Religions Of The World
The Judeo-Christian religion has many more elements in common with other religions than one might think.
The origin of the common elements in beliefs can be explained.
- Common Source. The global flood legends can be explained by the experience of one common ancestor of all nations. The Bible says that this is Noah and his three sons.
All would have a similar story about the flood, but they may have their own opinions about the reasons behind sin and the problems at creation.
So flood stories should be more consistent than creation stories.
- Jewish Origin. As a sect of Judaism, the text of Christians was the Torah.
The only basic difference between the two religions was the identification of Christ as the Messiah.
- Middle Age Paganism. During the middle ages, as the Roman government made Christianity the state religion, the Catholic church incorporated pagan legends, feasts, customs and practices into the religion
so that they could lure pagans into the church.
So easter is a corruption of Passover. Christmas, Christmas tree, yule log, purgatory, indulgences, icons, Sunday worship and many other practices changed the religion.
We will not discuss these legends.
- Jewish Slaves. The claim is also made that the Jews borrowed their religion from the Egyptians, Babylonians and Persians.
According to the Bible, the power of God was so great among all these nations, that their leaders told them to honor the Jewish God!
So, it is more likely that their religions were affected by the Jews.
Scholars and critics promote the following false assertions when they compare Christianity to the stories of other religions.
- Plagiarism. If the stories are similar and they believe one source is older, they automatically claim that this proves that one was stolen from the other.
They never use the word converted or adopted or inherited, rather they use a disparaging word like "stole" or "plagarized".
But, Moses did not plagiarize the story from the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Noah was the common ancestor of all races and Abraham, the ancestor of the Hebrews came from that region where the Gilgamesh stories emerged.
So the difference in the stories that Moses wrote is probably because God corrected the stories as He gave Moses the task of writing down the history in the Torah.
Later, after the fourth century when Christianity tried to convert the Pagans, they corrupted the religion.
But that did not affect the Torah.
- Ancient Documents. They propose that an older document means the more original story.
When it simply means the oldest document that they have found so far.
So they assert that the Epic of Gilgamesh preceded Moses and Moses stole this story.
They do not account for the oral tradition, the technological advances of the ancient culture that might have preserved their artifacts or the existence of other buried documents, or the shared common history at the flood.
- Document Dating. Scholars use at least two methods to date artifacts.
- Science. Carbon 14 dating. While I have some issues with this method, my argument does not depend on its accuracy.
I have already stated that an older document does not imply an older source or older story.
Science also analyzes the ink and paper and the letters or type face to determine age.
While they can exclude a document that is constructed with modern paper or inks, a good forgery will not include such obvious signs.
- Content. Documents are dated by their contents. If a document mentions an event, it is assumed that the document came after the event.
So scholars tend to ignore the bible claims of prophecy and date books after the events about which they have prophesied, not what the author claims.
Therefore, they assert that all claims of prophecy before the Greek period was simply a fraud. And they dated prophetic books after the historical event occurred.
Noah: The Original Source.
In examining these stories, I am proposing that the stories originated with the history that Noah and his family held.
So now, there are up to eight minor or major variations of the same story.
It is possible that while they had the same memory of the flood, that any of the three sons and the daughters-in-law
could have held many personal opinions about the origins of the problems between God and Satan.
They did emerge from a decadent society.
|Religion Chronology |
|Year || Elapsed || Event |
|4004 || 0 || Creation |
|2348 || 1656 || Flood |
|2247 || 1852 || Babel |
|Nations and Stories Separated |
|1921 || 2083 || Abraham called |
|1491 || 2728 || Exodus, Torah |
|1491 ||Sin. 40 years in the desert |
|1489 || 2726 || Hinduism |
|605 BC ||Jewish apostasy and captivity |
|618 BC || 3648 || Zoroastrianism |
|535 BC || 3695 || Buddhism |
|500 BC || 3722 || Shinto |
|440 BC || 3808 || Taoism |
|420 BC || 3788 || Janism |
|31 A.D. || 4036 || Christianity |
|538 ||Christian apostasy and captivity |
|610 || 4839 || Islam |
|1530 || 5759 || Sikh |
|The emergence of other religions corresponded to the exile of the church for apostasy |
The time line in the Bible shows that from the call of Abraham, Judaism existed long before any of the surviving religions.
And while the Jews were exiting Egypt, other religions were just being formally organized.
Therefore, the Judeo-Christian version given in the Torah is the oldest, complete account of the history of the human race.
And the differences in stories is a fascinating account of how stories develop and change as the oral tradition is passed down from one generation to another
and as one culture interacts with another to modify their legends.
The Superiority Of The Hebrew God.
I am also proposing that there is no evidence that the Jews stole the theology of the Persians and Egyptians.
The most complete writings on the subject are the Jewish writings which scholars choose to reject.
Accepting speculation instead.
The Jews were conquered by the Assyrians, Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks and Romans.
It is just as valid a concept that they influenced the religion of their captors, than that they were influenced by it.
This is the testimony of the bible. YHWH, the God of the Jews became famous for His ability to predict the future and demonstrate extraordinary miracles and power over the earth.
- Mesopotamia. Abraham, the father of Judaism came from the region of Babylon in Ur of the Chaldees.
He was familiar with the beliefs of his people and he rejected it to follow YHWH.
Their beliefs were probably Mithraism which is probably close to Zoroastrianism. He probably knew the flood stories in the Gilgamesh epic.
It may be the version he held before God corrected it some time between his calling and Moses. It was part of His beliefs. He did not steal it.
- Egyptians. Joseph advanced from a slave in Egypt to marry the daughter of the high priest and to be second in command.
So part of the Jewish line was half Egyptian.
Joseph proved that his God was superior to the Egyptian god and gained respect for YHWH when the whole region was saved from famine through the power of God.
... Since God has informed you of all this, there is no one so discerning and wise as you are.
You will be over my house, and according to your command all my people will do homage, only in the throne I will be greater than you.
... See, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.
(Genesis 41: 39-41)
At the time of the Exodus, the Egyptians were afraid of the power of YHWH.
The Egyptians urged the people, to send them out of the land in haste, for they said, "We will all be dead".
(Exodus 12: 33)
- Babylonians. Around the time that the religion of Zoroaster was beginning in this region, Daniel interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the image of the four ages. The king acknowledged the superiority of the Hebrew God.
... Surely your God is a God of gods and a Lord of kings and a revealer of mysteries, since you have been able to reveal this mystery.
(Daniel 2: 47)
» Zoroaster And The Messiah.
Bible haters also claim that the Jews and Christians stole from Zoroaster including the concept of the Messiah. I address these issues and lies in another article, reaching the stunning conclusion that Daniel influenced these legends while He was captive during the Babylonian and Persian occupation and head of the magicians, astrologers and soothsayers.
- Persians. King Darius made the following decree after Daniel was saved from the lions.
... in all the dominion of my kingdom men are to fear and tremble before the God of Daniel.
(Daniel 6: 26)
Esther was the beloved Jewish wife of a Persian king and the king gave her uncle a high office.
This also means that the royal Persian line became Jewish!
When the plot to destroy the Jews was thwarted, the whole region was afraid of the Jews.
The Persians even paid to rebuild the temple. Why? Was their royal line part Jewish?
For Mordecai the Jew was second only to king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews and in favor with his many kinsmen,
one who sought the good of his people and one who spoke for the welfare of the whole nation.
(Esther 10 : 3 also 9: 1)
The Development Of The Myths, Legends And Stories
Many errors crept into the oral tradition as time and recitation of the stories continued.
That is the innocent way in which errors and changes emerged.
As distance and isolation continued and memories faded, regional changes evolved.
And, as families rejected God their ancestors probably learned to fear nature as they sought to understand the world.
Over the generations as people sought to make sense of their primitive world, more changes were introduced.
