. The conquest of Central and South America by the Spanish in the sixteenth century affected these legends also. Nevertheless, the distortion of the story shows a pattern among the sons of Noah.

Ark Science (Quantum Mechanics).
Possible Distribution Noah's Ark
Flying Creatures. Birds, insects, eggs and humans
Unclean Animals. Cats, monkeys, rodents and climbing animals
Clean Animals. Those without the ability to climb stairs easily.
Heavy Loads. Aquarium. Fish and marine animals. Tall, heavy animals

The Boat of Utnapishtim
(The Epic of Gilgamesh)
This was a cube that was 120 cubits on each side (180 feet or 55 m), seven floors and it was made in seven days.
Critics accuse Bible writers of plagiarizing this story as they "made up" their religion. But there are several key differences. One is the dimensions of the boats.
Cube. The 1:1:1 ratio of a cube is not stable in rough seas. It is a bad design. But the 30:5:3 ratio of the ark is extremely stable in rough weather.
Floor. Each floor was 17 cubits high. That is 25.5 feet. That is too high.
Seven Days. The construction time is also highly improbable since they had to construct 32,400 square feet of floor space every day, and also load the boat in a week. In fact, according to the story they had only two days to cover the frame.
Noah's ark makes mathematical sense in terms of time and design, while this boat does not.
» The Ark. The ark was designed to float, not to move. The ratio of the ark was 30:5:3. A Norwegian ship builder used the dimensions of the ark to build a ship. He found that it is the most stable design in rough weather. Oil tankers are now built to this ratio. It was a rectangle that was ten times longer than its height. This reduced the possibility that the wind would capsize it. It would float like a log. Tar was used for water proofing. It was 300 cubits by 50 by 30 high. (450 x 75 x 45 feet) or (137 x 23 x 14 meters). It had one window (or skylight), one door and three decks which were subdivided into compartments. This would hold four decks eleven feet high (335 cm) or three decks fifteen feet (457 cm) high. Since the antediluvians had an average height of over ten feet, the dimensions fit.

» Loading The Animals. The unclean animals went in twos, but the clean animals went in by sevens. Several strategies could be used to hold more animals. He could have carried the eggs or young animals. If the predators were cubs, it would reduce any chance of aggressive behavior. God could have used hibernation to control the animals. This would mean less feeding and work.

» The Rain. It rained for forty days and nights. Then there was wind for 150 days. The ark rested on the mountain after five months. But it took 370 days after the beginning of the flood before they could leave the ark. Noah sent a raven then a dove which returned with an olive branch. Finally he sent the dove again and she did not return and he knew that the land was dry. Noah reestablished the covenant with God, and God placed a rainbow in the sky.

We also assume the following basic design on each floor. There are four corridors, four feet wide along the length of the boat that separate eight rows of compartments. There is one corridor running along the width to the door. The compartments are 6 feet deep by 9 feet wide by 15 feet high. Since the total height is rarely required, several tiers of cages can be held in each room.
There are 48 rooms in each row. A storage room is located in every fifth space. There are 388 Rooms on each floor, sixty four are for storage.
Modifications. The human living space is a modification of one section on the third floor and we used a quarter of one floor in our model. The area near the door is modified to allow a wide entrance. The first floor has the dung and compost rooms.
The design could also have most of the animals on the first floor and the storage on the second floor. This allowed grain silos or feeding troughs to be refilled from above by the action of gravity. Animals that never needed feeding and cleaning and much supervision would be on the second and third floors (reptiles, insects, birds).

Time. The boat had 33,750 square feet per floor (3151 square meters) and Noah preached for 120 years. With his three sons, this would mean 1,497,600 man hours of work if they worked ten hours per day and six days per week. This is 2,537 square feet of construction per year for the boat and all compartments.
Rooms Section and Capacity Length Width Feet2 Mammal Room Construction (6 x 9 x 15)
4 3 decks and 1 roof 450 75135,000
Level Height Width (feet) Animals Pairs
Upper 1 feet 2 2 2 2 Small24
Upper 2 feet 2 2 2 2 Small24
Middle2 feet 4 4 Medium6
Middle2 feet 4 4 Medium6
Lower 6 feet 8 Large 2
Two pairs of animals can be kept in the lower cage which is 8 feet wide, 6 feet deep and 6 feet high. Two feet of height space is used to collect waste in the six inch space below each level. Each room requires 354 square feet of construction for divisions. Common walls are counted once. The labor involved in gathering and storing grain is not included. The four women could have done this in seven years.
Insects. Suppose there is no formal space for insects but that they roam freely and devour waste matter. If we assume that the average insect pair occupies space in a one inch (2.54 cm) cube then 1,000,000 pairs of insects would occupy a cube that measures 100 inches (254 cm) on each side.
2 Sides 450 3027,000
2 Front, back 50 303,000
1 Double Hull 2 sides, front and back30,000
Capacity Per Room (6 x 9 x 15) (feet)
4 Humans (30 x 20 x 15) Room with door, beds, storage 4,000
240 62 Mammals 6 x 9 x 15 84,960
10 Marine Mammals Swimming pool and deck 3,540
12 1000 Birds 12 levels 15 inches high. 700 ft2 of construction per room 8,400
12 1400 Reptiles 12 levels 15 inches high. 800 ft2 9,600
10 1500 Amphibians Pool, logs 2,000
10 70,000 Insects Open room with door, logs, sugar water. Or roaming free on the piles of dung 900
88 Storage (Hay) Open room with door 11,880
88 Storage (Grain) 4 Bins (2 x 15 x 6). 36,960
582 Unfinished Open room with door (135 ft2) 78,570
1,056 rooms Total construction area 435,410 3.43 man hours per square feet for 4 people

Material. Gopher wood was used to construct the ark. No one knows what type of wood this is. Experts claim that the date palm is the only large species native to that region and that it is not suitable for building. However, these assumptions were made by looking at the resources in the area after the flood. Just as humans decreased in size and health after the flood, the plant life could also have decreased in size and strength. The climate could have changed and any species of plant could have been living at that time. The quality of the wood could have been stronger. Experts also claim that a boat that size would have leaked and imploded if it were made of wood and not iron. I disagree, houses that size and made of wood do not leak and implode in bad weather. In fact, if they are damaged it is because flood waters force them from their fixed locations. The ark was designed to be a house boat. It was designed to float, not move. They used tar to seal the boat on the outside and inside and make it water proof. In addition, Noah could have used several construction techniques to strengthen the ark. The hexagonal structure of a honey comb, double hull and liberal use of cross braces that serve as the supports for each room.

Capacity (1,518,750 Cubic Feet Or 44,114 Cubic Meters or 11,361,001 Gallons).
The common cubit was 18 inches (457 mm) giving a volume of 1,518,750 cu ft (43,006,210 liters). The king's cubit was 24 inches (610 mm) giving a volume of 2,234,473 cu ft (63,273,220 liters).
There are less than 50,000 mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians identified currently. We need space for animals and food for one year. Just as the races came from the genetic pool of eight people, the wide diversity of animals could be a result of such interaction. So there would be less types of animals to transport. For example, there are now thirty seven species of cats which came from one pair.
Total Pairs Cubicle Size % Space
76,000 150.44 75%
50,000 150.44 50%
18,112 501.47 60%
9,112 1002.9 60%
7,500 1002.9 50%
5,000 1504.4 50%
If there are an average of ten species per family, then that would only be 5,000 original pairs of vertebrates. In addition, millions of species like insects and fish could be transported as eggs and require little space or food. Millions more would survive in eggs outside the ark. So the problem to resolve is the storage and care of mammals with a backbone. Specifically, vertebrates who do not lay eggs and large animals.
Most birds and dinosaurs could be carried as eggs. 50,000 mammals would occupy an average of thirty cubic feet per pair of animals (0.88 M3). This is an area (10 feet x 3 x 1) (30 m x 0.9 x 0.3) or (5 feet x 3 x 2) (15 m x 0.9 x 0.6). That is more than generous. But most mammals are small and they probably loaded the ark with young animals. That would require an average space of ten cubic feet for a pair of cats. We do not have many species who are large babies or large one year olds that require over 100 cubic feet per pair.
We can transport 7,500 animal pairs in 100 cubic feet rooms with 50% of the space used for food, passage ways, and other wasted space. As the food supply diminished, it left more space for the growing animal.
» Growing Pains. The age of the animals leaving the ark must be at least 2 years old. They must have been weaned when they entered and they stayed on the ark for about 13 months. As the young animals grew in size, the empty feed rooms would be used for housing.

Loading The Ark.
The Flavian Amphitheatre colosseum in Rome seated 55,000 people in 10 minutes using 80 entrances. Modern stadiums can load 80,000 in one hour using 10 gates with multiple queues, using a moderate flow rate of 19.9 people/minute walking at speeds of 195 feet/minute (59.4 meters/minute). If we can load and unload a 80,000 seat football stadium in eight hours, then Noah could load hundreds of thousands of land animals in a week.
Multiple Queues
Noah's Ark
If the door was as wide as a two car garage door and located between the first two floors then loading would be very fast. The door, hinged at the bottom, could be used as a ramp to the first floor and a temporary ramp could be built to the second floor where the lighter animals were kept. Birds fly in above the walking animals and through the window. Insects crawl in anywhere along the side of the ark. We could easily get a minimum of six lines of traffic, six feet wide, three for birds above and three for animals below, and dozens for insects.
Lines of Traffic Speed of Entry Pairs Per Day Pairs Per Week
Pairs MinuteDistance
1 20 1 20 Feet 28,800 201,600
1 12 1 20 Feet 17,280 120,960
* 6 72 1 20 Feet 103,680 725,760
10 120 1 20 Feet 172,800 1,209,600
10 240 1 10 Feet 345,600 2,419,200
Sports stadiums can load 80,000 people in two hours

Food. Grain, seeds, nuts, grass, dried fruit and water would not be perishable. The food and supplies could be loaded three to seven years before the flood as each deck was completed. Weather was not a factor since it never rained.

Animals. The door was so massive, that God had to shut it. But let us assume that only two animals at a time could walk through the doors. Since the animals came to the ark by themselves, they were probably also guided to their stalls by the same divine force. They could have came in twenty four hours a day, with nocturnal animals coming at night and the rest by day. At the slow pace of one pair per minute, 1440 pairs of large animals can be loaded in a day, or 10,000 in a week.

It takes me five seconds to walk twenty feet at a normal pace. So if each pair was twenty feet apart, the ark could be loaded at a reasonable pace of twelve pairs of large mammals per minute in a single row. That is 17,280 pairs of large animals per day! If birds flew in simultaneously in a second queue above the animals, then that would be 34,560 pairs per day and 241,920 pairs per week. Simultaneously, Noah and His sons could have loaded the eggs, large tanks of fish and other animals that could not walk in. Hundreds of fish could swim into a net and then be transported in tanks to the ark. I assume that Noah would have built the ark next to a lake. All of this could be done in a week with the animals arranged twenty feet apart. The average distance could have been five feet and that would increase the number of animal pairs by four or decreased the time to load by four. If there were more lines of animals through the wide doors the rate could increase even more.

Clean Animals. Our metrics are in pairs of animals, but the bible says that the clean animals were loaded in by sevens (Genesis 7: 2). It is unclear whether this is seven pairs or seven animals. The number of unclean animals is much more than the clean ones. Leviticus 11 lists few clean animals and so the total should account for less than ten percent of the animal population. In fact, there are only 194 clean animals among the estimated 5000 mammals. The infraorder "pecora" seems to be the branch that are the clean animals. Pronghorn (1) Giraffe and Okapi (2), musk deer (7), deer (49), cattle, sheep, goat, antelope (135)

We have demonstrated that we could comfortably store 76,000 pairs of medium animals and also load two and a half million pairs in a week. So we can accommodate a reasonable target of 70,000 pairs of animals, although it is more likely that there were about 10,000 pairs of each kind of animal. In summary, these factors affected the number of animals loaded on the ark.

Current Total Named Species
After I made the previous estimates, I decided to research real numbers to see if my arguments were valid.
# Kingdom Example ArkGenus Named Estimate 1 Estimate 2
Not on The Ark 1 Monera Bacteria, blue-green algae, spirochete No- 4,000 - 10,000 1,000,000 5-10,000,000
Not on The Ark 2 Protista Protozoans, algae No- 80,000 - 250,000 600,000 ?
Not on The Ark 3 Fungi Fungi, mold, mushroom, yeast, mildew No- 72,000 - 100,000 1,500,000 74-120,000
Not on The Ark 4 Plantae Mosses, ferns, woody, non-woody, flowering Food16,167 298,900 320,000 321,212
Not on The Ark 5 Animalia Invertebrates
Sponges, worms No- 634,337 9,780,832?
Not on The Ark Fish No- 31,300
Not on The Ark Corals No- 2,175
Not on The Ark Mollusks No- 85,000
Not on The Ark Crustaceans No- 47,000
On The Ark Insects Yes ?? 663,120 1-30,000,000
On The Ark Arachnids Yes 9,500 102,248
On The Ark Ark Passengers Vertebrates
Amphibians Yes 5845,3786,89415,000
on The Ark Reptiles Yes 325 7,9259,08410,000
On The Ark Birds Yes 2014 9,9989,99810,000
On The Ark Mammals Yes 192 5,4905,4905,500
Ark Passengers Total Air Breathing Creatures Of Relevant Size 311528,78231,466 40,500
Total Animals -1,326,23913,232,29830,000,000
Total Of All Species (Plants and Animals) 1,752,239-1,956,239 13,232,298 30,000,000
Not on The Ark Bacteria. They were not deliberately loaded on the ark by Noah. But they could have been in the stomach of the animals, in the wood, on food and survived in the water and soil outside
Not on The Ark Fungi and Protista. They were also not loaded in the ark.
Not on The Ark Plants. They could have survived outside as seeds. So the only plant stored in the ark was for food. If Noah needed to preserve plant species he would have brought seed.
The estimated named creatures is about 1.4 million. Mammals are about 0.4% of this number and insects are 50%. 97% are invertibrates and 3% are vertibrates (backbone).
30 Million. Some guess that there may be as much as 30 million or more. Of those who estimate over 30 million species, the estimated number of the larger species remain the same as those who estimate 1 million species. The excess number of species is attributed to insects. So even if this is true and all existed at the time of the flood, almost all of these would be microscopic creatures and would not substantially affect the space requirements.
Animal Size. Since they were in the ark for about 13 months, then the average age or size of the animals many be under two years old since he must have brought weaned animals into the ark if he brought babies.
Named Versus Estimated. We are comfortable with calculating size based on the named species, because we believe that any of the unfounded species among the estimated number will not be large creatures which would effect our space requirements or loading deadlines
# Animalia Phylum Example Ark Named Space (ft3)
1 Mammals Mammalia Human, whale, dolphin, lion, dog, bat, ruminant Yes 5,000 281,000
Artiodactyla Ruminantia Clean animals (224 ruminant species, 194 clean) Yes 194 260,736
2 Birds Aves Birds Yes 10,000 5,000
Families with Clean Birds Galliform (256), Anseriform (150), Columbiform (300) Yes 35,000
3 Insects Arthropoda Crustaceans, scorpions, spiders, insects Yes 663,120 16,578
4 Reptiles Reptilia Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators Yes 7,925 7,925
5 Amphibians Amphibia Frogs, toads (4714). Salamanders, newts (505). Caecilian Yes 5,378 2,689
6a Fish Osteichthyes Bony fish such as perch, trout, koi No 29,000 0
Agnatha Jawless fish without scales. Lampreys, hagfish No 40 0
Chondrichthyes Cartilage skeletons: Rays, sharks, skates No 1,000 0
7a Marine Echinidermata Star fish (sea star), urchins, sand dollars No 6,000 0
7b Mollusca Clams, snails, slugs, mollusks, oysters, squid, octopus No 50,000 0
7c Brachipoda Lamp shells No 335 0
7d Cindaria Corals, jelly fish, sea anemones, hydras No 9,500 0
7e Ctenophora Comb jellies No 90 0
7f Sponges Porifera Sponges No 10,000 0
8 Worms Acanthocephala (600), annelida (8,900), chaetognatha (100), entoprocta (150), nemetoda (80,000) and others No 114,761 0

Animal Species Cubicle Size /Pair Total Space + WeightFood (Space-Wgt)
Type SpeciesArk Total Length Width Height (ft3)(m3) (Kg) (m3)KgMenu
1Humans 1 8 302015 36,000 1,02224,640 7.77 5,280 1,2
Clean Mammals 194 1,358 684 130,368 3,699 221,014 7,204 1,873,044 3
Unclean Mammals 4,806 9,612 See space below 245,000 6,952 53,686 10,321 1,001,877 3, 6
10% Large 500 1,000 686 144,000 4,088 -
40% Medium 2,000 4,000 342 48,000 1,362
50% Small 2,5005,000 121 5,000 142
2Unclean Birds 9294 18,588 111 9,294 264 24,107.7 14.3 468,312 2
Clean Birds 706 4,942 111 2,471 170 7,535
*Unclean Birds 9,700 19,400 111 9,700 276 Pigeons and doves as the only clean birds
Doves, Pigeons 300 2,100 111 1,050 30
*Unclean Birds 5,000 10,000 111 5,000 142 50% clean and unclean birds
Clean Birds 5,000 35,000 111 17,500 497
3Insects 663,120 1,326,240 40 pairs per feet 3 16,578 471 21,259.7 - 711.5 4
4Reptiles 7,925 15,850 111 7,925 225 3,150.5 * * 5,6
5Amphibians 5,378 10,756 11.5 2,689 76 538 * * 5
Total Space for 1,438,874 air breathing animals 402,325 11,324 355,931 - 3,349,224 -
6Fish 30,040 60,090 111 30,040 852
# Animal Food Menu
0 All Water, salt
1 Humans Flour, beans
2 Birds Seeds, fruit
3 Animals Hay, grain, pellets
4 Insects *Dung, sugar, fruit
5 Reptile Insects
6 Carnivores Meat, rats
7Marine, sponges 75,925 151,850 111 75,925 2,154
8Worms 114,761 229,522 40 pairs per feet3 2,869 81
Total Space for 441,462 water creatures 108,834 3,087
Total Space for all 1,880,336 living creatures 511,159 14,414
* This food and space is produced on board through other systems

The Total Cargo Weight. Besides the weight of the timber used to construct the boat, we have other cargo that adds to the total weight on board.
Cargo Count Mass (Kg) Use
Animals -   355,931 Rooms
Food - 3,349,224 Food
Hay Bales 8,109 1,248,804 Food
Rubber - 914,379 Bedding
Packing Material 141,976 Storage
Water+Tank 26 82,834 Water
Pond - 27,592 Turtle, gator
Hens 1000 2300 Eggs
Hen Food - 68080 Eggs
Salt - 20,720 Salt
Seeds - 1.5 Microgreens
Gardens 450 15,800 Bamboo, Vegetables
Soil and Mulch - 285,436
- 90,387 Burrows
- 132,862 Compost
Flies 10m 100
Worms 1 m 3,000
Dung Beetles 1m 20,000
Termites 100m 210,000 Food
Total Cargo 6,969,427 -
Ark (Empty) 6,727,493 Boat
Total Boat 13,696,920 -

Total Animals. The total animals named today are used as the total at that time even though the true amount may be ten percent of this number because the "kinds" of animal may represent the genus which was taken on board. Inheritance in isolation brings out different variations in the genus that we see today as the species.
All space, weight arguments are settled if we use genus as the number of land animals on the ark larger than insects (about 3100). However, we will calculate for species.

Total Space (511,159 (ft3)). The space calculated for all living creatures using all species in the families with clean birds, or using 50% clean birds, is still less than half the total volume of the ark (1.5 million cubic feet). The total space for the land animals is one third the volume of the ark. Either situation leaves enough space for food.

Space. Space requirements were based on these average cubicle sizes for each type of animal. Each space is large and is probably double the size needed.

Large Land Animals. Our ark carries only the weaned child of all species who will be one year older when the ark lands. The largest animals are whales which are not on board.

Clean Animals. We over estimated the number of clean birds as half the bird population. However, we also showed the value for the number of clean bird species and the number of doves and pigeons. We have other estimates because the definition of a clean bird is not as clear as the definition for animals.

The Standard Space (Unit). All designed space and containers are based on a fixed space called a unit. The width of the ark allows two 30 foot areas on either side of the central corridor. The length allows 42 units on each side separated by space for stairs. Each unit is 30 wide x 10 long x 15 feet high (127.43 3).

Standard Food.
Standard Food (1 Consumer)
Menu Serving
# Food (m3) (g)
1 1xPasta 45 g 2.72 16,650
1 3xBean 38 g 1.44 42,180
1 3xLentil 32 g 1.8 35,520
1 2xRice 45 g 1.64 33,300
1 Flour 1/2 loaf 0.024 27,972
1 Apple 1 0.146 55,500
2 1x Raisin 0.25c/ 40 g 0.926 14,800
2 Powder
1 TBS 0.0055 2,722
2 Seed 2 TBS .004 7,200
3 Pellets 2 cups 740 0.175 352,000
3 10k Fish In the pond1,200,000
4 1m Worm In the compost heap455,000
4 10m Flies In the dung room100,000
4 1m Beetles In the dung room40 million
We base the sizes, weights and diet on animals that represent the average in at least 3 size classes. The large size group is very overestimated to account for the few outliers. I selected a standard to represent the type of food and measured its volume and weight and number of servings per consumer per year (370 days on the ark).

The Standard Animal.
Large Animal Weight and Height
Adult Animal Sizes Baby2 YrFood
/Day (g)
Animal (Maturity) (kg) (m) (Kg)(m) (Kg)
Elephant (13-20) 4900 7.5 100 35 600 food
Rhino (5-8) 2100 4.4 50 hgt 640 food
Hippo (6) 1800 4 30 hgt 6001-1.5% wgt
Giraffe (3-5) 1015 5.15 55 2 500 adult 38 l/34kg
Walrus () 944 2.860 0.110 2yr 3-6% wgt
Camel (6) 1000 3 37 hgt 340food
Moose 500 2.5 15 - 200food
Giant Hog (1-3) 320 1.1 0.7 .90 220food
Polar Bear (10-11) 700 3.05 6 hgt 140food
Siberian Tiger (3-6) 180 3.5 1 hgt 80food
Gorilla (13) 200 1.6 2.3 hgt 32adult 18kg
Chimp (15) 50 0.9 1.9 hgt 27Child 8 yrs
Crocodile (4-7) 454 3.8 56g hgt 165food
Tortoise (5-25) 200 3.8 Child hgt 27food
King Cobra (4-6) 12.7 5.7 Child 45cm 5food
Ostrich (3-4) 104 2.1 Child hgt 52food
Lion (3-4) 200 2.5 1.5 hgt 50food
Each type of animal is separated into large, medium and small group. Then I calculated the number of species in each size group and chose one animal as my standard for this group. I used its weight and feeding habits to determine the typical requirements for the group. On my Creation-Evolution page is my research on the number of animals in each species.
Finally, I accounted for the few large outliers, looking at the growth, maturation and feeding requirements of the very large animals.

Food Requirements ( 3,417,304 kg) 3,349,224 (Specimens) and 68,080 (Hens).
Standard Animal Size Total Daily
Animal Size (g) (%)
Insect Ant Small .000320% Garbage
Fly Medium 0.0110% Dung
Beetle Medium 4040% Dung
Worker bee Medium 0.0910% 0.005 g
Butterfly Large .30 - .0420% -
Amphibian Frog Medium 22.7-50100% Insects
Reptile Lizard Small 19899.7% Insects
Crocodile Large 4540.3% 1 kg
All Birds Songbird Small 8050% 2 TBSP
Chicken Medium 230044% 50-85g
Chicken Laying hens 110-170g
Pigeon Medium 4543% 2 oz
Eagle Large 77113% 10%
7% Clean
Chicken Medium 230058%  
Pigeon Medium 45442% 10%
Mammals Hamster Small 14250% 2 TBSP
Bat (Insect) Small 6014% 30%
Bat (fruit) Small 605% 30%
House Cat Medium 400011% 1 c
Dog Large 907210% 2 C
Cow X-Large 635,01710%  
3% Clean
Sheep Large 70,000 90% 3.5-4%
Cow X-Large 635,01710% 2-2.5%
Daily food listed as % body weight or actual amount
The following is the food required for the animals taken as specimens for the ark. Animals may eat 5% of their weight in food daily. The food listed as 0 kg is the food that is generated on board. Some animals are also brought on board for food or for services. Their food requirements are listed separately.

The Ship Weight.
Wood Ark Dry Weight
Strength (lbf)
HardRupture Elastic Crush Properties
Lignum Vitae Frame 1,350 4,500 17,760 2,304,000 11,400 Strength
Ekki Exterior 1,125 3,250 26,640 2,805,000 14,160 Strong, Insect, termite and teredo resistant
Jarrah Floor, Wall 860 1,920 16,200 1,880,000 8,870
Teak 6501,070 13,940 1,570,000 7,770
Balsa Walls 175 90 2,740 478,000 1,750 Light
Black Locust Interior Walls 825 1,700 19,400 2,050,000 10,200 Fluorescent,
Rot resistant
Coffeetree 675 1,390 10,500 1,420,000 6,600
Red Palm 850 2,060 15,840 1,843,000 11,310 Strength
Bamboo Interior Walls 500 1,410 11,020 2,610,000 8,990 Insect attack, decays in years
850 1,610 24,450 2,900,000 13,490
English Oak Walls 680 1,120 14,100 1,544,000 6,720 Rot resistant
Douglas Fir Frame 570 620 12,500 1,765,000 6,950 Strong, Hard
Cypress Frame 525 510 10,600 1,440,000 6,360 Decay resistant

Cross Section of 75 ft (22.86 m) (50 cubit) wide Ark
Hull (1.5') Hay Wall Living Spaces (30'x10') Garden Corridor Bamboo Living Spaces (30'x10') Hay Wall Hull (1.5')
Wall Post Wall 2' 10x10' 10x10' 10x10' 2' 2' 4' 10x10' 10x10' 10x10' 2' 3" 12" 3"

Cross Section of 450 ft (137.16 m) (300 cubit) Long Ark
Hull (1.5') Hay Wall 21 Living Spaces (Units) Water Ramp Water 21 Living Spaces (Units) Hay Wall Hull (1.5')
Wall Post Wall 2' 210x30' 23' Ramp 210x30' 2' 3" 12" 3"

The Layout.
Floors AnimalGen Species DesignHabitat Food Habitat Designs
# Section Name Kind Type TotalPod Units Light Habitat Diet
Pod A [30'x10']
PodFloor Size Pair Grid
A1 - * 10'
A12 Small 54 3'x3'
A1c3 Small 71 3'x3'
A1d4 Small 108 3'x3'
A22 Med 36 3'x5'
A2c3 Med 54 3'x5'
A32 Large 24 6'x5'
A3c3 Med 36 6'x5'
Water and Food
Pod B1 [20'x6']
616 Nests (14 Levels)
84 [1'x1'] Nests
266 Nests
266 Nests
Pod B2 [20'x8']
154 Nests (7 Levels)
28 [2'x2'] Nests
63 Nests
63 Nests
Pod B3 [20'x10']
65 Nests (5 Levels)
15 [3'x3'] Nests
25 Nests
25 Nests
Pod E [10'x10'] 30 Nests
PodFloor Size Pair Grid
E13 Small 15 2x3x4
2 Med 9 3x3x4
1 Large 6 5x3x6
Water and Food
E21-3 Small 45 2x3x4
E31-7 Small 175 2x2x2
E41-5 Small 60 1x1x1
E51-5 Small 500 1x1x1
EX1-15 Small1500 1x1x1
"W" = Water/pool in area
Pod W [20'x10']
PodFloor Size Grid
Ww2 Storage 10x10x7
1 Water10x10x7
Wd2 Land 10x10x7
1 Dirt 10x10x7
Pod HH [18'x20']
336 Nests (7 Levels)
Chicken Run [18'x4']
1 E-G 9-12.l1 Sheep, Goats 2 33 10 A2c 12 Day Land Clean