As tribes and families separated, the opinion of the dominant male or the spiritual leader influenced the elements of the stories.
|God || Abyss || Creation
||Dispersion || Hebrews || The End
| Light || Darkness
|| World|| Garden of Eden || Snake
||Tower of Babel ||Abraham
| Heaven || Sea
|| Adam, Eve
|| Tree of Life || Fruit
|| 8 people
|| Animal pairs
|| Languages ||Exodus
| Creation Myths
|| World Tree Myths
|| Flood Myths
|| Dispersion ||Moses and
End Time Myths
| Cosmogony Myths
|| Common Ancestors
|| Tribes Separated
|Common Memories and Legends
|| National Histories (Divergence Begins)
Satan also existed to assist in distorting the original knowledge.
But God intervened on Mount Sinai to restore the truth to Moses.
But these are the myths and legends that should share some common information.
- Cosmogony Myths. These stories tell how the world was formed and how it is being sustained.
- Creation Myths. These stories tell how God, people and the world were formed.
- Savior and Sacrifice Myths. These myths and ceremonies were established long before the flood when God promised Eve that her son would save her. In fact, it is the only set of myths that were enshrined in a ceremony.
This guaranteed a better chance of surviving intact over the centuries.
This is why God used the feasts and festivals of the sanctuary system to enshrine the plan of salvation.
The symbols in the ceremonies kept the meaning, even if the people changed their understanding.
We list some of these saviors in the lesson on The Mystery of God.
- World Tree Myths. Most creation myths include a tree that is central to the structure of the world.
- Flood Myths. Stories about a great flood that wiped out mankind, leaving only a few to repopulate the earth.
- Dispersion of the Nations. Associated with the flood story is the subsequent dispersion of the next generations and
the formation of new languages as they formed new tribes and migrated to other parts of the earth.
- Common Ancestors. All stories have a common ancestor at the point of the flood.
Therefore, local legends should diverge after this point among each culture.
And similarities should be expected in the shared knowledge of this common ancestor and the nations that emerged from him.
- End Time Myths. Since God promised Eve a resolution to the problem, all legends should contain information about how it should all end.
|El Elyon||Chief God||Zeus ||Jupiter|
It is not a coincidence that the common legends appear to explain life before the flood and the resolution at the end of time.
They explain how it began and how it will end.
The rest of their legends involve history that is unique to the culture.
- Multiple Names of God. The monotheistic God may have evolved a polytheistic nature because of the custom of
giving God many names and titles for all of His works. So the one God with many names that describe His power becomes many gods with their own name who have power over one system.
Therefore, the God who judges and wages war or the LORD of hosts (YHWH-Tzevaot), becomes a separate entity known as the god of war.
With the possibility of multiple gods established, Satan was able to insert himself into the exclusive fraternity of the gods.
So it was easy for him to spread the lie that he was a god or equal to God.
But the names of YHWH show His concern over the welfare of people, while the names of the Pagan Gods show an interest in subduing things.
Even this shows their inferiority because God gave Adam the right to subdue and rule his environment.
... Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.
(Genesis 1: 28)
Myths are all distorted by Satan's desire to be like God or to ruin His reputation.
There is no distinction between the one who caused evil and the good God who fights evil.
All the superior beings are seen as both good and evil. Warlike, treacherous, petty and incompetent. Each one has equal power and equal rights.
Each uses humans as their pawns.
Since God withdrew direct communication with humans, knowledge of Him was also distorted by our need to make sense of our situation.
This concept of the world of the superior beings was a prime target of speculation to the descendants of Adam and Noah who must live in this imperfect world.
Some concepts of God are worth noting because they do capture some of the truth.
» Egyptian. Toth created everything from sound. When God spoke and things were created, He was using electromagnetic sound waves. The basis of all atoms is electromagnetic waves, like sound waves.
» Norse. Balder, the god who died and had to be freed from Hel. He was murdered by the instigation of Loki. After the last battle at Ragnarok, he will rule.
Christ was the God, who died and had to be rescued from Sheol. He was murdered by Satan who instigated the crowd.
He will rule in the new earth after Armageddon, the last battle.
- Trinity. Many religions have the concept of a manifestation of one god in separate entities.
They conceive of this concept as either linear or simultaneous. The manifestations occur singly, in order, at separate times in any place.
Or they coexist at the same time in different places.
» Christianity. Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The three who are one named YHWH.
» Romans (Archaic Triad). Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. Jupiter was the supreme God and would be the equivalent of God the Father.
Mars was the god of war who would be equivalent to Jesus who was Michael, the captain of the army and they one who conquered sin. Quirinus was the god of the Roman people and would be equivalent to the Holy Spirit was was sent as the constant companion of the people.
» Greeks (Capitoline Triad).
After 500 BC, the Romans adopted the Greek gods. The Archaic triads were replaced with
Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. Juno is the god of love. Minerva is the god of wisdom.
» Hindu (Vedas). Agni (god of fire), Vayu (god of air), Surya (god of energy or life).
» Hindu (Puranas). Vishnu exists in three forms at separate times in this order. Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver of life and savior who incarnates ten times), Shiva-Rudra (destroyer of evil).
» Aztec. The four Tezcatlipoca. Quetzalcoatl, Xipe-Totec, Tonatiuh and Mictlantecuhtli.
» Norse. Odin, Vili, Ve.
» Japan. The three creating deities. Ame-no-Minaka-Nushi-no-Mikoto, Takami-Musubi-no-Mikoto and Kammi-Musubi-no-Mikoto
» Fon (Bantu tribe in Africa). Nzame, Mbere and Nkwa. Three gods who are one.
» Cherokee. One supreme being named YOWA who was a unity of three beings called "The Elder Fires Above".
|Similarities of Sacred Objects |
|One Great Spirit ||One God ||Monotheistic |
|YOWA ||YHWH || The name sounds alike |
|Quartz crystals ||Urim, |
|Sacred gemstones |
|The Ark ||The Ark || A sacred ark in a holy place |
|Council House ||Sanctuary ||The Ark and sacred objects were kept there |
|Seven ||Seven |
| The number seven is sacred |
|Chief (Uku) Dance ||Land Sabbath ||Festival every seven years |
|Smoke ||Incense ||Prayer, the messenger |
|Eagle ||Eagle ||One of the four faces of the cherubim |
|Rattlesnake ||Serpent ||Satan is important |
|Corn ||Grain ||Used in sacrifices |
The Cherokee Religion.
The Cherokee consisted of seven nations whose territory covered the western half and central United States.
Let us compare this religion to the Hebrews to find some very surprising similarities.
» Name of God.
They believe in one supreme being name YOWA whose name was so sacred that only certain priests were allowed to say it.
The Jews also would not say or write the name of God named YHWH (YAHWEH).
Although they are monotheistic, the Cherokee believe that YOWA was a unity of three beings called
"The Elder Fires Above" (CHO TA AUH NE LE EH).
The Jews have no trace of this plurality except in the plural words used for God, such as Elohim.
» Fire God. God is always pictured in vision as being on fire from His feet to His waist.
His throne sits above the stones of fire.
Inside the Council house was the Ark which contained a large quartz crystal.
Inside the Most Holy Place was the Ark of the covenant which contained the ten commandments written on a blue sapphire stone called lapis lazuli.
» Sacred Objects. Eagle, eagle feathers, rattlesnake, fire, smoke, sun, moon, corn, seven, quartz cyrstal and the ark.
Some of the symbolic objects in the sanctuary were given human qualities.
- Sun and Moon.
They were left to govern the earth after the creation.
In Judaism they rule day and night. The symbol means that while there is darkness on the earth such as sin
a secondary source of light will govern. The moon represents the church, the stars are the prophets and the sun represents Christ.
- Fire and Smoke. Fire was appointed to take care of man and smoke was the messenger.
The Holy Spirit, symbolized by fire, was given as our companion and prayer, symbolized by smoke and incense, is the way we communicate with God.