A-C 9-12.l1 Cattle, moose [1] 2 28 7 A3 17Day Land
A 9-12.l1 Wildebeest 1 10 7 A3 4Day Land
A 9-12.l1 Pronghorn[1] musk deer[4] 1 5 7 A3 1Day Land
E-F 1-5.l2 Deer 1 34 7 A3c 9 Day Land
F-G 1-5.l2 Cervidae 1 48 7 A3 10Day Land
A 3-5.l2 Chevrotain 1 6 7 A2c 2 Day Land
B 1-5.l2 Antelope 1 19 7 A3c 4 Day Land
C 1-5.l2 Duiker 1 21 7 A2c 4 Day Land
A 1-5.l1 Suina: pigs[19], peccary[4] 1 23 2 A3 2Day Land Omnivore
B 1-5.l1 Elephant 1 3 2 A3 1Day Land Unclean

B 1-5.l1 Horse, ass, zebra 1 7 2 A3 1.5 Day Land
B 1-5.l1 Giraffe, okapi 1 2 2 A3 0.5Day Land
B 4-5.l1 Hippo [1], rhino [5], tapir [4]3 11 2 A3 1Day Land
E 1-5.l1 Camel [2], Llama [4] 1 6 2 A3 1Day Land
E 1-5.l1 Kangaroo, wallaby 2 61 2 A3 2 Day Land
E 1-5.l1 Ratites: ostrich, emu 2 12 2 A3 1Day Land
1 A 3 Echidna, mole 2 379 2 Wd **5Night Burrow Insectivore
1 A 3 Edentata, numbat, pholidota 3 37 2Wd Night Burrow Insectivore
1 A 3 Wombat 1 3 2 Wd Night Burrow Herbivore
1 G 3-4 Tortoise [49] 1 49 2 Ww 1Night Land Herbivore
1 G 3-4.l1 Turtle [251], platypus 1 252 2 Ww Night Water Omnivore
1 G 1-2.l1 Crocodile, alligator 1 23 2 Ww 1Night Water Carnivore
2 A 2-6 Possum[70],cuscus[22],shrew[6] 3 98 2 E2 1*Day Land
2 B 2-6 Racoon [19], Skunk [11}, mongoose[41] 3 71 2 E2 1*Day Land
2 B 2-6 Weasel, civet, lingsang 3 93 2 E2 1*Night Land
2 A 1-2 Chiroptera (Fruit Bat) 1 366 2 E5 1 Night Cave Fruitarian
2 A 1-2 Chiroptera (Bat) 1 734 2 E5 1 Night Cave Insectivore
Wire Mesh
2 A 1-2Frog 1 6090 2 EXW 1Day Land
2 A 1-2Lizard 1 4470 2 EX 1Day Land
2 A 1-2Snake 1 2920 2 EX 1Day Land
2 A 1-2Salamander 1 615 2 E5W 1Day Land
2 A 1-2Caecilicans (worm-like) 1 189 2 Day Land
2 E 2-6 Myomorph: Small rodents 4 1539 2 EX 1*Night Land Omnivore
2 F 2-6 Sciuromorph: Squirrel 1 323 2 E3 1*Night Land
2 G 2-6 Castorimorph: Beavers 1 96 2 E2 1*Night Burrow Insect,seed
2 G 2-6 Hystricomorph: Capybara 1 230 2 E3 1*Night Land Herbivore
2 B 2-6 Rabbit, hare, hyrax 2 87 2 E2 1*Day Land
3 B 8-9 New world monkey 1 132 2 E2 3 **Day Land Omnivore
3 C 8-9 Lemur, loris, tarsier ... 3 125 2 E2 3 **Night Land
3 C 8-9 Old world monkey 1 135 2 E2 3 **Day Land
3 C 8-9 Lesser apes (gibbons) 1 16 2 E1 2 **Day Land
3 C 8-9 Great apes 1 6 2 E1 Day Land
3 G 8-10 Insects, dinosaur eggs * 2 E 1Both Land Omnivore
3 BA8-9 Dogs, bears 2 49 2 E1 2 **Day Land Carnivore
3 B 8-9 Cats 1 40 2 E1 2 **Day Land
3 A 3-6 Birds of Prey (Raptors) 9 290 2 B3 4Day Land
3 A 3-6 Owls (Night Raptors) 1 130 2 B2 1Night Land
3 A 3-6 Water Birds, cranes 21 351 2 B2 2Day Land Omnivore
3 B 3-6 Cuckoo, roadrunner, ani 3 126 2 B2 1Day Land
3 B 3-6 Swift, hummingbird, game 10? 650 2 B1 1Day Land
3 B 3-6 Other Small Birds 33? 3300 2 B1 5Day Land
3 C 3-6 Other Medium Birds 5? 456 2 B2 3Day Land
3 F-G 3-6 Parrots 1 300 2 B1 9Day Land
3 F 3-6 Song Birds 50? 5000 2 B1 Day Land Vegetarian
3 F 3-6 Clean Birds 8 300 7 B1 4Day Land
3 G 8-10 Hens for egg production 1000 1 HH 3Both Land
3 E 8-12 Humans 1 4 * 2 A 4 Day Land
1 A 1 Dung Room A **5 Day Land Dung
1 A 2 Compost A **5 Day Land
1 A 1-2 Worm, flies, dung beetle A **5 Day Land
* Storage * = number of 10'x10' space in front of or behind the living space in the 30x10' unit
Units are the number of 30x10x15 foot space from hull to skylight where the pods are located. There are 42 on each side of the skylight for a total of 84 on each floor. A pod is a type of habitat design.
Floor Plan 1. This arrangements of animals has the heavier animals and big "poopers" above. It allows for easy cleaning of feces and urine for those who produce great quantities. The sewer goes directly to the chutes, emptying above the water line above the first floor. The change in construction is to add 1716 kg /1800 ft of chain link fence at the corridors.
FloorPlan 1Plan 2AnimalSewer
33a2, 3 South Man, Primates, Cats, Dogs, Bears, Hens. Food, grain, storageRhinoDung

3b1a Sheep, Goats, Deer, Cervidae, Antelope, Chevrotain, Duiker [+ Fence]Pigs
22a1a, 1b Cattle, Horses, Unclean Animals. These cannot climb easily. Milk Kitchen [+ Fence]Elephants
2b3 North Birds (Water line is at this level) Snakes, bats, amphibians
112 Rabbits, weasel, rodents, possum, racoon, armadillo, sloth ... anteater, pond Dung Room

Floor Plan 2. This arrangements of animals has the heavier animals below. It allows for easy entry and exit.
The First Floor Layout (Level 1)
0 A B C D E F G0
0 ========= Double Hull =========+
Fan Hay |
1 Light Sewer Dung Zebra, ass, horse
Elephant[3], giraffe
water water water
Ostrich, emu
Camel, llama
Kangaroo, wallaby
2   Compost Corridor Fish
3 armadillo sloth numbat echidna mole wombat anteater Tapir [4] Rhino[5]
Hippo[2] Pig [19]
Peccary [4]
water Up
Stairs Turtle[300]
4 waterwater
5 water water
6 Sewer Vegetable Garden water water Vegetable Garden Sewer
7 water Skylight Traffic Skylight Door
8 |
  - Vegetable Garden water Hold water Tomato Garden -   |
9 Wildebeest
Musk Deer[4]
Moose [1]
water Stair Sheep [8]
Others [14]
Goat [10] Tahr [1]
Room 2
10 Sewer Kitchen Sewer
11   - water Milk Closet -
12 water water water
0 Hay
======== Double Hull ========
Human Humans water Water water Stair Closet Closet Sewer Sewer/Dung/Bilge Fan Vent Light Biogas Hay Hay
Diggers: Armadillo, Numbat, Anteater, Sloth [29] Mole [375], Echidna [4] Wombat [3]
The floor is divided into 2 levels. Food is stored above and the animals are on level 1. This facilitates shoveling food into the space below and loading these large animals without the use of ramps. These animals occupy the entire 30x10x7' space of each unit.
» Clean Animal. 63 half units
» Unclean Animal. 8 units
» Underground (Mole).
» Turtle. 2 units G (1-5) - level 1

Total Garbage Space: 24,000 ft3
» Dung. [50x30x8'] - A (1)
» Compost. [50x30x8'] - A (2)
The messiest poopers are next to the dung room.
» Garden Space.

Total Living Space: 153,700 ft3

Total Storage: 182,400 ft3
Level 1 (11 Half Units). Transfer
Level 2 (14 Half Units). Transfer
Level 2 (34 Half Units). 17 corn
Level 2 (30 Half Units). 15 oats

The First Floor Layout (Level 2)
0 A B C D E F G0
0 ========= Double Hull =========+
Fan Hay |
1 Light Sewer Dung Antelope [19]
Duiker [21]
water water water Cervidae [48]
Deer [34]
2   Compost Corridor
3 Chevrotain [6] water Up
4 waterwater
5 water water
6 Sewer Corridor water water Corridor Sewer
7 water Skylight
8 |
  - Corridor water Hold water Corridor -   |
9 Grain and Hay water Stair Grain and Hay Storage
Room 2
10 Sewer water water Sewer
11   - water Closet -
12 water water water
0 Hay
======== Double Hull ========
The second level is for food to feed the herbivores below.
It is also the expansion space for growing herbivores as the food is depleted.
Most deer are kept on this level.
Space (G 9-12) on both levels is a possible location for a second compost room when the food in this section is used up.

» Dung Disposal On Landing. While the boat is in transit, all the dung portholes can be used. However, when the boat lands only those to the rear should be used. In addition, while water still surrounds the boat for 2.5 months, dung should be stored in the dung room. This ensures that the front half of the boat is not sitting in a pool of dung when the animals disembark.'

The Second Floor Layout
0 A B C D E F G0
0 ========= Double Hull =========+
Fan Hay |
1   - Bat Cave Frog Snakes
water water water Oats,corn Acorn, Nuts, Wood  
2 Reptile Corridor Small
Dunnart [21]
Bandicoot [21]
3 Possum
Racoon [19]
Nuts Silo
water Up
4 water water
5 water water water
6 Sewer water water DeckSewer
7 Closet Skylight Skylight
8 |
  - Rabbits
Weasel [55]
Civet [35+1]
Linsang [2]
Food water   water Expansion Rooms -   |
9 water Stair
10 Sewer Fresh Fruit [5]Oats
water - Grain
Fresh Fruit [6] Sewer
11   -waterwater -
12 Fresh Fruit [7] (210x10 feet) water water water Fresh Fruit [7] (210x10 feet)
0 Hay
======== Double Hull ========
This space functions mainly as the food silos for the animals below. Most animals are either nocturnal or hibernating or not fed regularly and live in section A-B row 1-6. The bats and reptiles are fed through the mesh floors from the insects in the dung and compost rooms below.

Total Living Space: 48,000 ft3
[  60x30x15'] A (1-6) - Cage
[  80x20x15'] B (2-6) - Rodents
Total Storage: 327,000 ft3
[  80x10x15'] B (1-6)
[  70x30x15'] C (1-6)
[210x30x15'] E-G (1-6)
[420x30x15'] A-G (8-12)

This floor can be food only. The insect eaters are on level 2 above the dung rooms and the rest on level 1 of the first floor.

The Third Floor Layout
0 A B C D E F G0
0 ========= Double Hull =========+
Fan Hay |
1   Seed (210x10 feet) water water water Seed (210x10 feet)  
2 - Large
Birds [290]

Owl [130]
Medium Birds
water Animals
water Clean
[* 300]
3 water water
4 water water
5 water water water
6 Sewer Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Grove Bamboo Bamboo Corridor Bamboo Bamboo Bamboo Grove Bamboo Bamboo Sewer
7 Closet - Skylight -
8 |
  Bears [8]
Dogs [37]
Hyena [4]
Cat [12+28]
great ape[6]
water   water Human Human Human Human Run
9 water Stair Kitchen Food
10 Sewer Lemur, loris [125] water - Dry Fruit Salt
11   Jerky Food Pellets water water Oil Dinosaurs Eggs
12 Nuts (210x10 feet) water water water Nuts Insects
0 Hay
======== Double Hull ========
All bird space has a 10x10x15 feet space behind the pods for food storage. Pod "B" also has a 4 x 20 x 15 foot space from back to front and Pod "C" has a 2x20x15 foot space. All pods have a central space and front balcony for flight, water, food and perching trees.

Total Living Space: 132,000 ft3
» Birds. 30.5 [2/3] units
» Carnivores. 4 [1/3] units
» Primates. 11 [1/3] units
» Egg-Laying Hens. 1 Unit
» Dinosaur eggs. Closet.
» Humans. 4 Units
Free Flight Space [30x10x15']
» 4 Units. (C 1-6)
» 8 Units. (E 1-6)
Total Storage: 246,000 ft3
Food Space Behind Animals
» 30.5 units [10x10']. (A-E 1-2)
» 15 units [20x10']. (B-C 10-12)
» Dry fruit[8] & Vegetables[14]
    • 17 units. (E-G 8-12)
    • 6 units. (A 8-12)

Flood Science Criticisms: Stolen Legends. I heard these arguments on the Discovery Channel production about Noah's ark in December 2005. While searching for this broadcast in July 2013, I found a BBC documentary from 2003 with the same arguments.
Undermining the Bible, the BBC documentary immediately labeled Noah as a drunk of questionable character and concluded that the story of Noah in the Torah was stolen from anicent Sumerian mythology about a local flood. The story was embellished and made up by Jewish priests living in captivity during the Babylonian exile as a cautionary tale about disobeying God.
They concluded that the Sumerian Noah was a trader on the Euphrates who got caught in a local flood with his cargo of animals and beer. All had to drink beer to survive for the 7 days the boat was adrift in the Persian Gulf. Settling on the local Mesopotamian flood as authentic, it went on to say that the ark was a small boat carrying only 260 animals that were found locally. They arrived at these figures from the list of clean and unclean animals in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14. These are 10 species of clean animals and about 30 unclean animals and the birds.

Flood Science Criticisms: The Animals.