Feast Days. Although most cultures appear to celebrate important feasts in spring and autumn, the Cherokee festivals
have some other similarities. Tabernacles is a friendship ceremony with God.
|March||? ||Passover ||First new moon of Spring |
|September||Donagohuni ||New wine, oil ||Ripe corn ceremony |
|September||Elawatalegi ||Yom Kippur ||Bouncing Bush feast |
|October||Nuwatiegwa ||Trumpets ||Great new moon ceremony |
|October||Atohuna ||Tabernacles ||Friendship ceremony |
|7 Years||Uku Dance ||Land Sabbath ||Jubilee and land Sabbath |
The similarities in these cultures can be explained by one common ancestor.
Although God formally introduced these ceremonies to the Jews 4000 years ago, it is obvious that
they were given to Adam and Noah.
The fact that the Cherokee have so much less corruption in their ancient religion points to the fact that they may have separated and migrated very early after the flood and their ancestor was loyal to YHWH.
The other remote possibility is that they are descendants of the Jews or Gentiles who met Moses or faithful Jews.
The Navaho Hogan.
The Navaho traditionally build their living space with certain key features placed in designated directions.
The placement is similar to the sanctuary.
- East (Door). All doors were in the east in the sanctuary complex.
- North (Kitchen). The table of shewbread with the bread and wine was kitchen with the food.
- South (Sleeping). The menorah is in the south, representing the church that is the light of the world. One prophetic symbol at the end is of a church waiting for God in the south to be rescued. It is the place of rest while they are being persecuted on the earth.
- West (Sleeping). The Most Holy Place where we rest in safety and live with God in heaven.
- Center (Fireplace). The altar of incense with the coals and clouds of smoke was in the center.
Sin And Death.
Besides the concept of the nature of God, Satan has concentrated the bulk of his distortions on the mystery of sin and death.
These are unwanted common experiences in our current reality. But the fear and mystery surrounding them has created many myths.
- Blood Sacrifices. From the story of Cain and Abel we know that a blood sacrifice was known from the beginning of sin.
With the first generation and with the Hebrews this sacrifice was supposed to be a clean animal.
However, this ritual became distorted to include the awful practice of human sacrifice.
This is probably because Adam and his children knew that one day one human would be sacrificed for the sins of the whole world. God would provide the sacrifice and Satan would initiate the murder.
Until that day, an animal sacrifice was supposed to be used as a reminder of that future day.
This became transformed into legends of a dying God, human sacrifices and one god murdering another.
» Abraham and Isaac. When God asked Abraham to sacrifice His son, He was trying to show him the hard decision that He would have to make in 2000 years when He had to sacrifice His own son, Jesus Christ.
Some scholars use this story to prove that the Hebrews practiced human sacrifice and this was the point at which they repudiated the practice.
That is an outrageous statement.
First, the Hebrew nation did not exist at that time. God called Abraham to be the father of that nation through his son Isaac.
Second, the decision was hard for Abraham to make because he never practiced human sacrifice. He hid his plans from his wife, his son and his servants because they would try to prevent him from killing his son.
To carry out the task, the New Testament informed us that since Isaac was the child who would be the father of the promised nation, Abraham reasoned that God must be able to raise the dead because Isaac did not have any chilren yet through whom the promise could be kept.
- Savior. Since the knowledge of the concept of a divine savior who would be sacrificed was promised to Eve and was known by her descendants, it has appeared in many religions.
This is another concept that was distorted and was even kept a mystery to the powers in heaven.
We discuss this more in another lesson.
- Death. The final disposition of the dead has created the most elaborate beliefs in all religions.
This is regrettable, because it is a topic that God warns us to avoid because of the potential for deception.
Since Satan works through the mysteries of death to deceive humans about the invisible world, God warns us not to speak to anyone who claims to be dead or who claims to have the ability to speak to the dead.
We discuss this more in another lesson.
In many myths, Satan tries to give himself an equal status with God.
In doing this he not only raises his stature, he also lowers the nature of God so that God is vulnerable and is also capable of evil.
One universal image of Satan is the serpent.
He is the serpent in the sea that surrounds the earth and he is the serpent in the world tree who is an integral part of the structure of the world.
This symbolism is supported by the Bible.
But is the symbolism also based in reality as many of the other biblical symbols are?
The Bible says that Satan was responsible for luring the first humans into sin.
As a consequence, he was restricted to the earth.
Many people have tried to speculate about his nature.
Is he invisible, occupying the same coordinates as the human race as an unseen peeping Tom.
Or does he also have a visible form? Does he also have an assigned physical place on the earth?
If it is visible and concrete, where could this place be?
Many beliefs consistently assign him to living in the sea and controlling hell somewhere under the ground.
The fact that the dead must be buried under the earth even links these concepts symbolically.
The surface of the earth is over two thirds ocean and mostly unexplored. Does Satan physically live in the depths of the unexplored ocean, under the sea and under the earth?
If that is so, is that the source of the beliefs that hell is now underground and the legends about the dragon who is restricted to the sea?
The City Of Atlantis.
Is this the source of the legends of Atlantis, the city under the sea and the reports of unidentified flying objects entering and leaving the sea?
If so, then we cannot go there because God has set boundaries and Satan is the source of UFO reports.
Satan lives under the sea and launches plots and schemes to confuse and terrorize humans.
The Legends of Atlantis and Lamuria (Mu) could also be the result of stories told by the children of Noah.
If they described the incredible civilization and technology that existed before the flood that is now lost under the sea
it would be the truth behind this legend.
So Atlantis is not a city that was built under the sea, it is a city that was submerged under the sea at the time of the flood.
The bible is very clear about the stages of the exile of Satan.
|Time||Before Sin ||After Sin ||Millennium |
|Location||Heaven ||Sea ||Earth |
|Physical ||Heaven ||Thrown from Heaven. |
Dragon lives in the sea
|Sea ||Sea Dries Up. |
Dragon in the abyss
|Earth Destroyed. Sea gone|
|Symbolic ||Good Angels ||Wicked People ||The wicked are all dead|
|Status ||No evil in Heaven ||Satan is restricted to the earth (ocean) ||Satan is restricted to the surface of the earth|
The sea is symbolic of the wicked and the persecuting dragon of Revelation 12-13 is restricted to the sea. He controls the wicked.
So, when symbolism and reality merges, Satan is the serpent who lives in the sea, who also controls the sea of wicked people.
Satan is the architect of death who lives under the surface of the earth and greets all the unconscious dead bodies who go back to the earth.
- Before Sin. Satan and his angels are not restricted. All regions are at peace.
- After Sin. Satan lost access to heaven and is physically restricted to the oceans of the earth. He also controls the wicked who live on the surface of the land.
There has also been speculation about a race of giants that are the children of humans and angels who still live in underground caverns.
This is not supported by the Bible or the symbolism or the plan of salvation or nature. Everyone was destroyed at the flood, except eight people.
However, the symbolism supports the concept that perhaps Satan occupies the regions under the earth and sea.
And, perhaps by treaty or threat or some other restrictions, he is mostly limited to an invisible existence on the surface of the earth or when he is with humans.
- Millennium. The Second Coming kills all the wicked and destroys the earth. The earth is in perpetual darkness and it is broken in two. The seas are displaced.
Satan is now restricted to the surface of the earth. He no longer has access to either the sea of wicked or the oceans.
So the vast majority of the distortions about our concepts of God are related to the nature of God and death.
Changes to common stories are related to these distortions and the gradual loss of detail after years of the oral tradition.
So we can assume from the common remaining elements that there is a God, there was a flood, a serpent and there was darkness and a great sea at the beginning of creation.
|Roman ||Pontos ||Chaos|
|Egyptian ||Nun ||Chaos|
|Caananite ||Yamm ||Chaos|
|Norse ||Hvergelmir ||Ginnungagap|
- Primordial Waters. Many legends describe creation out of the sea and the darkness of a great formless abyss or void of nothingness. The waters surround the earth.
It is amazing that even though some myths have a concept of destruction by fire in the end, they all agree that in the beginning there was darkness and a vast sea of water.
- The Two Trees of Eden. A tree became central to life and it eventually merged into the myths as part of the universal Cosmogony.
So that somehow, the structure of life and access to God involved a tree.