Flood Science Criticisms: Conditions On Board The Ark

Flood Science Criticisms: Constructing The Ark
Construction Schedule
Age Project Activity Workers
480 Gather
(40 Years)
Cut trees and replant Hired Workers
Make fasteners (nail, pegs)
Make tools and replacements
490Saw wood into planks, dry and cure and position supplies around the ark work site
500 Sons Born
520 Assemble Frame Children
Hired Workers
530Assemble base and frame
540 Each Deck
(10 Years)
Construct exterior walls+floor
Construct Interior walls
Construct stalls and storage
Prepare more wood
550Deck 2 Construct Deck 2, food silos
560Deck 3 Construct Deck 3, frame roof
570 Special
Make fish pond, bamboo grove
Make dung and compost rooms
RoofCover roof (wood and quartz)
580 Duct Water, Sewer, Feeding ducts
Collect resin for pitch and rubber
Apply pitch (Several Coats)
Apply rubber floor beds
StorageMake 1359 food, 26 water tanks
FenceMake rope and wire fence
590 BagsMake 5,316 food storage bags Women
Food Gather grain, nuts, seeds, hay
595 Lamech dies (1651)
598Bamboo Establish grove, garden
Insects Start termite and ant hills
Start dung beetle, worm colony
Fish Pond Prepare pond. Shell fish filter
Zoo Temporary zoo in clear-cut area
Prepare Food Dry fruit, grain, nuts, seeds, flour
Dehydrated food, pellets, flour
Intense Evangelism All
600 Methuselah dies (1656)
Make temporary water duct
Gather animals (Migrate), eggs God
Month Pre-Load
Fill food and water bins
Assemble entry/exit ramp
Week Load
Feed large meals to reptiles
Week Load all Animals
Load entry/exit ramp
WeekWait Shut door God

Flood Science Criticisms: Other Issues.
Earth Preach Door
Wait Asteroid Impact Tsunami Submerged Ark Ararat RavenDove Dove Dove Wait Exit
Flood 150 Days (Water) 150 Days (Wind) 70 Days
2-10 2-17 40 Days 3-27 110 Days 7-17 10-1 40 days 21 days 12-1 12-17 1-1 2-27
Sin Building Ark Rough Seas Calmer Seas (253 Days) Incubation (77 Days)
Trees and Forests Trees Destroyed and Submerged Ground Drying Olive Tree Grows
1656 Years 1 Year (370 Days)

Flood Science Criticisms: The Flood.
Critics also claim that it was not a global flood because there is no evidence of a global flood and there is not enough water to cover the earth.

Flood Science Evidence: Enough Water.
Mountain HeightHeight Flood Waters Earth Surface
# Base (km) A. [Km (mi)]B. (km) Mountain Coverage
Covered 0 0 2.6176 (1.636)5.14 0% - Flat surface
Covered 866 2.6176 2.678 (1.674) 0 24% of current land
Covered 1226 2.6176 2.826 (1.7665) 0 24% of surface
Covered 2046 2.6176 2.966 (1.8535) 0 40% of surface
Covered 2556 2.6176 3.0527 (1.908) 0 50% of surface
Not 2046 4.00 3.149 (1.968) 0 40% of surface
Not 2046 5.137 3.300 (2.063) 0 40% of surface Ararat
Not 2556 5.137 3.471 (2.169) 0 50% of surface Ararat
Not 4086 5.137 3.983 (2.489) 0 80% of surface Ararat
Covered Mountains Covered Not Mountains Not Covered
The planet is 71% water on the surface area. But they claim that this is not enough water to cover the tops of the mountains. However, the Bible claims that the surface of the earth was very different before the flood. It did not rain because the surface was mostly land floating on water. The entire planet was land floating on an aquifer with rivers, springs and small lakes above ground. The planet probably did not have huge mountains, miles high but smaller hills. If so, then these could have easily been inundated by the water below as the earth sank below the water and displaced it. So it is not only a problem of water rising to cover the highest point of land, the land probably sank below the water.
As the earth dried in the following year, the force of water goughed out huge canyons and reshaped the surface of the earth for over one hundred years after.
» Methodology. I decided to use the volume of spheres. If I take the sphere of the earth and place it inside the sphere in which the water will cover the earth, then the volume of the water (or water + mountain) is the difference between the volumes of the two spheres.

» Limitations (Bald Earth). I will first make the calculations for a smooth earth without mountains with the water as an aquifer underneath. I will not account for the flood goughing out the soft earth or the forces pushing up the earth to build taller mountains. Instead I want to see what would be the size of the mountains that would be covered by the volume of water currently in our oceans. I will not be concerned about "undiscovered" or "unknown" water below the surface since the answer to all these problems only makes my case stronger. Either there would be more water to cover taller mountains, or taller mountains appeared after the flood. I used two different models for my calculations.

Mountain Calculation "A". This is the depth of the ocean water which covers the earth without mountains.
Radius Of Earth + Water. = Cube root [Volume (Earth+Water)/pi * 3/4] = 6379.112 km
Radius of Water. = (Radius Of Earth + Water) - (Radius of Earth) = 6379.112 - 6376.5 = 2.6176 km (1.636 mi) (8638 ft).
This is the minimum height of the water without mountains. Currently, mountains cover 24% of the land so I will use this as the baseline for what is reasonable.

» Mountains Displace Water. I was encouraged to calculate the possible height of this water that rose 15 cubits above the top of the mountain. The problem is that I do not know how tall the highest mountain was or how many mountains there were to displace the water. So instead I decided to take the current volume of water and determine how high it would go with various amounts of mountains and see if the story is unreasonable.
Calculation A
Water Above Circumference

Any mountain 1.6 miles high will be covered. In addition, the more mountains we add to our bald earth model, the more water will be displaced so that taller mountains can be covered. I will calculate the volume of a mountain by using the formula for the volume of a pyramid. If I add the volume of the mountain to the volume of the earth and water I will have the volume of the new sphere which represents the new height of the water + earth + mountain. Use this to calculate the new height.
» Conclusion. There is not enough water to cover the 5,137 meter mountain which we believe is Ararat. However, there is enough water to cover mountains between 2.6 and 3 km (1.6 and 1.9 miles) including the 15 cubits of water over the top (23-28 feet). It is possible.

Calculation B
Water Below Circumference
Mountain Calculation "B". All structures fit inside the diameter of the earth.
The minimum height of the earth without mountains under the water is 6373.88 km. This gives only a small advantage unless we use another model of mountain building other than filling the space with mountains which will displace water beyond the diameter of the earth.
Mountain in Basin The Basin Model. The earth is squished in on the side in the northern hemisphere. Let us work with this shape. Let us take a model of the earth with one land mass on top of an aquifer with very low mountains. Suppose the water covered the southern hemisphere with low hills only 0.10 km and then the majority of the water collected in a basin of mountains in the north or in a narrower northern hemisphere.
Hills and Low Lands
Basin Model
Water in basin

Evidence For The Flood
Evidence of the flood can be seen in the structure of the soil near these mountains. When viewed from this perspective, the earth can be seen as one giant flood basin with the bottleneck regions where the debris flowed the longest showing more scarring. These petroleum rich basins can be found near every major mountain. The force of the rushing water might have been precipitated by the dams bursting into the sea and the collapse of the land in the south formed the great seas and drained the water from the north, goughing a path between the continents through the mid Atlantic ridge and the pacific.

Mountains Of Evidence
The volume of the earth + water as high as Mount Everest = 1,090,542,840,622 km3
Volume of water needed to cover Everest = 7,332,839,659 km3 (7.3 x 109km3)
So there is not enough water to cover Everest if we believe that the total water on earth is 1.4 x 109km3
Although I believe most mountains achieved their height after the flood due to uplifting and volcanic activity under the soft earth, nevertheless I created a model based on the existing conditions in the north. But this model proposed that the post-flood volcanic and tectonic activity created the volcanic mountains in the southern hemisphere.
There are about four different types of mountains on the land. All can be formed by the tectonic or impact activity pushing through the soft earth. Two of them show signs of being formed very quickly and it is these two that form the highest mountains in both hemispheres.

Olive Tree Evidence. After 5 months of drying the dove finally returned an olive branch. What does this fact tell us?

Although we have no idea about the configuration of the pre-flood ecology or the hardiness of the plants, if we assume that it is relatively the same as it is today then the tree grew at the most at around 10,560 feet (2 mi or 3218 m). This is circumstantial evidence that the tallest mountains may have been about 2 miles which is close to the depth to which the total estimated amount of water can cover the earth with rogue waves.

So we maintain that the mountains were not as high before the flood. The waters we have could still cover very high mountains in support of this story.
Notice that the total volume of the major mountains is only about 7% of the total land area while the estimate is that 24% of the surface is covered with mountains. The remaining amount must be the smaller mountains and elevations. The size of the major mountains indicate the volume displaced in our theoretical basin.

Reasons For The Flood
Through the visions of a prophet, Seventh Day Adventists believe that the people before the flood had technology that was far superior to ours. The reason for the flood was because they had become too wicked and powerful through their knowledge. So God destroyed them and wiped out all traces of their technology. One heinous crime was their biological experiments. They were beginning to amalgamate man and animals.

Large buildings like the pyramid testify to ancient building technology and other buildings show advanced astrological knowledge. Independent verification of other ancient technology comes through Hindu writings. Sanskrit text, such as the Mahabharata, show evidence of great technological knowledge among the ancients. Much of this can be dismissed as the fertile imagination of an early futuristic novelist. But the description of the results of a nuclear blast are too realistic to dismiss.

Ancient Military Technology.
» Flying Machines. The Puspaka car that resembles the Sun and belongs to my brother was brought by the powerful Ravan; that aerial and excellent car going everywhere at will.... that car resembling a bright cloud in the sky. ".. and the King [Rama] got in, and the excellent car at the command of the Raghira, rose up into the higher atmosphere."
» War Planes. "Gurkha flying in his swift and powerful Vimana hurled against the three cities of the Vrishis and Andhakas a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe.
» Ancient Nuclear Weapons. " ... (the weapon was) a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as the thousand suns rose in all its splendor. An iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas. The corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable.
» Radioactive Contamination. The hair and nails fell out, pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white ... after a few hours all foodstuffs were infected .... to escape from this fire, the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment ..."

Evidence of what might be a nuclear blast are in skeletons excavated in the ancient Rishi City of Mohenjodaro. They were as radioactive as those in Hiroshima. In another city, clay pots melted under intense heat and were changed to glass.
» Modern Science in the Bible. Since writing this article, God has shown me a model of the Periodic Table and a model for particle physics in the Old Testament. He obviously obscured this knowledge with Moses because He would use it in the end of time to shut the mouths of scoffers, but suppose the people before the flood knew all this science? I am convinced that Satan did not know about the science models in the scriptures, but perhaps the ancients knew enough science to build all this technology like we do without believing that God had it encoded in scripture.

Destruction Of The World
Our destruction is scheduled. Or there is a limit to the reign of evil that God will allow.
The ancients thought that time was cyclic and advanced through four or five stages. As history unfolded the world progressively became worse until it was destroyed in the last cycle and then reborn.
God used this concept of time in Nebuchadnezzar's dream of a metal image (Daniel 2). But God corrected this view of time by showing him that time is linear. The world would not experience endless cycles of decay, destruction and rebirth. At the end of the decay, God shatters the cyclic kingdom and establishes a linear, golden kingdom that would last forever.
The Ages of the World and the Cycles of Time
# Hebrew Zoroaster Nebuchadnezzar Hinduism Persian Greek Roman Aztec
Curses Two Visions The Metal Image Ages (Yugas) Metals Four Ages Seven Ages Hesoid Ovid The Five Suns
1 Fear Gold Gold Gold Satya yuga Gold Gold Gold Gold Gold Jaguar
2 Famine Silver Silver Silver Treta yuga Silver SilverSilver Silver Silver Wind
3 Wild Beast Brass SteelBrass or BronzeDvapara yuga Copper Steel Brass Bronze Bronze Rain of fire
4 War, disease Copper Mixed Iron Iron Kali yuga Dark or Iron Age Mixed Iron Copper Heroes Iron Water
5 Sanctuary
Tin Mixed Iron and clay Destruction Tin Iron Earthquake
6 Steel Steel
7 Iron Iron

Linear Time.
Time is linear in the Bible. However, I found evidence of one possible source of the notion of cyclic time in the covenant made with the Hebrews. God promised that He would give them five series of warnings for their disobedience. On the fifth time, He would cause their sanctuary to be destroyed and their population to be exiled. (Leviticus 26). Then He would rescue them.
This covenant also existed with Adam and Eve and must have been known by our common ancestors after the flood.

So, the Bible supports the concept of cyclic punishments and renewal but not unending cyclic time. This concept of the blessings and curses fits the beliefs of the ancients that as evil got worse God would punish until He destroyed at the end. So God did teach cyclic punishment which occurred in the context of linear time. But he did not teach cyclic time with the reincarnation and a new creation of biological life and the new creation of God.
At the end of His last punishment, He will resurrect life and we would have perfection forever. The bible hints that this process will last 7,000 years.
Gold Silver Bronze Iron Clay Gold
No Sin Eve tempted Sin Ark Flood Babylon Persia Greece ChristRome Now War Destruction New
Gold Silver Bronze Iron Clay ... GoldSilver Bronze Iron Clay Millennium Exile
6000 Years 1000 Years Forever

After the period of clay and destruction there is a period of exile before the new creation. Noah was exiled for one year in the ark as the earth dried. Satan is exiled for one thousand years (one day) when the sea of people dries up.

Judaism: Six Thousand Years. In the tractate Avodah Zarah, page 9A and the Tanna Debey Eliyahu, the Talmud teaches that the world will last six thousand years. It is divided into three ages that last about two thousand years. It will end with the Day of the Lord.
2000 Years 2000 Years 2000 Years 1000 Years New Jerusalem, Zion Eternity
Void (No Instruction) Period of the Torah Christ Messianic Age Day of the Lord Paradise
In Christianity, this Day of the Lord lasts one thousand years. So the world lasts for one great week which is 3.5 "ages". In which, the Messiah did come at the beginning of the last two thousand years but He is not recognized by the Jews.