This is because sin came into the world when Satan tempted Eve to eat from the tree of knowledge. The sin then caused loss of access to another tree, the tree of life.
Tree of Knowledge.
The LORD God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely;
but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die."
(Genesis 2: 16-17)
Tree of Life.
Then the LORD God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever".
(Genesis 3: 22)
In the Qur'an there is only one tree not two, the tree of eternity (shajarat al-khuld).
- Serpent. Within this sea lived the great serpent Leviathan. Both became symbols of evil and destruction.
In many myths a serpent became the guardian of the waters surrounding the earth.
This probably reflects the fact that when Adam sinned, the world legally became the domain of Satan to rule until the Messiah came.
Therefore, there is a serpent guarding the waters of the earth and guarding the access to the tree of life.
The serpent is the guardian of people and controls life and death.
|Group||Serpent (Dragon) ||Comment|
|Hebrew ||Leviathan ||The evil destroyer who lives in the sea. (Isaiah 27: 1) He tempted Eve. |
|Babylon ||Tiamat ||The salt water god. Her dead body was used to create the sky and the earth |
|Mesopotamia ||Tiamat || The dragon in the primeval waters of chaos who was killed by Marduk and broken in two to create the sky and earth |
|Arabic ||Falak ||A snake under the sea and underneath a layer of fire with six hells in his mouth |
|Caananite ||Yamm the Sea || The dragon in the primeval waters of chaos who was conquered by Baal-Haddad |
|Greek ||Ladon ||A hundred headed dragon who guards the golden apples in the Garden of Hesperides |
|Typhon ||A hundred headed dragon of the underworld who fought the Olympian gods |
|Aztec ||Cipactli ||All creation is contained in his body |
|Coatlicue || The dragon in the primeval waters of chaos who was killed by Quetzalcoatl and broken in two to create the sky and earth |
|Quetzalcoatl ||The feathered serpent who created man |
|Norse ||Jormungand ||He lives in the ocean surrounding Midgard, with his tail in his mouth |
|Nidhogg ||The serpent who eats the world tree and will destroy it at Ragnarok |
|Hindu ||Adi Shesha ||Vishnu, the supreme being, sits on the many-hooded serpent in the primeval waters |
|Vritra ||Held back rain |
|Vasuki ||Tries to pollute the world ocean |
|China ||Gong Gong ||Has nine heads and the body of a snake. He caused the flood |
|Yoruba ||Oshumare ||The rainbow serpent. It circles the egg of the world |
|Oshumare ||The rainbow serpent. It circles the egg of the world and binds it with 3500 coils above and 3500 below |
|Africa ||Danh |
|The rainbow snake who encircles the world with his tail in his mouth |
|Samoa ||Fe'e and Na Kika ||The waters produced a primeval octopus. Fe'e is the war god who is a huge octopus with a compass whose tentacles reach the far corners of the world. Na Kika is the octopus who used his arms to separate the heavens from the underworld. |
- Guardians of the Tree of Life. The guardians are angels or serpents.
This seemingly opposite view is understandable if you consider the point of reference.
God placed the cherubim at the entrance to the garden to prevent humans from having access to the tree of life.
So He drove the man out; and at the east of the garden of Eden He stationed the cherubim and the flaming sword which turned every direction to guard the way to the tree of life.
(Genesis 3: 24)
However, because the serpent was the initial cause of the loss of access to Eden, it is seen as the one who prevents us from eating from this tree.
Mount Meru, is the dwelling place of God. It was guarded by serpents, which watched the entrance to the realm of Secret Knowledge.
Ningizzida, the god of the serpent, is the lord of the Tree of Life.
This tree and its gifts of immortality are not easy to discover. It is historically difficult to find, and almost invariably guarded. The tree of Life in the Jewish bible is guarded by a Seraph (an angel in the form of a fiery serpent) bearing a flaming sword. To steal the apples of knowledge, the Greek hero Hercules had to slay a many-headed dragon Ladon. In Mayan legends, it is a serpent in the roots that must be contended with. Similarly, the Naga, or divine serpent guards the Hindu Tree. In Norse stories, the Serpent Nidhogg lives under Ygdrassil (the tree of life), and gnaws at the roots.
- Forbidden Fruit. Many legends have two kinds of fruit. One that causes problems and one that gives immortality.
Again, the source is from the two trees in Eden. The forbidden fruit was from the tree of knowledge.
Apple of Discord.
Eris, the goddess of discord, tossed a golden apple into the assembly of the gods at the marriage of Peleus and Thetis.
On it was inscribed, "For the Fairest".
It was claimed by three goddess, Aphrodite, Athena and Hera.
Paris, the prince of Troy was asked to make a choice. He awarded it to Aphrodite and the jealousy of Hera led to the Trojan war.
Although the next story does not involve a snake or a tree, it is about the first woman who was created.
She unleashes evil into the world because of her curiosity. Eve was the first woman who wandered from the side of her husband and was tempted by the snake.
Her curiosity caused evil to come into the world.
Roman: Pandora's Box.
The earth was perfect in the days of the Golden age.
Jupiter was angry at the perfect conditions which he believed was caused by the gift of fire that Prometheus had stolen and given to the man.
And he tried to find a way to punish humans for accepting this gift.
So he called a meeting of the gods on Mount Olympus, and they decided to create woman.
As soon as she had been fashioned, each one gave her some special charm, to make her more attractive.
They created Pandora as a gift for Prometheus. But when he refused, his brother Epimetheus took her.
Life was happy for a while. Pandora was always with Epimetheus.
Later, a weary Mercury brought a box and asked for permission to leave it there.
Jupiter had malignantly crammed into this box all the diseases, sorrows, vices, and crimes that afflict poor humanity.
Curious, she decided to make an excuse to stay by herself that day.
Later, Pandora opened the box and she let loose all the evils in the world.
But the gods had pity and had also put Hope in the box.
Garden of Hesperides.
The Hesperides are nymphs who tend a blissful garden in a far west corner of the world.
The Garden of the Hesperides is Hera's orchard in the west, where either a single tree or a grove of immortality giving golden apples grew.
The apples were planted from the fruited branches that Gaia gave to her as a wedding gift when Hera accepted Zeus. The Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but occasionally plucked from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera also placed in the garden an unsleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additional safeguard.
The flood story is the most common and persistent legend around all cultures.
Many of them only have a few things in common. There was a flood that destroyed the world, a human and some animals were saved by going up a high mountain in a sealed vessel and life restarted afterwards.
The inclusion of a rainbow and the dispersion of races by language appears in a few legends.
All major religions include a final destruction, a final battle and a new creation after a steady decline in morals and nature.
This has resulted in two views of time. One is linear and the other cyclic.
Linear time has only one final new creation, while cyclic time has an infinite number. Reincarnation is a feature of cyclic time.
Creation And Cosmogony Legends
Sound: From The Voice Of God.
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep,
and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. Then God said "Let there be light"; and there was light.
(Genesis 1: 1-3)
|The Structure of the Universe |
Sea of Glass
|1 ||The sky above|
|1 ||Earth ||Land ||sea |
|2 || Sheol (the grave)|
|1 ||Brought light. Made day and night.|
|2 ||Separated sea and sky|
|3 ||Separated sea and earth. Made trees|
|4 ||Sun, moon and stars|
|5 ||Fish and birds|
|6 ||Land animals and humans|
|7 ||The Sabbath rest and the week|
Most creation legends begin with a dark void of nothingness. YHWH also created time and the physical world from nothing, or from "things that cannot be seen".
He spoke and the physical objects, including time, were created in seven days.
By faith we understand that the ages were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things that are visible.
(Hebrews 11: 3)
In Genesis 1, the Judeo-Christian story also begins with a void in the part of space that would become our universe.
The world emerged from the will of God by the sound of the voice of God.
So the thing that cannot be seen is the electromagnetic waves of the sound of the voice of God. God created with sound waves, by using His voice and speaking the physical world into existence.
This is absolutely scientific. All atoms are a bundle of electromagnetic waves.
However, God already existed and the story does not attempt to explain how He came to be.
So the Bible only describes the creation of our universe.
The creation continued when the earth and heavens were carved out of water.
The story supports the idea that while the earth sits in water, there may be a ceiling of water that exists outside the heavens that we see.
Beyond outer space.
Symbolically, the salty sea that is part of the earth is where the snake Leviathan lives.
The symbols of God always have a basis in reality.
Perhaps when Satan and his angels were banished to earth, they were confined to living their physical existence under the ocean.
And there must be a law in place that prevents our physical worlds from colliding.
And perhaps the myths about hell being located under the earth is based on the fact that Satan lives there.
The underworld is simply the earth where the dead are buried beneath the surface of the earth. They are unconscious and unaware in Sheol.
The breath of God which also gave them life goes back to God. But it is not a conscious entity living in a particular place.
It probably contains information about our memories and personalities so that God can recreate us with new bodies.
The New Testament adds one other detail about this cosmology.
There are three levels of heaven.
The first is the sky and atmosphere that we can see. The second is outer space.
The third is the highest heavens where God lives.
I know a man ... such a man was caught up to the third heaven.
(2 Corinthians 12: 2)
» The Sea of Glass.
This could be the layer of waters above the earth, between outer space and the earth that we cannot see.
Revelation states that God will come from the east and that we will stand on "the Sea of Glass" as we go back to heaven (Revelation 15).
Adventists also think that God will come through the constellation of Orion.
The schedule of the actions of God seem to indicate that the Second Coming will happen during the time of the Feast of Tabernacles.
This is between September to October.
A meteor shower which is caused by Halley's comet appears in the Orion constellation in late October.
The Dark Abyss Of Water
I chose a few examples of the creation from a dark void.
Either an egg or a person was produced from this void.
In these myths, water was a part of the beginning.
It is interesting that science concludes that water was needed to start life and that the planets were once covered in water.
These stories also shared some other common features.
The order of creation was the abyss, darkness, fire or light, sea, sky and earth, sun, moon and stars, then plants and animals and man.
From The Mind Of God.
Hindu legends vary. Brahma is sometimes said to be self-created, or born from a lotus out of Vishnu's navel, or hatched from the cosmic egg.
In another myth, creation came from the tears of Prajapati.
In the beginning there was a single soul who looked around and saw nothing but itself.
Since it was lonely it wanted a companion so it split into two, a man and a woman.
They had intercourse and other human beings were born.
Then the woman thought that it was wrong to have intercourse since they came from the same soul.
So she tried to hide herself and became a cow. He became a bull and had intercourse and all cattle were born.
Then she changed herself into a mare and he became a stallion and horses were born.
This continued until all creatures down to the smallest insect were created.
After this, the man realized that he is creation. This created world will last 4,320,000,000 years.
When all was chaos and confusion, the earth was covered with water, there was only mud and slime on the surface of the earth.
At that time there became visible, the god One-Deer, who had the surname Snake of the Lion.
There was also a goddess, very genteel and beautiful, whose name was also One-Deer, and whose surname was Snake of the Tiger.
They are the beginning of all other gods.
As soon as these two gods became visible on earth in human form, with their power and wisdom they made a large stone on which they built a very sumptuous mansion.
The stone was called "the place where the heavens were", which was their seat and residence on earth. This large stone and the mansion was on a very high hill. A garden was planted on the mountaintop.
The Cosmic Egg.
Theory of Natural Selection and the Survival of the Fittest.
The world emerged from an egg that holds the seeds of life. The shell became the structure that held the sky and the earth.
After drawing the representation of the cosmos that I think is correct, I realize that it looks like an egg.
The yolk is represented by the earth. And it is surrounded by air and water.
So it makes me wonder if the ancients used an egg to explain how the cosmos is structured and it was morphed into the cosmic egg.
It would also explain the belief that we are the center of the universe.
Even the connection to the heavens by a bridge over the sea of glass reminds me that the yoke is connected to the shell with a string.
In the beginning there was nothing in the universe except a formless chaos.
However this chaos began to coalesce into a cosmic egg for eighteen thousand years.
|Like Ymir, the earth was created with the body of PanGu. But he also supported the egg before he died.|
» PanGu, The Giant.
When the opposing principles of yin and yang became balanced within the egg, PanGu emerged from the egg. He is usually depicted as a primitive hairy giant
dressed in furs. PanGu began the task of creating the world. He separated Yin from Yang with a swing of his giant axe, creating the Earth
(murky Yin) and the Sky (clear Yang). To keep them separated, PanGu stood between them and took up the Sky. This task took eighteen thousand years, with each day the sky grew ten feet higher, the Earth ten feet wider, and PanGu ten feet taller.
In some versions of the story, PanGu is aided in this task by the four beasts; the Turtle, Qilin, Phoenix and the Dragon
» The World.
After the eighteen thousand years had elapsed, PanGu was laid to rest. His breath became the wind
his voice the thunder, his left eye the sun and right eye the moon. His body became the mountains and his blood formed rivers. His muscles formed the fertile lands and his facial hair made the stars and milky way;
His fur became the bushes and forests, his bones were the valuable minerals, his bone marrow is sacred diamonds and his sweat fell as rain.
The fleas on his body carried by the wind became human beings all over the world.
This universe existed in the shape of darkness, unperceived as if it were in deep sleep.
Then the Divine Self-existent appeared with power and dispelled the darkness.
He is eternal and he contains all created beings and shone forth of his own will.
He first created the waters with a thought and placed his seed in them.
That seed became a golden egg, as bright as the sun. In that egg he himself was born as Brahma.
The Divine One resided in that egg during a whole year, then by his thought he divided it into two halves.
And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters.
From himself he also drew forth the mind and self-consciousness.
He created the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation and all beings.
» The Time Cycle.
They believe that the world is created and destroyed in cycles of 4,320,000,000 years.
Mithra was born from a cosmic egg on December 25.
Chaos was the primordial void that existed before order became imposed on the universe and from which all created things originated, including the gods. Proceeding from time, Chaos eventually formed a huge egg from which was issued
his children Nyx (darknos), Eros (gravity) and Ge or Gaia (Earth).
» The World.
Gaia created Ouranos, the starry sky.
Ouranos, Gaia and Eros created the mountains, sea, rivers, lakes and the Titans.
|The Covenant Curse|
Notice how the elements of the curses in the covenant are in the struggle between Ouranos and Kronos.
» Circumcision. Cutting off the foreskin of the penis was almost like castration.
» Cannibalism. The people will be forced to cannibalize their children and even eat their afterbirth (Deuteronomy 28: 54-58)
In the curse, Satan forced Christ to be cut off and childless, while the people symbolically chewed Him up like cannibals.
» Titans, The Giants.
Ouranos entombed the Titans in the earth, so Gaia conspired with the Titan, Kronos to hurt Ouranos.
Kronos removed the testicles of Ouranos with a sickle.
The blood flowed to the earth and created the Erinyes who were the punishers of crime against nature and God.
When Ouranos threw the testicles into the primeval sea, Pontos, it foamed and produced Aphrodite, the goddess of love.
So Kronos and the Titans ruled the world. The cycle of sun and moon, day and night and death were established during their rule.
Helios, Selene, Promethus were also born.
Kronos married his sister Rhea and she gave birth to five children, Hestia, Hers, Demeter, Poseidon and Hades.
Kronos ate them in his jealousy.
Gaia and Ouranos helped their daughter Rhea to hide the sixth child, Zeus. They tricked him into swallowing a stone instead.
Zeus would later revolt against his father and the Titans. Kronos was forced to give birth to the five children he swallowed.
They also fought their father. The Olympian gods succeeded and the Titans were banished to Tartarus.
Chronos escaped to Italy and ruled as Saturn during the golden age.
Jesus is Ouranos and the Titans are Satan and his angels. God banished Satan and his angels to the earth. With the help of humans and the Romans, they circumcised Christ at the crucifixion.