Buddism: 4500 Years. The days of Dharma (Buddhist law) are divided into three periods in which the law is progressively weakened. In the last phase, when Buddhism fades, Buddha will reappear to turn the wheel of the law. Maitreya Bodhisattva is the buddha who saves the world of the future and saves all beings who have lost their way. At that time, the Dragon Blossom flower will bloom, and Maitreya Bodhisattva will convene a gathering three times to preach the teachings and save the world.
500 Years 1000 Years 3000 Years End of Time
Turn of the Wheel of the Law Law Deteriorates Lawlessness Buddha (Maitreya Bodhisattva) reappears
This is referred to as the Three Gatherings of the Dragon Blossom. Some sources list 5,670,000,000 years instead of 4,500 years. The difference may be human years versus long ages as seen in Hinduism.

Zoroastrian: Twelve Thousand Years. This is time with the progressive degeneration described as a series of metals.
1 2 3 4
Abyss Ahuramazda Aharman Battle for Mastery
0-3000 3001-6000 6001-9000 9001-10000 10001-11000 11001-12000
3630-2631 2630BC-1629 1630-629BC 630BC-370AD 371-1370 1371-2370
Nothing Spiritual body of the savior created. 2630 BC Celestial Light Darkness Zoroaster 630 B.C. Gold Silver Brass Copper Hushedar 371 Tin Steel Aushedar 1371 Iron Soshans 2310

» The Four Divisions of Time. Time lasts for 12,000 years before the endless perfection of eternity. But it was divided into four sets of three thousand years which were characterized by the domination of one force. In the first three thousand years there was nothing. Then the kingdom of light ruled and after that the kingdom of darkness. In the fourth division, the years 9000-12000, when the battle of mastery of good and evil is waged between Ahuramazda and Ahirman, the time was divided into ages of a succession of metals. It started with the golden empire and ended with iron.
The Messiah
Critics claim that Judaism and Christianity stole the idea of the Messiah from Zoroaster. In this article we conclusively prove that this was not the case.

» Two Visions. Zoroaster actually had two visions about the final period that began in his time in 630 B.C. In the first vision he saw a great tree with four branches which symbolized the four ages of his millennium. They were gold, silver, iron and mixed iron. In the second vision he saw a tree with seven branches, signifying "the seven periods which will come". They are gold, silver, brass, copper, tin, steel and iron. The golden age occurred in his time in the year 9001, at the end of the Ahriman period when darkness left.
» Three Saviors. Three saviors, who were direct descendants of Zoroaster, would be born of a virgin in the world at the beginning of each of the last three millennium using a body created for him by the archangels in the year 3000. They would lead the people back to the true religion. They are Hushedar in 371 A.D. Aushedar-Mah in 1371. Soshans (Saoshyant) in 2310. So far, the first two have failed to appear. The Bahais believe that the last savior is Baha'u'llah who returned in 1844 because of this prophecy of Zoroaster.
When a thousand two hundred and some years have passed from the inception of the religion of the Arabian and the overthrow of the kingdom of Iran and the degradation of the followers of My religion, a descendant of the Iranian kings will be raised up as a Prophet.
The sign of the end of the tenth millennium was the coming of "myriads of demons with disheveled hair, the race of wrath". These were identified as the Christians.

Roman: Four Ages. The Golden Age is the time of bliss and total happiness when Innocence, virtue, and truth prevailed. There was no need for labour, for the earth brought forth spontaneously all that was necessary for man's subsistence. The Golden Age was followed by another, not quite so prosperous, called the Silver Age. It probably started after Pandora opened the box. It was the time when the year was first divided into seasons, and men were obliged to toil for their daily bread. Yet, in spite of these few hardships, the people were happy, far happier than their descendants during the Age of Brass, which speedily followed, when strife became customary, and differences were settled by blows. But by far the worst of all was the Iron Age, when men's passions knew no bounds, and they even dared refuse all homage to the immortal gods. War was waged incessantly. The earth was saturated with blood. The rights of hospitality were openly violated and murder, rape, and theft were committed on all sides.

Prophetic Time.
Experiencing Time
God 2000 Years
Heaven One Year
Earth One Day
One type of linear time in the bible is prophetic time. The prophecies that involve time often gives such time as a formula that has a direct relationship to real human time. According to prophecy, a day of prophetic time is equal to one year or 360 days of real time. In fact, God says that one thousand ages is like one evening. So an entire day must be two thousand years. This is an even longer scale of time. So, since we know that the passage of time in God's realm is long in comparison to ours, then perhaps the prophetic time that is given is actually the eternal time as the people in Heaven now experience it. God Himself experiences time on a much longer cycle. So that 7000 years is three and a half days for Him. In prophecy, evil gets three and a half periods of time to operate.

Arrow SilverArrowNew Creation ... Arrow SilverArrowNew Creation ...
Gold Cyclic Time Bronze Gold Cyclic Time Bronze
Arrow ClayArrow IronArrow Arrow ClayArrow IronArrow
Cyclic Time.
Creation disintegrates and is destroyed and physically recreated on a regular schedule. There is one civilization in which this structure of time is important. It may have influenced others. The Persians may have been influenced by the Hindus. The Greeks and Romans may have been influenced by both as they conquered the region.

Hindu: 8,640,000,000 Years. This is the best example of both cyclic time and the disintegration through the ages. This process is repeated one thousand times every four million years. The universe exists for one day and night in god's time, or over eight billion years of normal time. Then this cycle is also repeated.
Some scientists accept this aspect of Hindu belief not because they believe in the gods or the cosmogony, but the Hindu cycle of time agrees with the billions of years needed for evolution.
Time Cycles God Age Events


One Brahma Day


One Brahma Night Cycle

One Day


1000 Maha Yugas
Brahma Sristi, the emergence from Brahma begins He breaks open the egg and creates time, heavens, earth, underworld, gods, demons, plants, animals and man
One Maha Yuga Cycle
Satya Yuga (Gold Age) 1,728,000 years of perfection
Vishnu Treta Yuga (Silver Age) 1,296,000 years of lying and violence come into the world
Dvapara Yuga (Copper) 864,000 years of wars, disease, passion and hatred
Kali Yuga (Iron Age) 432,000 years. Lazy, quarrelsome, deceitful and greedy
Kalki destroys the unrighteous and restarts the golden Age 1000 times
One Night


1000 Maha Yugas
Shiva 100 Years of Fire and heat destroy the heaven, earth and underworld Shiva causes the sun to burn hotter. Fire and heat dries the earth and kills all life. The heavens, earth and underworld burn up.
100 Years of Flood cover the universe and creates the dark abyss of water Shiva exhales storm clouds. The storm hides the sun and the world is darkened. It rains for 100 years and everything is buried in a flood. Only Vishnu and the sea exists. All gods are dead. All three worlds are covered.
Vishnu The seeds of life are preserved A large gold egg appears and floats on the sea
100 Years of Wind stops the rain clouds Vishnu exhales a drying wind to drive away the storm clouds. Then he sleeps.
4,319,999,700 Years of rest Vishnu sleeps while the egg floats on the sea.
Brahma Pralaya, the reabsorbtion into Brahma is complete. A lotus flower emerges from Vishnu's navel in the form of Brahma. The Lotus is the foundation of the three worlds.
In a third cycle, Brahma lives for 36,000 Brahma days. Then all worlds dissolve for another 36,000 days before life starts again

If you ignore the long periods of time you see the same elements of the story of the people before the flood. Creation, sin and gradual disintegration into lawlessness. Then there is a flood caused by an asteroid (fire and heat), wind to dry the earth and a new beginning. The egg is the ark full of life that was floating on the sea.

The End Of The World
The end of the world comes when the pillar of the cosmogony changes. The tree dies, the egg shatters, the pillars that hold the world collapse, the strings that suspend the earth break, god wakes up from his sleep and stops dreaming about us, or god goes to sleep and stops thinking about us.

»Shiva Destroys.
»The End. At the end of 1,000 Maha Yugas (one day of the life of the world), the great god Vishnu will adopt the form of Shiva-Rudra and will destroy all life on earth. He will then usher in one night in the life of the world, a period lasting another 1,000 Maha yugas.
» The Destruction. First Shiva-Rudra will enter the sun's rays and intensify them for 100 years. This will generate great heat which will evaporate all water on the face of the earth. All three worlds will be affected, heaven, earth, and the Underworld. The great drought and scorching fire will create a wasteland. Famine will stalk the universe. By the time the 100 year period ends, no living creature will remain in the three worlds and they will burn up.
» The Waters of the Abyss are Created. When the fires have consumed all life on the three worlds, Shiva-Rudra will exhale dreadful storm clouds. This will be accompanied by terrifying thunder and lightning. These clouds will move across the face of the earth, obscuring the sun and cloaking the world in darkness. Day and night, for 100 years, a deluge of rain will pour forth until everything in the world has been buried beneath the deep waters of a devastating flood. Besides the desolate sea, only Vishnu will continue to exist, for the fire and flood will have destroyed all of the other gods along with the rest of all life.

»Vishnu Preserves Life.
»The Golden Egg. Just as the great flood begins to bury all life, a large golden egg will appear. This egg will contain the seeds of all forms of life that existed in the world before the flood. As the world drowns, the egg will float safety upon the waters of the boundless ocean.
»The Sleep. When the ocean completely covers all three worlds, Vishnu will exhale a drying wind. For 100 years this wind will blow across the world, dispersing the storm clouds. For the remainder of the night of 1,000 Maha Yugas, Vishnu and the world will sleep.

»Brahma Creates.
»The Lotus (God Emerges). At the end of the long night of 1,000 Maha Yugas, Vishnu will awaken. A marvelous lotus flower will emerge from his navel, and Vishnu will emerge from the lotus flower in his creative form of Brahma, creator of life on earth. The lotus will become the foundation of the three worlds.
The Egg, Lotus and Mind

» The Creation of the World. Once he has emerged from the blossom, Brahma will rest upon it. Brahma will break open the egg to initiate the process of rebirth. This will usher in the next day in the life of the world, a new period of 1,000 Maha Yugas. Hindus believe that the image of all three worlds, complete with gods, demons, and human beings, exists within Brahma.
First Brahma, the creator, will bring forth water, fire, air, wind, sky, and earth, with mountains and trees upon the earth. Then he will create the forms of time, as a way of organizing the universe. Then, Brahma will concentrate upon creating gods, demons, and human beings. First he will bring the demons from his buttocks. He will then cast off his body, creating the darkness we call night which belongs to the demons.
Taking a second body, Brahma will bring forth the gods from his face. He will cast off this body as well, creating the lightness we call day, which belongs to the gods. From successive bodies, Brahma's powers of concentration will bring forth human beings and Rakshasas (demon and man eating ogre), snakes and birds. Then Brahma will bring forth goats from his mouth, sheep from his chest, cows from his stomach, antelope, buffalo, camels, donkeys, elephants, and other animals from his arms and legs, horses from his feet, and plant life from the hair on his body.
So Vishnu exists eternally in his three forms. First he is Brahma, the grandfather and creator of the world. Then he is Vishnu, the preserver of life on earth. Finally he is Shiva-Rudra, the destroyer of life on earth.

The Final Battle
But before the final destruction and new creation, many religions include a final battle between the forces of good and evil.

Megiddo: The Final Battle Of Jewish Eschatology.
Our understanding of the final battle between good and evil comes from two sources, the bible and the war scrolls found among the Dead Sea scrolls.

Battle Of The Kittim.
There is a war between the sons of light (members of the Yahad) and the sons of darkness (the Kittim) that lasts about forty years. This time includes the Sabbath years when they should rest from war. The sons of light are Levi, Judah, Benjamin and those exiled in the wilderness. The forces of darkness are the army of Belial who are led by the Kittim. The war eliminates all people who are not the legitimate sons of Israel and those who are violators of the covenant. There are three stages of the war.

  1. Sons of Shem. The Kittim of Asshur join forces with Edom, Moab, Ammon, Amalekites, Philistia and the violators of the covenant.
  2. Sons of Ham. The Kittim of Egypt join the forces of darkness.
  3. Sons of Japheth (Kings of the North). They join the forces of darkness.
Sons of ShemSons of
Sons of
Mesopotamia Lud Sons of Aram Arpachshad Assyria, Persia Elam Ishmael, Keturah
Year 1 2 3 Year 4-5 Year 6-7 8 910-19 20-29
Babylon and Assyria Assyria and Persia Arabia Egypt Europe

There were seven engagements in the final battle. The forces of good won three and the forces of evil won three. But good won the final battle and annihilated evil forever.

Battle Of Hamon-Gog.
Ezekiel records a battle between the forces of evil led by Gog, the king of the north, from the land of Magog. They surround Jerusalem and are annhilated by God. He may have been describing the last stage of the same war written in the Dead Sea scrolls. Revelation uses Ezekiel's version to describe the final phase of the battle after the millennium.

Armageddon: The Final Battle Of Christianity.
The Bible actually teaches that there is a cosmic war that started before the creation of the earth. Satan and a group of angels lost and then they tempted Adam and Eve to sin. They were confined to the earth with the human race.
The battle continues as Satan tries to tempt people to sin and abandon God. Ultimately, he will be killed in the final battle of Armageddon described in Revelation 20-22. Then he, his evil angels and all the resurrected wicked will surround the New Jerusalem and try to take the city of God by force. God wins easily when He destroys all the wicked people and wicked angels with hell fire, and recreates the heavens and the earth. A more detailed description of this version is given in our lessons, since this is the version we support.
Signs False Second Coming
The PlaguesSecond
(The Good)
(The Bad)
New Jerusalem Descends Judgment Armageddon
Gog and Magog
Hell New
War Preparation Rapture Satan is Incarcerated on the earth Guilty War Final War

This final end will be preceded by several signs which have been occurring since about 1750 at the French Revolution.

The wicked prepare for Armageddon when they try to kill the righteous during the incredible chaos at the end of time. Christ stops the war in its planning stages at the Second Coming and kills all the wicked. After the millennium, Christ returns to earth and the wicked are resurrected to defend themselves in the final judgment. Together with Satan, they get to execute the battle of Armageddon, but God kills them with hell fire. Then the new earth is created.