Life on the earth and humans evolved as the gods and the Titans fought.
Zeus gave birth to Athena, Apollon, Artemis, Hermes, Ares, Hephaestos and Persephone and Dionysos.
These shared their gifts and knowledge with humans.
Roman Version: Prometheus Creates Man.
At the time of the creation, the new Earth was covered with vegetation, and creatures of all kinds.
Eros thought that he should give them instincts to help them to preserve and enjoy the life they had received.
So he called two titans, the youngest sons of Iapetus (Prometheus and Epimetheus) to help him.
He told them to make gifts to all living creatures and create a superior being, called Man, to rule over all the others.
They used clay to mold an image similar in form to the gods. Then they asked Eros to breathe into its nostrils the spirit of life, and Minerva to give it a soul.
Then man lived.
Prometheus observed man and longed to bestow upon him some great power, unshared by any other creature of earth, which would raise him far above all other living beings, and bring him nearer to the perfection of the immortal gods.
So he stole fire from Olympus and gave it to man.
When Jupiter discovered the theft he sentenced Prometheus to eternal suffering.
He was chained to a rock on the Caucasian Mountains where a vulture fed on his liver each day. The liver grew back at night causing him a cycle of eternal punishment.
After many centuries of woe, Hercules, son of Jupiter and Alcmene, found Prometheus, killed the vulture, broke the adamantine chains, and liberated the long-suffering god.
From The Body Of A Giant.
Monster Mutation Theory.
The world was created from the parts of a god or a giant dead body.
Our ancestors were giants over ten feet tall, so they appear in every myth.
The dimensions of the ark supports the occupation of people twelve to fifteen feet tall.
For an emergency vehicle, there is no reason why each floor was so high unless the adult humans were extremely tall.
Norse Ginnungagap. Before creation there was a vast, empty chasm named Ginnungagap. It was between Niflheim in the north and Muspelheim in the south.
Muspelheim was the land of fire.
Niflheim was the land of darkness, cold and ice and it is the source of all rivers.
In Niflheim was a frozen spring called Hvergelmir from which the Elivagar flowed.
This was eleven rivers named Svol, Gunnthra, Fiorm, Fimbulthul, Slidr, Hrid, Sylg, Ylg, Vid, Leiptr, and Gioll.
We believe that Adam and his children were very tall and the average age was over 700 years. After the flood, the population grew much smaller and lived an average age of 70 years.
» Ymir, The Giant.
Life began in the middle of the abyss. Here water from Niflheim met fire from Muspelheim
and melted the Hvergelmir and formed the primeval giant named Ymir and the cow named Audhumbla.
Ymir drank her milk for food.
Ymir became the father of a race of frost giants.
As he slept, his sweat produced a male and female giant and his legs formed a male giant.
The cow licked a block of ice into the shape of a man named Buri, who was the first God.
He was the grandfather of Odin, Vili and Ve.
Ymir eventually became evil and was killed by Odin, Vili and Ve. His body was used to create Yggdrasil, the tree of life that supports the cosmos.
» The World.
With Ymir's dead body Odin and his brothers created the world in the middle of Ginnungagap. Of Ymir's blood the sea, of his flesh the fertile land, of his bones the mountains, of teeth and shattered bones came cliffs, boulders and loose rocks. From his skull the heavens were created, from his hair came trees and plants, from his brain the clouds.
Midgard was created between his eyebrows.
The sun, moon and stars were created from sparks in Muspelheim.
The first man and woman (Askr and Embla) were created from trees lying on the beach.
Tiamat is a huge female dragon that personifies the saltwater ocean, the water of chaos. She is also the primordial mother of all that exists, including the gods themselves. Her consort is Apsu, the freshwater God. From their union, saltwater with freshwater, the first pair of gods were born. Their descendants started to irritate Tiamat and Apsu so they decided to kill them. The offspring discovered their plans and one managed to kill Apsu while he was asleep. Tiamat flew into a rage when she learned about Apsu's death and wanted to avenge her husband. She created an army of monstrous creatures, which was to be led by her new consort Kingu, who is also her son.
Eventually, Tiamat was defeated by the young god Marduk, who was born in the deep freshwater apsu.
» The World.
Marduk cleaved her body in half. He created the sky from the upper half and he made the earth from the lower half. The clouds came from her water and her tears became the source of the Tigris and the Euphrates.
Kingu also died, and from his blood Marduk created the first humans.
On The Backs Of Giants.
While the following do not tell how the world was created, they explain how the world is being supported.
Previous examples show how the universe has been supported internally while it was being formed. Now we see how the current world is being supported externally.
- Greco-Roman. Atlas is the Titan who carries the world on his shoulders. This was his punishment from Zeus for leading the Titans in battle against the Olympian gods.
The world rests on three elephants, which rests on a huge turtle swimming in a vast ocean.
- Hindu. The head of the giant Purusha formed the heavens and the deities Indra, Agni and Vayu, his navel formed the atmosphere and his feet formed the earth.
- China. PanGu is the giant who emerged from an egg and supported the sky for eighteen thousand years.
- Batak (Oceania). The earth rested on the back of a giant snake named Naga-Padoha.
Naga-Padoha grew tired of its burden and shook it off into the sea. But the God Batara-Guru caused a mountain to fall into the water to preserve his daughter. The human race is descended from her. Later, the earth was replaced onto the head of the snake.
In the beginning there was nothing, all was emptiness; there was only space. Before there were the heavens, there was no earth, and when there was no earth, there was no sky. Through meditation, the world serpent Antaboga created the turtle Bedawang, on whom lie coiled two snakes as the foundation of the World.
On the world turtle rests a lid, the Black Stone. There is no sun, or moon, or night in the cave below (the underside of the stone). This is the underworld, whose gods are the male Batara Kala and the female Setesuyara. There lives also the great serpent Basuki.
Bahamut is the enormous fish which floats in a vast sea under which was darkness. On the fish stands Kujara (Kujuta), the giant bull with four thousand eyes, ears, nostrils, mouths, tongues, and feet. On his back was a mountain of ruby, on the top of which stands an angel.
On the shoulders of the angel are six hells, then the Earth, and then seven heavens.
The word Behemoth is of the same origin.
Arabic. Another version of the legend of Bahamut has this structure.
The earth has its foundation on the water. The water, on a rock of ruby which sits on the forehead of a bull.
The bull stands on a bed of sand which is on Bahamut. Bahamut stands on a stifling wind. The wind is on a mist.
What lies under the mist is unknown.
The tale goes on that beneath the measureless fish is a sea; and beneath the sea, a chasm of air; and beneath the air, fire. Beneath the fire is a serpent named Falak in whose mouth are the six hells.
- Maya (South America). The Itzam are four giant reptiles whose outstretched bodies define the top, bottom, and the four corners of the cosmos.
- Fon (West Africa) .
The world was created by the genderless god Nana-Buluku.
He made the rainbow serpent Aido-Hwedo as a companion.
The dung from the serpent created the mountains and nourished the earth so that plants grew.
His writhing created the rivers and valleys.
Eventually the world was so overladen with plants and animals that the gods feared that it would collapse.
Aido-Hwedo supported the earth by forming an Ouroboros, a great circular loop made with his tail in his mouth.
Nana-Buluku made a great ocean for the serpent to swim in because it could not tolerate the heat.
He is fed with iron bars by red monkeys who live under the sea.
When the iron supply runs out, the serpent will be so hungry that it will begin to eat its own tail.
Then the world will collapse into the sea.
The Four Corners Of The World.
Until the nineteenth century everyone believed that the earth was flat.
And, if you sailed far enough you could fall off the edge of the earth or be gobbled up by sea monsters waiting there for hapless sailors.
|The Flat Earth|
Geologic Column Theory.
If you conceive the world as a flat disc, then one way to support it is by lifting the four corners with strong creatures or with columns.
The sky is also supported by pillars so that it remains separated from the earth and does not crush us.
- China. After the flood, Nuwa cut off the legs of a giant turtle to hold up the sky.