Armageddon: Evangelical Version.
Signs Antichrist
War Armageddon
(World War III)
- Plagues Second
1000 Years of Peace Resurrection Judgment New
Time of Trouble (Seven Years) Guilty Hell

Structure of Earth and Hell
3HeavenHouse of God
2 Outer space
1 The sky above
1 Earth Land sea Leviathan
2 Sheol (the grave)
3 Hell Satan
Read the correct view about hell.
There are a few notable differences between what I believe are the correct sequence of events and a popular evangelical version. Some of this is probably based on their belief that hell is now a physical place that is somewhere under the earth or on another planet.
I believe that Hell and hell fire is an event that will exist on earth in the future after the Millennium. The wicked will be destroyed and Hell will no longer exist. So there is currently no eternally burning hell and all the dead, good and evil, are unconscious and waiting in their graves for their resurrection.

Armageddon: Catholic Version.
SignsThe Great Warning The Great
Rapture The Great Chastisement Second
1000 Years
of Peace
Judged New
Sun implodes 3 Days of
CometComet Wormwood Famine, Plague War Armageddon
(World War III)
3 Days of Darkness CometBall of Redemption 500 Years Hell
Mary Comes Time of Trouble Christ Comes

The False Second Coming
Satan will impersonate Christ in a false Second Coming.
If the sign of the sun imploding occurs at the fourth plague or before, then they could interpret the false Second Coming as the coming of Mary. The church would follow his instructions, believing that this is their last chance.
Antichrist (A False Christ). This is a human who pretends to be Christ or to represent Christ.
False Second Coming. This is when Satan impersonates the coming of Christ. It is the ultimate appearing of the Antichrist.
The sources of this version used a combination of approved visions and visions that have not yet been approved. I also used the officially unapproved visions because it was obvious from reading a book called "The Keys of this Blood" that the pope was taking his eschatological views from visions that are still churning their way through the approval process. So I looked at the teachings of those visionaries also.
They have arranged a sequence of events that seem to complement their basic beliefs. The information shows a rapture before the tribulation and a millennium reign of peace on earth after the battle of Armageddon which involves the Middle East, North Africa, Russian and Chinese forces against the United States and the Christians. That is the same basic order of events as the Evangelical Christians, but the details are quite different.

Ragnarok: The Final Battle Of Norse Mythology.
Just like the legend of Yggdrasil, the battle of Ragnarok is a very well developed legend. With one exception, it is also very similar to the Christian understanding of the end. As with all distortions, Satan gives himself an equal status with God. And in this legend, the evil army defeats the good. But in a strange twist, the good prevails in the new creation.
Abyss6000 Years Signs Second Coming Trumpet Millennium Resurrection ArmageddonHell Fire New
Earth Signs Giants come Cock Crow calls the dead, gods, giants RagnarokSurt's Fire
NiflheimHelheim Muspelheim (Flame Land)Asgard

Sun becomes black, moon as blood and the stars fall.
War Norse. Ragnarok (Gotterdammerung). Ragnarok, or the destruction of the powers, is the cataclysmic end of the cosmos.
» Signs of the End. Ragnarok will be preceded by Fimbulvetr, the winter of winters. Three such winters will follow each other with no summers in between. Conflicts and feuds will break out, even between families, and all morality will disappear. This is the beginning of the end. The wolf, Skoll, will finally devour the sun, and his brother, Hati, will eat the moon, plunging the earth in darkness. The stars will vanish from the sky.
The trumpet of the archangel wakes the righteous dead. The wicked are raised after 1000 years.

» The Trumpet wakes the Dead. The cock Fjalar will crow to the giants and the golden cock Gullinkambi will crow to the gods. A third cock will raise the dead. Earthquakes will shudder the earth, and every bond and fetter will burst, freeing the terrible wolf Fenrir. The sea will rear up because Jormungand, the Midgard Serpent, is twisting and writhing in fury, making his way toward the land. With every breath, Jormungand will stain the soil and the sky with his poison. The waves caused by the serpent's emerging will set free the ship Naglfar, and with the giant Hymir as their commander, the giants will sail towards the battlefield.
» Second Resurrection. From the realm of the dead a second ship will set sail, and this ship carries the inhabitants of the hell, with Loki as their helmsman. The fire giants, led by the giant Surt, will leave Muspelheim in the south to join against the gods.
The Siege
The wicked gather on the plain around the city. They surround the city in preparation for war.

» Gather for War. Surt, carrying a sword that blazes like the sun itself, will scorch the earth. Meanwhile, Heimdall will sound his horn, calling Odin's sons and heroes to the battlefield. From all the corners of the world, gods, giants, dwarves, demons and elves will ride towards the huge plain of Vigrid ("battle shaker"), were the last battle will be fought.
» The Battle. Odin will head straight for Fenrir, and Thor will attack Jormungand. Thor will be victorious, but shortly after he dies from the serpent's poison. Surt will seek out Freyr, who will succumb to the giant. The one-handed Tyr will fight the monstrous hound Garm and they will kill each other. Loki and Heimdall, age-old enemies, will meet for a final time, and neither will survive their encounter. The fight between Odin and Fenrir will rage for a long time, but finally Fenrir will seize Odin, and swallow him. Vidar will at once leap towards the wolf, and kill him with his bare hands.
Fire from God destroys the wicked and the earth. A new heaven and earth are created. Christ, the dying God, will rule.

» The Destruction. Then Surt will fling fire in every direction. The nine worlds will burn, and friends and foes alike will perish. The earth will sink into the sea.
» The New Creation. After the destruction, a new idyllic world will arise from the sea and this new earth is filled with abundant supplies. Some of the gods will survive, others will be reborn. Wickedness and misery will no longer exist and gods and men will live happily together. The descendants of Lif and Liftrasir will inhabit this earth. Balder, the dying god will rule.

The Attack Of Shambhala.

The New Jerusalem
At the second resurrection the holy city of God will descend to the earth. The wicked will try to seize it after they have been condemned in the judgment.
War Buddhist (Shambhala). The prophecy of ShambPutucusiala states that each of its kings will rule for 100 years. There will be 32 in all, and as their reigns pass, conditions in the outside world will deteriorate. Men will become more warlike and pursue power for its own sake, and an ideology of materialism will spread over the Earth.
» The City Revealed. When the Barbarians who follow this ideology are united under an evil king and think there is nothing left to conquer, the mists will lift to reveal the icy mountains of Shambhala.
» The Final War. The Barbarians will attack Shambhala with a huge army equipped with terrible weapons.
» The Final Destruction. Then the last king of Shambhala, Rudra Cakrin, will lead a mighty host against the invaders. In a last great battle, the evil king and his followers will be destroyed.

Earlier Wars.
The Greek legend is about a war that has already happened. The Olympian gods fought the Titans for rulership of the earth. The Bible also teaches that there was a great war in heaven in which Satan was exiled to the earth. Armageddon is simply the final, decisive battle in this great war.

War Greek. Legends told of a great and powerful dragon named Typhon. The last of the Titans, Typhon was the son of the earth and the underworld. Typhon's hundred, horrible heads touched the stars, venom dripped from his evil eyes, and lava poured from his gaping mouths. He was a vicious and implacable foe of the Olympian gods who came out of Asia Minor on a blood lust rampage. Hissing like a hundred snakes and roaring like a hundred lions, he tore up whole mountains and threw them at the gods. Along this path, he took storm and destruction with him, wading through the sea as if it were a shallow creek and destroying entire civilizations as he went. It was at the base of Mount Olympus that the battle between Typhon and Zeus began. Evidence of this battle can be seen today, the scarred battle grounds forming the river beds now in Syria. It was in the shallows off the Italian coast that the great Typhon was defeated. As Typhon tore up huge Mount Aetna to hurl at the gods, Zeus struck it with a hundred well-aimed thunderbolts and the mountain fell back, pinning Typhon underneath. There the monster lies to this very day, belching fire, lava and smoke through the top of the mountain.

Ancient Persian: The Final Battle Of Zoroastrianism.
This religion emerged in Persia and its prophecies may still be familiar to the Islamic nations because they are most similar to the Muslim prophecies. As you read this prophecy and the Islamic version, consider what the average religious Iranian, Iraqi and Muslim must be thinking as America makes war in the Middle East and threatens the nations mentioned in their prophecies. In these cultures, belief in religion is the norm, and America is identified as the "Great Satan". Who is the "moderate voice" to whom America thinks that it can appeal? What are the odds that any secular person in this regions is not contemplating their prophecies?
In the final days there would be a battle between good and evil in Iran. Evil would be vanquished and the world would be purified by a bath of molten metal. AhuraMazda (God) would then judge the world, resurrecting the dead and His Kingdom would be established on earth.

Knowledge increases. Immorality. Sun and moon darkened. Stars fall.
» Signs. The last days is an era of scientific progress, persecution, disease and death will disappear. But there will be universal immorality and apostasy. People will treat god with contempt. All men will become deceivers and greedy. Affection will depart from the world and families will be against each other. Nature will show terrible signs. The sun and the moon will show signs. There will be frightful storms and earthquakes, wars and rumors of wars which kills many soldiers.
But Mitro will be victorious and will at last destroy the idol temples and restore the good religion of Ahuramazda. And then Hushedar (Messiah) will come and many will convert to the religion.
Armageddon Phase 1
Forces gather in the Middle East near the Euphrates.

» War in Iran. But, Aharman (Satan) will be able to mobilize a vast army which will march upon Iran, the holy nation, where the great and final Armageddon will be fought. The slaughter is to be so great that the rivers of blood will reach the girths of the horses. Soshans (Messiah) smites the hordes of unbelievers and demons, and ushers in the kingdom of righteousness. The great fiend AziDahak is released and rules for a year and a half with fearful devastation. He slays one third of mankind, and destroys one third of all cattle, sheep, and other creatures. He smites the water, fire, and vegetation.
First Resurrection
Only the righteous are resurrected and given immortality. All the wicked are dead they are with Satan on the desolate earth. 1000 years elapses.

» Resurrection and Judgment. After this, comes the resurrection, the final judgment, and the renovation of the world, in which complete triumph is to be achieved by Soshans and Ahuramazda for the benefit of the faithful.
During the fifty-seven years of the Soshans, all the dead are to be resurrected, righteous and wicked alike; each is roused on the spot where he died; earth and sea surrender their dead, who assume their former bodies. All are gathered before the great judgment seat of the Soshans in the assembly known as Sadvastaran. The wicked are separated from the righteous, and cast into the depths of hell, where they are punished.

» The Cleansing Fire. Then comes the great fire in which the world burns in a fantastic holocaust. The earth becomes a river of molten metal and all men, righteous or wicked, must walk through this liquid fire. To the righteous it will be like a pleasant bath of warm milk, but to the wicked it will be indescribable torture.
Armageddon Phase 2
Satan and the wicked surround the Holy City and are destroyed in a fire that destroys the earth.
But this purifies them and they become saintly. So, in the end all men are redeemed.

» Immortality. The Soshans will prepare a meal which will make men immortal. Each adult will get a body of forty years, and all children one of fifteen. Each man will receive his own wife and children, but there will be no more births in the heavenly kingdom.
» The Final Destruction. But Aharman and his first lieutenant, Azi-Dahak, though defeated, are still present in the world. Auharmazda and Saoshyant now attack them, and the seven archangels assail the seven archfiends and all these creatures of darkness take refuge in the pit of hell where they and Aharman, the great serpent, are burned "in the melted metal, and the stench and pollution which were in hell are burned and hell becomes quite pure." Aharman and all his minions are annihilated at last and those like them can never exist again.
The New Earth
God creates the new earth and we live there forever

» The New World. Auharmazda now "brings the land of hell back for the enlargement of the world; the renovation of the universe arises at his will, and the world is immortal for ever and everlasting". The earth at last becomes an iceless, slopeless plain; even the mountain whose summit is the support of the Kinvad Bridge, "they keep down, and it will not exist". Out of the final holocaust, arises a new earth, a renovated universe; in this, all evil is at last destroyed, and all men become blessed saints.

Al-Malhamah Al-Kubrah. The Battle Of Qa'im (Qaim): The Final Battle Of Islam.
The word "al-Qaim" means "firm" or "steadfast." Al Qa'im is a town in the Anbar province a mile from the Syrian border along the Euphrates River about two hundred miles northwest of Baghdad. Al Qa'im (the one to arise) is also the name of Muhammad al Mahdi. He is the twelfth and last Imam of the Twelver Shi'a. On the day of Judgment the following will occur so that the infidels are eliminated and the new way of life can proceed.
15,000 Years 1000 Years (Muslim Millennium)
Christians Mahdi Rules Isa Others Evil Rules Again Righteous
6000 Years War 7 Years 40 Years - - Sun from
the West
120 Years Earth
Trumpet Resurrection

Osama Bin Laden
We can now see why the fighters are drawn to Afghanistan and Baghdad. They are waiting for the Imam and creating armies for him. Some might even be wondering if Osama is the one or a messenger.
» Imam Mahdi. The Shi'a believe that the Imam Mahdi has been concealed for hundreds of years. He disappeared at the age of five from his home at Samarrah, Iraq, after leading his father's funeral prayer on the 8th Rabi ul-Awwal 260 Hijri (872 or 874 A.D.). The Imam has been withdrawn by God from the eyes of people and his life has been miraculously prolonged. He was last seen in Samarra in the cellar of his father's house (or in a cave). In 947 he was seen once at a well in Jamkaran, Iran. He will be revealed at the end of time. When he appears the day of judgment will begin. His capital will be in Damascus, Syria but he will appear in Afghanistan and Baghdad to lead armies in the Great war.
The Sunni believe that the Mahdi is a new person and the successor to Mohammad. The Shi'a believe that the Mahdi is also from Mohammad but through a different line of succession. For the Twelvers he is the 12th imam. For the Seveners, he is the 7th imam. He is now several hundred years old and is in hiding until it is time to appear.
» The Day of Judgment. On the day of judgment the Kaaba will be transported from Mecca (Makkah) to Jerusalem. The Kabba is the black cube around which Muslims make a procession during the Haaj.
» Signs. A black wind, a great earthquake, locusts, war (red death), plague (white death), famine and drought. The Muslims will be at the peak of their military power. Christians will convert to Islam.
The Coming of Isa (Jesus)
Since the coming of Isa is integral to the coming of the Mahdi, Muslims seem be be taking an interest in Christian eschatology because they have no real information about Jesus.

» Peace Treaty. The Muslims will make a peace treaty with the Christians and fight together successfully. The Christians will break the treaty. Many Christians will convert to Islam but others will start a war against the Muslims.
» The Dajjal (The Lying Christ or Antichrist). He is a Jew who claims to be Jesus Christ, travelling on a giant mule, who will rule on earth for forty days. But it will seem like one year, one month, one week and 37 days. He is short, fat, red faced, bow legged, curly haired and has one eye. He will have the word "Kafir" or unbeliever in the middle of his forehead. Only the Muslim believer will be able to see this word.
He will perform miracles. He will even appear to raise the dead by having devils assume the form of the dead. He will visit every place on earth except Mecca, Medina and Damascus (Sham) which are guarded by angels. His followers are Europeans, Americans, Jews, women and Christians. The Great Satan. The Muslim Jesus (Isa) will slay the Dajjal and establish Islam.

It is strange that Jews, Muslims and Christians and even Buddhists are on a path towards a future where the coming of the Antichrist can be exploited by Satan to allow them to look to violence at the command of the supernatural as a duty because they will be wiping out the wicked. When the Antichrist appears it will be easy for Him to pit ancient enemies against each other because their identification of him is not based on righteousness and peace but on their side being invincible and correct in their theology.
If the Second Coming is not about the resurrection of the dead and the taking away of all the righteous to heaven then it is a Satanic hoax. War and destruction will not be performed by humans but by the angelic forces coming to rescue the righteous. There will be no debate, no Bible study lessons, no peace conferences, no armed righteous human beings taking up the sword or gun, no more appeals to abandon evil, no repeals of laws, no more teaching, no supernatural beings appealing to the world via television or loud speaker. There will be no Sunday morning debates by experts and politicians and religious leaders.
If these dynamics exist during a supernatural landing of aliens or angels or extraterrestial forces then it is the Antichrist. If you find yourself in this situation do not be afraid of them, simply turn to knowledge about Jesus Christ because the Second Coming is within your life time, possibly less than one year.

The real Second Coming is a simple rescue operation where the righteous will be visibly snatched away as the wicked watch in terror and regret before God destroys them from above by Himself.

The Siege of Jerusalem
The nations will surround Israel (Jerusalem). (Zechariah 12)

» The Great War (Al-Malhamah Al-Kubrah). For seven years Mahdi will lead Muslims in victory over the Antichrist before the return of Isa (Jesus). Mahdi will gather a great army in Afghanistan (Khurâsân) to fight the infidel Christians and march on Jerusalem and create a universal Islamic religion.
For the Shi'a it starts with a call from the sky at the beginning of the Day of Judgment. The faithful people will assemble from Syria, Iraq, Yemen and many Arab nations. An army will come from Afghanistan wearing black headbands and carrying black banners. Muhammad told the Muslims that when they see the black flags they must join that army of men in a relentless march toward Jerusalem. Some accounts say green flags. This is because Muhammad is said to have carried a black flag (al Uqaab) in battle and a green flag at other times.
The Silent Army
One wonders about the motivation of the armies we are arming and training in Afghanistan and Iraq. Afghan men are so eager to be trained, the USA army cannot fill other supporting positions.
Why are they training? How will they react when they see their sign?
The world will not come to an end until a man from my family (Ahlulbayt) and of my name shall be master of the world. When you see a green ensign coming from the direction of Khorasan [Afghanistan], then join them, for the Imam of God will be with the standards who will be called Al-Mahdi.
960,000 Christians (eighty groups of 12,000) will gather to fight the Muslims between Damascus and Medina. The Muslims will win on the fourth day of battle. One third will flee, one third will be martyred but the rest will be victorious. Then Mahdi will invade Istanbul with 70,000 people. See a map.
Meanwhile the Antichrist will lead 70,000 people to fight Mahdi in Damascus.
» The Coming Of Isa (Jesus). Suddenly Isa will descend from the skies with his hands on the shoulders of two angels. The next day he rides to battle on a horse and he will kill the armies of the Antichrist with his breath and with a sword. Mahdi will pass away and Isa will rule. Isa will return as the Mahdi's executioner to tell the world to follow the religion of Islam because Christianity is a mistake that he regrets starting. Isa will also pass away after forty years. During the forty years time he will marry and have children.
» Gog And Magog (Ya'jooj And Ma'jooj). Two tribes of vicious beings will break out of prison when their prison wall breaks. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers they see. Isa, Mahdi and the believers will pray on a mountain and Allah sends disease and worms to wipe them out.
Evil Returns
Evil returns only to be judged and destroyed. The wicked are resurrected and Satan is loosed.

» Evil Returns. Jahjâh, a man from Yemen will begin to rule a religious kingdom. After a succession of several rulers evil will again appear. Then a mist will cover the earth, the unrighteous will fall unconscious and the mist will clear after forty days.
» The Long Night. Then the earth will be dark for about three days and the sun will rise from the west and move to its normal point at noon. Then it will set in the west. This begins the last 120 years on earth.

» The Mark Of The Beast On The Righteous And The Wicked. An earthquake will occur in Mecca and a strange animal will appear. He will mark the foreheads of the righteous with a line so that their faces will shine. But he will mark the unrighteous on their noses or necks and their faces will become dark. A breeze will blow across the land and the righteous will die. The wicked will rule the world and remove all traces of God. Syria will become very prosperous and many people will begin to go there willingly. A fire will drive the remaining towards Syria so that all creation will be gathered in Syria. Prosperity will continue for four years.
» The Trumpet. Then on Friday 10, Muharram a trumpet will blow and everyone will die.
» The Destruction. The universe will be destroyed. Then the resurrection will begin.

Shi'a And Sunni Eschatology
The hidden imam is a Shia belief and most of the beliefs described above are believed by the Shi'a. But it was Al-Qaeda and the Sunni branch of Islam that began this eschatological war. Their zeal stems from spreading Islam through jihad and protecting their holy countries. The soviet incursions in Afghanistan might have triggered their pilgrimage to the country to fight the Jihad in a land that Muhammad mentions as a sign of the end. The results of their zealous behavior connect with the Shi'a view of the future. While the Shi'a believe in the Mahdi, the hidden iman is the man from the family of Muhammad, the Sunni probably believe that there will be a person descended from this family who will begin the jihad and stir the Muslims to march to Jerusalem.
Sooner or later when these groups decide to cooperate with each other against the Great Satan (United States) and the Little Satan (Israel), we will have a dire future.

Sunni Muslim Prophecy. This is taught in schools supported by Saudia Arabia.
"the hour of judgment will not come until the Muslims fight the Jews and kill them".

Armageddon Expectations
Prophecy Christian (Adventist) Muslim Current Events
USA Power supporting the final religious power Great Satan USA is the great Satan. Israel is the little Satan
Elijah A message like his introduces world to Christ Mahdi Forerunner of Isa, leader of the army
Day of Judgment 1844 - Phase 1
Sunni Muslim Comes when Muslims kill Jews and take Jerusalem
Muslim The Kaaba is transported from Mecca to Jerusalem
Zoroastrianism Iran will be the place where Armageddon is fought
Great War Armageddon Preparation Battle of Qaim Sunni Jihadists act as if this is the time for battle
Battle Fields
USA at War in the Holy Land (Daniel 11:40-45)

Armageddon preparation begins in the 6th plague but it is a war fought by God alone after the final judgment.
YHWH destroys Satan and the wicked when they attack the New Jerusalem
Jerusalem Key March to Jerusalem and take it by force. Kill Jews
Saudi Arabia
Battle Christians between Medina and Damascus.
Mecca will be attacked and the kaaba destroyed
Iraq Gulf War (August 2, 1990 to February 28, 1991)
Afghanistan Afghanistan War (October 7, 2001 to present)
Baghdad Iraq War (March 20, 2003 to December 15, 2011)
Yemen USA drone strikes (2002 - present)
Damascus ISIS/ISIL in Syria. August 2014 - USA responds in Iraq-Syria
Turkey Mahdi will invade Istanbul. Turkey fears allying with USA
Peace Treaty Evangelical Belief Peace Treaty Christians break treaty with Muslims
Antichrist Satan Impersonates Christ
Papacy Usurps Christ
Djjal A short, fat, bow-legged, red-faced, one-eyed Jew
Jesus Comes Isa (Jesus) He comes to renounce Christianity and support Islam. He kills the Antichrist, marries, has kids. He dies after 40 years
Peace and Prosperity Righteous in heaven. But
desolation-death on earth
Yemen A man from Yemen is the first of a succession of righteous rulers until evil returns. 120 years remain on earth
Gog, Magog ...after the millennium 2 Nations 2 existing nations that portend tribulation break out of prison
Beast From The Earth
Gives A Mark
USA rises out of the earth A real animal Rises out of the ground
Mark of the beast on the wicked's head and hand Righteous and wicked marked by a strange animal
Probation Closes 7 Last Plagues (1 Year)
Nobody switches sides
Western Sun The sun rises from the west. Believing now is useless. The last 120 years begins
(1000 Years)
1000 Yrs in heaven (SDA)
1000 Yrs on earth taught by Jesus and Jews
Shia Mahdi disappeared over 1000 years ago (824 AD). He brings universal peace
Day of Judgment Final Judgement Phase
Gog and Magog
Muslim 2 tribes if vicious humans, now imprisoned, escape and terrorize earth
Armageddon God destroys wicked Muslim Allah's forces led by Mahdi and Isa destroy all the wicked and establish Islam as the universal religion
Trumpet Resurrection Blows 2 Times (1) Everyone faints. Fear, terror. and death (2) Resurrection

» The Arab Spring
The Muslims gathered into the places where they knew war would be conducted according to their prophecies and their terrorist activities pushed the world to respond in those places in the sequence predicted. It seems like the United States was baited into conducting war in the places that fulfilled their prophecies or the accumulation of terrorists in these areas forced a natural response.
Turkey borders the most volatile regions in 2014 - Syria and northern Iraq. So a hesitation to join an international coalition against ISIL may be due a prophecy of invasion in addition to a serious refugee crisis.
The problem is that the jihad fighters have started the war before the sign of the day of judgment or the appearance of their Mahdi in the Shia belief. However since the Sunni believe that the day of judgment will not come until they kill the Jews, then this Sunni led global insurgency makes sense.

Islam is nothing but a mishmash of Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity. However they manage to take key figures and events and reinterpret them with Zoroastrian beliefs often dismissing the teachings of the Judeo-Christian texts. So their prophecies are essentially Zoroastrianism with the names of people changed.
On the other hand Christianity takes the entire Jewish books without changes and adds the history of Jesus Christ and His disciples as part of the sacred history about the coming of the expected Jewish Messiah whom they believe is Jesus Christ. So Islam has a different set of beliefs about orgins that is not the same as Genesis. They also believe that Ishmael is the chosen son, not Isaac.
Like Jews and Christians, Muslims believe that God is coming to wipe out all religions and establish "theirs". The Christian prophecies say that a Christian theocracy will force the world to establish their religion in the most brutal events that have ever been seen on earth! A form of Christian leadership more brutal that Al-Qaeda or ISIL or the "flavor-of-the-month" jihad militia will exist soon. We may see the emergence of this theocracy as Christians convince themselves that they need to put aside differences and confront the brutal threat of Islam. The world may accept this as legitimate since it has been unsuccessful in marginalizing religion in a "scientific" and "logical" world.

» No Isa (Jesus)
One consequence of these wars is that Muslims are now interested in what Christians have to say about the second Coming, not because they are interested in conversion but because the coming of Jesus is linked to the coming of the Mahdi. They believe Isa comes is 7 years after the Mahdi so they are very vulnerable to date setting in this climate because it has been over 13 years since a succession of candidate Madhis (wicked terrorist leaders) has appeared whose brutality does not spare Muslims - yet there is no Isa.

Great Deception
Middle East Prophecies
The prophecies of two major Middle East religions are being fulfilled.
Islam and Zoroastrianism both believe that the Christians are the Antichrist and that they will start a war in the Holy Land with the cooperation of the Jews.

In this war, the holy nations of Iran, Afghanistan, Syria and Baghdad will be attacked.
Everyone will march to Jerusalem for a final show down.
After studying several end time prophetic expectations it is very interesting that everyone has a high probability that they will be deceived. This is because at critical points, their decisions are not based on absolutes of right and wrong. It is based on identifying a point in time and the opposing forces and then reacting based on a prophetic script.
The prophecies complement each other to the extent that actual events will confirm everybody's belief. And differences in belief will still confirm everyone's position and drive their behavior towards a critical point of no return. No one seems to care about acting on the basis of right or wrong behavior. They act based on right or wrong sides of a prophetic fulfillment.
They should learn from Abraham and Moses and other prophets, when the behavior of God seemed to challenge the moral principles set by God, they questioned God. In some cases, they begged to die rather than continue.

» Muslims. Muslims think that they cannot be deceived because they can identify the Antichrist. He will look like a one eyed monster who will be unable to travel to Mecca and Medina. They have identified the Christians as the forces of the Antichrist and their prophecies confirm their hatred of Israel and propels them towards the destruction of Israel.
They also believe that God will correct the inaccuracies in every belief. He will change laws.

» Catholics. They believe that Mary will warn us, and everyone will get a personal affirmation that Catholicism is the only true faith.