- Maya (South America). Bacabs were gods who held up the heavens in the four quarters of the sky. They were Kan, Muluc, Ix, and Cauac, representing the east, north, west, and south.
- Aborigines (Australia). The earth is circular and flat and covered by the sky dome. The sky is held up by giant props at the corners of the earth.
The underworld was under this and in some legends it is inhabited by people and in other legends it is dark and uninhabited. The underworld contains two mountain ranges with a valley between.
The sky plane is inhabited by supernatural beings and it was where the soul went after death.
Certain people had access to the sky world by means of trees between heaven and earth.
At the command of Nareau, Riiki the Eel raised the heavens above and the earth sank under the sea.
At first, his body separated the earth and the sky.
Then Nareau, the first of things, called four women and said to them, "These are your names: Make-north, Make-south, Make-east, Make-west. Go hold the four corners of heaven, for you are its supports."
They went, and their feet became roots of mighty trees, so that they might not be moved again.
The Bible also describes the earth as being set on pillars. So this theory dates back to the beginning of time.
We will explore this below.
Another way to support the earth is to suspend it on strings.
|The World on a String|
The earth is a great island floating in a sea of water, and suspended at each of the four cardinal points by a cord hanging down from the sky vault, which is of solid rock. When the world grows old and worn out, the people will die and the cords will break and let the earth sink down into the ocean, and all will be water again.
Men came after the animals and plants. At first there were only a brother and sister until he struck her with a fish and told her to multiply, and so it was. In seven days a child was born to her, and thereafter every seven days another, and they increased very fast until there was danger that the world could not keep them. Then it was made that a woman should have only one child in a year, and it has been so ever since.
The Axis Mundi (The Pole Star).
So the world has been created and it is being supported, so why is it spinning?
Since they could discern a pattern of revolution in the heavens, the ancients theorized that the universe revolved around a pole, or a cosmic axis.
This pole came through the center of the earth at the navel or the world axis.
This does not destroy the other theories, it just places everything on a spin cycle.
The shape of this pole is either a pole, a cone or an hour glass.
Omphalos (The Navels of the World).
There were many places that were considered the navels of the world, the center of access to God.
- Mount Parnassus. This is the mountain at Delphi and home of the great oracle.
- Baghdad. Muslims believe that Iraq is the belly, and Baghdad is the navel of the universe.
- Jerusalem. According to the book of Jubilees, Jerusalem is the navel of the earth and Mount Sinai is the center of the desert.
- Nippur.The center of the earth in 2000 BC.
- Mount Meru. Hindu home of the gods.
- Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). At El Templo Mayor according to the Aztecs.
Aztec Cosmogony: Cipactli, The Serpent In The Void.
This legend places the entire heavens and earth inside of a creature, spinning around a central world axis in Mexico.
|Section ||World||Occupant ||Serpent ||Cipactli|
|9-12||All other gods|
|7 ||Blue heaven|
|6 ||Night sky|
|1-5 || Sun, moon, stars, comets, planets |
||West||Quetzalcoatl ||Tlaticpac |
(for the Dead)
|Chalmecacivati||Babies, children |
|Tamoanchan ||Pregnant Women |
|Tlalocan || Drowned|
|Baator ||Treacherous river||Tail|
|2 ||Acheron ||Mountains shake |
|3 ||Avalas ||Huitzilopachtli |
|4 ||Ocanthus ||Xiuhtecuhtli |
|5 ||Mechanus ||- |
|6 ||Arcadia ||- |
|7 ||Mt. Celestia ||Quetzalcoatl |
|8 ||Arborea ||Tlalocan |
|9 ||Mictlan||Nine rivers, rest ||South is traditionally to the left|
|Note: The names of the first eight levels of hell may be incorrect |
In the beginning there was nothing but a void. Then Ometeotl, the first god who was both masculine and feminine created himself.
Ometeotl spawned four children who created our visible world.
These children are separate, yet the same, and they are referred to as the four manifestations of one god, Tezcatlipoca.
After 600 years they began creation.
They created water, the god Tlaloc and his goddess.
and then they created Cipactli, the serpent that floats in the void.
They created the whole universe within the body of Cipactli by dividing his body into two parts.
One part made the heavens and the other part made the earth and the underworld.
The central region where the humans lived was called Tlaticpac.
» Pole Star.
The earth was divided into four regions with the world axis (Axis Mundi) at the center navel.
Four sacred trees were used to support the heaven and earth.
The pole star is the pivot point of the Aztec universe with thirteen domed regions revolving around it and nine underworlds below.
» Heaven. Thirteen heavens exist in Cipactli's head. Ometeotl lives by himself in the thirteenth heaven.
The earth is a great, flat disc located in the middle of Cipactli's body and is surrounded by the Celestial Waters. So it is called Cem-á-nahuac, which means "that which is surrounded by water".
The world is divided into four quadrants with the navel at the center.
» Underworld. Nine underworlds go down the length of Cipactli's tail.
Souls of those whose manner of death failed to call them to various paradises in the north
were sent on a four year journey of trials through the nine hells of Mictlan.
At the first level they cross a treacherous river with the help of the dog headed god, Xolotl. Then they must pass through the shaking and crashing mountains and other trials.
These tests are a gigantic snake, a large lizard, eight deserts, eight hills, and a wind with obsidian knives.
In the lowest level the last obstacle is crossing the extension of the Nine Waters of the great river
Chicunanhuapan on the back of a red dog. Then they reach the region of rest.
Mictlan is a vast cave filled with skeletons.
- West. Ruled by the white Tezcatlipoca named Quetzalcoatl. He is the creator of humans.
- East. Ruled by the red Tezcatlipoca named Xipe Totec, the god of spring time and rebirth.
- South. Ruled by the blue Tezcatlipoca named Tonatiuh, god of the sun.
- North. The cold land of the dead ruled by the black Tezcatlipoca named Mictlantecuhtli, the Lord of the Night Sky and the dead.
All the dead go here and proceed to one of four paradises or to the nine hells of Mictlan.
These four quadrants of the earth also correspond to the symbols of the four directions around the sanctuary.
West is the dwelling place of God and the righteous. East is the direction of the Coming of Christ when He will resurrect the dead.
North is the direction where Christ was crucified and buried. South is the direction of His tribulation where He suffered as the burnt offering.
All these are discussed in our original lesson on the twelve tribes of Israel.
- North (Chalmecacivati). Babies and young children.
- West (Tamoanchan). Women who died in childbirth.
- South (Tlalocan). Those who die by water, weather or lightning.
This is a place of butterflies, rainbow, flowers where souls spend four years before returning.
Souls usually have an endless cycle of life and paradise in this place unless they have higher aspirations.
- East (Tonatiuhichan). Warriors, sacrifices and tradesmen who died in far lands. After four years they lived forever in the bodies of humming birds.
- Lillan-Tlapallan. The land of the fleshless.
A paradise for followers of Quetzalcoatl. It is the highest achievement for a soul.
Humanity was created by Quetzalcóatl in an act of self sacrifice.
With the help of his twin, Xólotl, the dog-headed god, he succeeded in reviving the dried bones of the old dead in Mictlan by sprinkling them with his own blood.
The sun and moon were also created by an act of self sacrifice. When the gods, assembled in the darkness at Teotihuacán
they built a huge fire. Then two of them, Nanahuatzin
a small deity covered with ulcers, and Tecciztécatl, a richly bejeweled god, threw themselves into the flames.
Nanahuatzin became the sun and Tecciztécatl became the moon.
Then the sun refused to move unless the other gods gave him their blood. They were compelled to sacrifice themselves to feed the sun.
The Tree Of Life Myths
Instead of a pole that unites heaven to earth, many cultures have a myth about a world tree which sustains the Universe and unites Heaven and Earth.
God lives in the top where the tree meets the heavens.
The roots are the underworld where the dead exist.
The source of this myth is from a combination of the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
These trees caused the separation of the worlds when sin began.