» Evangelical. Evangelicals seem to have no concept of deception because they believe that they will be taken away before the trouble starts. But they have identified the Antichrist as a dictator like Hitler who will attempt to rule the whole world. In this system militant Muslims are used by the forces of Antichrist and the church must protect the Jews or they will be fighting against God. Their biggest mistake is seeing one nation as a righteous nation called by God. This blind faith makes them turn a blind eye to immoral behavior perpetrated by their side.
The problem is that at one point they believed that you could tell the time and the enemy because the nations of Russia and China will start a war in the Middle East and then fight against Israel. The United States had no role. Unfortunately, their eschatology has turned upside down because of the events in the Middle East. It is the United States that has gone to war in the Middle East and it is the United States that is attempting to impose its political system on the rest of the world. Even changing to a policy of preemptive war. Now there is a reshuffling of prophetic roles to fulfill their version of prophecy. They now claim that the United States is acting as the sword of God to bring Christianity and freedom to the world. They are probably hoping that Russia and China will attack later. Unfortunately, China probably sees world domination in their immediate future if they remain uninvolved and develop their economic capability while they allow their rivals to exhaust their resources. So China is watching the fire burn across the river so that they can fish in troubled waters later.

The Muslim belief and the belief of many evangelical Christians will make them natural enemies. Each will be able to see what they want to see as events unfold. A broken peace treaty, the antichrist, and a war in the Middle East and Jerusalem as the prize.
Muslims Most Evangelical Christians
Antichrist (Dajall) Armageddon Antichrist
Christians, Jews Fight Christians and Jews War Jerusalem WarProtect Jews Muslims

> Israel
> Israel Attacked
> Middle East War
> The Last Super Powers
» Jerusalem: The Prize And The Hernia Stone. In a strange twist of fate, both groups will be fulfilling the real prophecy. The Muslims believe that they must march towards Jerusalem and take it by force. The bible teaches that the forces of those who are against God will surround Jerusalem in order to destroy her. If the Muslims attempt to fulfill their prophetic directive, they will be fulfilling the Jewish prophecies!
The Muslims caused the nations to be gathered in the Holy Land. Eventually, they will surround Jerusalem. But because their fight is for ideology, not principle, both groups will be fighting against God. When evangelicals realize that they are in the middle of a time of trouble and they have not been raptured they will respond by defending their position instead of the word of God. Israel will do something that will make them angry. At that point they will find a reason to abandon Israel. Perhaps they will reshuffle their eschatology and see themselves as the only "true Israel". Then they will want to take Jerusalem as their God given right.
The Bible teaches that there will be no single righteous nation, but the righteous people will be scattered among many nations. Every nation will turn against God. They will persecute the righteous in their community and they will try to possess Jerusalem. Unfortunately, the United States will be the leader. We are now witnesses to the processes that are leading many groups into the Holy Land. It will end with their need to capture Jerusalem. The United States policy towards Israel will change. That is the result of the prophecy by Zechariah.

» Christ. Christ tells His followers that they can be deceived. The Bible teaches that we have the right to question the instructions of any supernatural being if their teachings contradict the Bible. Christ also adds that one sure sign of a false Christ is the fact that you have to be told where he is, or you have to go somewhere to hear his teachings. So defend the principle, not the group, and you will be acting according to the will of God.

» The Deception Of Satan. When Satan comes, pretending to be God, he will be perfectly beautiful with both eyes. He will perform miracles, he will travel to different places and he will look spectacular. He will be able to travel to Mecca and Medina. The only way that you can tell that he is false is the fact that he travels from place to place. He will also try to change or "correct" the laws of God.
When Christ comes there will be no travelling, no miracles, no last pleas. Only resurrection, rapture and destruction of the wicked. If you have to think about what to do, you are already being deceived. Eve was deceived because she lost sight of the principles. She forgot the word of God.
The Muslim Paradise
"They shall recline on jewelled couches face to face, and there shall wait on them immortal youths with bowls and ewers and a cup of purest wine (that will neither pain their heads nor take away their reason); with fruits of their own choice and flesh of fowls that they relish. And theirs shall be the dark-eyed houris, chaste as hidden pearls: a guerdon for their deeds... We created the houris and made them virgins, loving companions for those on the right hand ..."

Muhammad said, "The smallest reward for the people of paradise is an abode where there are 80,000 servants and 72 wives, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls, aquamarine, and ruby, as wide as the distance from Al-Jabiyyah to Sana'a." [Damascus to Yemen]

» Suicide Bombers. One product of the zeal of the Muslim believers is the homicide bombers. People who are willing to kill Jews and non-believers in a mass bombing. Since suicide is forbidden, this act is interpreted as martyrdom in the cause of the jihad or war to advance Islam.
The bomber believes that at the moment his first drop of blood spills that he gains the following as a martyr (shahid).

Constructing A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy.
In the current war, we see what can go terribly wrong when devout people believe that they are part of the fulfillment of a prophecy and begin to take irrational steps to fulfill it. In this process, they justify all types of immoral behavior. They relabel suicide as martyrdom. They sabotage real indications of progress in a peace negotiation because the facts appear to contradict the prophecy.
Years ago, the Maccabeans committed terrible acts because they believed that they were fulfilling a prophecy of Daniel.
Similarly, the Christian right is on a lunatic mission to refurbish the role of the United States as the sword of God to fulfill the will of God.
The truth is, that if the righteous recognize that they are in the middle of a prophecy, they should behave more righteously because the prophecy will be fulfilled without their help. Do the right thing, even of the right thing goes contrary to the fulfillment of prophecy. We are not called to fulfill prophecy. We are called to reflect the righteousness of God.
As it turns out, because the Muslims and the Christian right believe that they are fulfilling prophecy they actually are fulfilling the prophecy by their actions. The problem is that they are not fighting on the side that they think is righteous! If the events were not so tragic it would be comedic. And the real tragedy is that no matter how right or wrong their theology or their prophetic interpretation, they would be fighting on the right side if they would only live the principles of Jesus Christ instead of trying to be actors and directors in a tragic prophetic play.
Hamas And The Palestinian Elections
The United States seemed to have forced a Palestinian election, but the outcome was not what they expected. Their enemies won by a landslide. Several months later, the losing side refuses to leave their positions. The Americans have cut off funds to compound the misery and hope that the people will blame the winning party. The United States is undermining a legitimate, fair and free democratic election because they hate the results. This can be seen as a dishonorable political act that is equivalent to breaking a treaty.

On July 20, 2005 the news reported that the father of the Egyptian 911 hijacker, Muhammad Atta praised the recent bombings in London and called for more. He also claimed that this is a part of the fifty year war.

» The Fifty Year War. He could be referring to the prophecy. The fifty years probably includes the seven year reign of Mahdi, the forty year reign of Isa and the few years leading up to the beginning of these periods. Here are the signs that drive them.

» The Signs. The December 26, 2004 Asian earthquake and the December 26, 2003 Iranian earthquake, the locusts in Africa and the Middle East in 2004 which caused famine. The drought and the war on terror and the success of the Islamic insurgency and September 11 could be seen as part of the signs. All we need is a plague to sweep the region. The diseases occurring in Iraq and Afghanistan because of the lack of clean water and adequate services could be interpreted as the beginning of this sign. A black wind could be any of the terrible dust storms that plague the area (Haboob). On July 14, 2005 a storm carried a cloud of sand, the size of the United States, on a ten day journey from the Sahara across the Atlantic to the United States. This may qualify as a black wind for those looking for a fulfillment. Significantly, it was carried from an Islamic region to the land of their enemy.

» The Peace Treaty. If they are looking for a peace treaty it would be the negotiations between Israel, the Palestinians and the United States. Because the prophecy says that the non-Muslims will break the treaty we find the terrorists doing everything to sabotage the process so that Israel will retaliate. Then they can blame Israel. For example, as Israel forcibly removed its settlers from Gaza in preparation for the hand over, the Palestinians attacked Israel. Why? They want to claim that Israel did not leave peacefully or in good faith because of a treaty. They want to claim that they drove Israel out under gunfire to claim a military victory instead of a diplomatic victory. In the process of Israel defending themselves, they could claim that Israel "broke the treaty". This makes sense only to people who want to interpret their times as part of significant events in a prophecy. They break a treaty or make it impossible to be kept and then blame the other side.
Peace is not in their vocabulary. The Al-Qaeda training manual says the following.

Islamic governments have never and will never be established through peaceful solutions and cooperative councils. They are established as they always have been by pen and gun, by word and bullet, by tongue and teeth.

» The Outcome. The more they continue in this lunatic behavior, the more they are fulfilling the real prophecy by creating the conditions it describes.
When the United States really starts thinking in terms of a religious war then they will get smart about not reacting to a bait that drags them into a prophetic fulfillment that benefits their enemies. Because, after a while, even the peaceful but devout Muslim will begin to think in terms of their prophecies and this will erode support for the United States. My only advice is to take actions that will negate these prophecies. But it seems that such actions are too late. And I am fearful that the training and equipment that we are providing to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia will be turned against us very soon. Why? Because they are faithful and zealous and current events appear to be fulfilling their prophecy. For this reason we cannot go to war in Iran or Syria or even threaten to do so. The very threat will speed up the prophetic time table in their minds. Muslim men and women everywhere will say, "what if". And they will start to prepare for war with the great Satan.
Unfortunately, the United States will turn to failed Christian prophecies as a bona fide military and strategic plan and fulfill its destiny in the process. Democrats and liberals are calling for a withdrawal because we are attracting more terror. I think it is too late for that. The extremists (Muslim and Christian) will not let us leave until their prophecy is fulfilled.

» Iran Waits for the Mahdi. I caught the tail end of a report on "The Newshour", December 9, 2005 which seems to confirm what I suspect must be happening in the Muslim World. Ahamadinejad, the new president, has told his nation that they must wait for the coming of the Mahdi. He has also said that the Mahdi will appear in two years. Muslims expect that this will come with violence. For those in the west who keep waiting for the secular Iranians who want everything western, this prophecy and expectation trumps their hopes. The reason why he calls for Israel to be "wiped off the map" is because he believes that it will happen in his time when the vast Muslim army joins the Mahdi to fight Israel and the United States. Ahamadinejad believes that a light surrounded him when he made a speech to the United Nations General Assembly that was seen by others.

"He said when you began with the words 'in the name of God,' I saw that you became surrounded by a light until the end [of the speech]," Ahmadinejad appears to say in the video. "I felt it myself, too. I felt that all of a sudden the atmosphere changed there, and for 27-28 minutes all the leaders did not blink."
Ahmadinejad adds that he is not exaggerating.
"I am not exaggerating when I say they did not blink; it's not an exaggeration, because I was looking," he says. "They were astonished as if a hand held them there and made them sit. It had opened their eyes and ears for the message of the Islamic Republic."

Several important leaders believe that they are called by God and are acting on behalf of God to bring in the age of God. The president of North Korea believes that he should be worshipped as God. The American president believes that God called him for these times and some Christians on the right believe that he is the one who will bring Christianity to the rest of the world. Now we have the president of Iran believing that he is called by God. Some claim that he believes that he is the Mahdi.
With that we have an answer to their stubborn determination to continue on a certain path despite all rational reasons not to do so. That is the essence of their "faith". They believe that God will win in the end and they must be faithful. The reason why they will succeed is because they are surrounded by people who believe the same and who have the power to force the world into one direction.

Whether or not one eschatology is more correct than another, it is astounding that however we got to this point, many faiths are looking for the same signs at the same time. Even if it is for different reasons and outcomes. God did not leave Himself without a witness. Even at the birth of Christ, the whole region was looking with expectation and hope. And, while the Jews missed the birth of their Messiah, it was three pagan scholars who were looking at their signs and recognized the time and came searching for the new king of the Jews.
Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem saying, "Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the east and have come to worship Him." (Matthew 2: 1-2)
They had access to all these traditions in which God preserved enough truth to stir a generation in every nation at the right time. The same is happening now.
I enjoyed this research and creating this page and the graphics. I hope you enjoyed it too.

Study to show yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth.   2 Timothy 2: 15 Time: 500 minutes
Print: 91 pages
Copyright  . First Created June 2005.   Updated August 2012
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (January 2008)
All images were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.
The people in the table of nations and some animals were modeled after clip art images.
• Meta Religion. Ancient Religions and Myths. URL: www.meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/ancient_religions.htm
• Flood Myths of the World. URL: www.meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/Flood_myths/flood_myths.htm
• African Myths. URL: www.meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/Flood_myths/flood_myths_africa.htm
• American Myth. http://www.mythopedia.info/27-meso-america.htm
• Samoan Mythology. URL: http://www.janeresture.com/samoa_myths/
• Roman Mythology. URL: http://shadowolympus.home.mindspring.com/mythology.html
• Cherokee Cosmogony. URL: www.meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/North_america/cherokee_cosmogony.htm
• Apache Cosmogony. URL: www.meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/North_america/apache_creation_story.htm
• Zoroastrianism. URL: http://www.paganizingfaithofyeshua.freeservers.com/no_7_zoroaster.htm
• Ancient Hindu Technology. URL: http://www.crystalinks.com/vedic.html
• Language Family and Branch Names. KryssTal URL: http://www.krysstal.com/index.html#language
• Al-Qaeda Training Manual. URL: http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/trainingmanual.htm
• Catholic Eschatology. URL: http://www.webcom.com/enddays/enddays.html
• Lemuria. URL: http://www.crystalinks.com/lemuria.html
• Iran: President Says Light Surrounded Him During UN Speech. URL: www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/11/184cb9fb-887c-4696-8f54-0799df747a4a.html
• The Cherokees, Past and Present. J. Ed. Sharpe. Cherokee Publications, 1970.
• Miao Legends. URL: http://www.icr.org/articles/print/341/
• Toltec Legends. http://rdlindsey.com/flashfacts/Flood.htm
• Language Families. http://www.krysstal.com/langfams.html
• Global Biodiversity. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_biodiversity
• How much water is there on, in, and above the Earth? URL: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthhowmuch.html
• Largest Animals. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Largest_organisms
• Food and Sizes. URL: http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/
• The pitch for Noah’s Ark. Dr. Tas B. Walker. URL: http://creation.com/the-pitch-for-noahs-ark
• Ancient Preservation Methods. URL: http://wctu-sd.org/literature/books.asp?Id=53
• Sisal Rope Strength. URL: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/wire-rope-strength-d_1518.html
• Asexual Reproduction. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asexual_reproduction
• Australian Dung Beetle Project. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Dung_Beetle_Project
• Facts about dung beetles. http://www.thaibugs.com/?page_id=139
• Noah's Ark The Real Story. BBC Documentary (2003). URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NZu3GXoKXU4