Mayan Cosmogony: Yaxche, The Great, Green, Ceiba Tree Of Abundance.
The tree of life was set up as a pillar of the sky and the axis of the earth was set up when the world was created.
The roots lie in the nine levels of the underworld, Xibalba.
The trunk is in mid earth and the leaves are in the thirteen levels of heaven.
There are also four trees in the earth that are planted in the four directions.
A white tree in the north, red in the east, yellow in the south and black in the west.
Whac Chan (Wakah Chan).
This is another name for the tree of life that is also the Milky Way.
Norse Cosmogony: Yggdrasil, The World Tree.
The Norse myth about the tree named Yggdrasil is the most complete and elaborate of these myths.
It is not only a simple tree of life as in Christianity, it is the structure by which the whole cosmos is maintained.
We will use this to demonstrate the equivalent realities in Christianity.
|Norse Mythology||Christian Equivalent
|Yggdrasil ||World Tree||Tree of Life |
|1||Asgard ||Warrior gods||Heaven ||God|
|2||Vanaheim ||Nature gods ||God|
|3||Alfheim ||Light elves ||Good angels|
|4||Midgard ||Humans||Earth ||Humans|
|5||Svartalheim ||Dark elves ||Evil angels|
|6||Jotunheim ||Giants ||Giants (Nephilim)|
|7||Niflheim ||Ice, cold, dark||Hell |
|Darkness of the abyss|
|8||Muspelheim ||Flame land ||Flames of Hell|
|9||Helheim ||Dead ||Dead (Sheol)|
|Mountain ||Mountain||Mount Zion |
|Ginnungagap ||The Gap||The Abyss at creation |
|Bifrost ||Rainbow Bridge||Sea of Glass |
|Ragnarok ||Last battle||Armageddon |
|Nidhogg ||Eats yggdrasil||Satan, the snake who destroys |
|Jormungand ||Snake in the sea||Satan, the snake Leviathan |
The Nine Worlds of Yggdrasil.
These are interesting because they are the representation of where
certain people and events occur in the past, present and future of Christian beliefs.
- Bifrost. A rainbow bridge that connects Midgard and Asgard. It was the only entrance to Asgard.
It is equivalent to the Sea of Glass over which the righteous go from Earth to Heaven at the Second Coming.
In heaven there is a rainbow over the throne of God.
In Zoroastrianism, the Kinvad bridge is the road between earth and heaven for the dead.
It was also called "Chinvato Peretu" or the sword bridge because it became a broad road for the righteous or a thin razor blade for the wicked so that they fall into Hell.
- Elves and Angels. Elves are tiny creatures and at one point up to the last century, people used to believe that angels were so small that hundreds could fit on the end of a pin.
The relationship is even more convincing when you see that the good elves and bad elves live in separate lands in heaven and earth.
The good elves or good angels live in heaven just as the Christian story says.
The bad angels were exiled to live on the earth. They occupy the planet in an alternate reality where they are invisible.
In Norse myth, this reality becomes a real land.
- Giants. The Bible describes the existence of giants about nine to eleven feet tall (274-335 cm). They are now extinct. But their existence and current location survive in the Norse myth as Jotunheim.
Giants Before the Flood (The Nephilim).
The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterwards, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men,
and they bore children to them. These were the mighty men of old, men of renown.
(Genesis 6: 4)
Giants After the Flood.
There also we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak are part of the Nephilim). and we became like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we are in their sight.
(Numbers 13: 33)
(The Anakim, descendants of The Nephilim).
There were no Anakim left in the land of the sons of Israel; only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod some remained.
(Joshua 11: 22)
For only Og, king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaim. Behold his bedstead was an iron bedstead; ... its length is nine cubits [162 inches] and its width four cubits [72 inches].
(Deuteronomy 3: 11)
David conquered the giant Goliath and other giants from Gath. One of them had twelve fingers and twelve toes. (2 Samuel 21: 15-22).
- The Underworld. The three underworlds are also supported in Christianity as different stages in time.
Niflheim, the dark and cold place, is the primeveal abyss when no human exists.
During the time after Midgard was created, Helheim is the same as sheol or the grave, where all the unconscious dead exist until their resurrection.
During the period of Muspelheim,
the land of flames will exist on the surface of the whole earth in the future when
the wicked dead will be resurrected and face the judgment and then destroyed in the lake of fire.
Then Midgard will be part of Asgard.
||Resurrection (Good) ||Millennium
||Resurrection (Evil) ||Armageddon||Hell ||New Creation
|Niflheim||Helheim ||Muspelheim (Flame Land)||Asgard |
Persian Cosmogony: The Seven Karshvars And The Saena Tree.
|Seven Karshvars ||Location||Comment
|1||Vourubaresti ||North West ||Details are not known|
|2||Vourugaresti ||North East|
|3||Arezahi ||West |
|4||Savahi ||East |
|5||Fradadhafshu ||South West |
|6||Vidadhafshu ||South East |
|7||Hvaniratha ||Center ||Land of Humans|
|||Mount Hara (Alburz) ||Source of light and water |
|||Chinvat Bridge ||Bridge of Judgment |
|||Gaokerena tree ||Gives immortality to the resurrected |
|||Veh Daiti (Veh Rod) ||East river |
|||Raha? ||West river |
|||Vourukasha Sea ||Gathering point of all water |
|||Harahvaiti (Arax) ||River that feeds the Vourukasha sea |
|||White Bull ||First animal. Source of all animals |
|||Saena Bird ||Head of a dog and body of a fowl |
|||Gayomartan ||He was the first man |
|||Rivas plant ||Source of a mortal man and woman |
|||Saena Tree ||Tree of all remedies, tree of all seeds |
|After 6000 years, the evil Ahriman dug a hole in the ground and created hell and purgatory. |
Many stories are about a tree that supports the entire world. But in one myth, humans came from a plant.
An abyss existed for 3000 years then Ahuramazda created the universe in seven steps.
|Origin of the Myth of Seven Worlds|
How did these ideas develop?
These seven worlds are separated by a salty ocean and that gives us a clue.
From their position in the ark or on top of the mountain, Noah and his sons probably saw seven distinct, inaccessible islands or mountain peaks separated by water.
The flood caused salty water to come to the surface of the earth that had previously been fresh water.
The great salty sea became prevalent in their myths because this was a new experience for them.
They probably witnessed the breakup of the continents.
In all these myths humans only lived on one of the worlds because Noah and his family lived on only one of these islands.
From his view above mount Ararat, 17000 feet (5137 m) above sea level, which mountain peaks could he have seen rising above the water?
In the area were Caucasus, Elburz, Zagros, Panrus, Taurus and Kurdistan mountains.
Further away were Everest (8848 m), Himalayas, Pamirs, Karakoram, Carpathian and the Alps.
- The great crystalline sky which was a round empty shell made of rock crystal, passing beneath as well as above the earth.
It contained the sun, moon, stars and twelve constellations of the zodiac.
- The bright waters
- The earth with its rivers and oceans and continents
- Sweet vegetation which nourishes
- The beneficent animals
The cosmos is composed of seven disconnected karshvars or keshvar (zones, regions, earths or worlds). They are separated by an ocean.
The Hindus also have a concept of seven dvipas (islands).
- Vourubaresti in the northwest.
- Vourugaresti in the northeast.
- Arezahi in the west.
- Savahi in the east.
- Fradadhafshu in the southwest.
- Vidadhafshu in the southeast.
- Khvaniras or Khvanirath or Hvaniratha in the center is the only karshvar that is inhabited by men.
It is larger than all the other six regions combined.
For 800 years Mount Hara (Alburz) grew in Khvaniras like a tree its roots, sinking deep underground to invisibly connect and nourish all of its chain.
It took 200 years to reach the stars, another 200 years to reach the moon, then the sun and then the endless light.
At the peak of this mountain is attached the Chinvat Bridge of Judgment over which pass souls freed from their bodies of earth to continue their unending progression through regions of bliss, or to purgation and hell.
Alburz was the source of light and water. As it grew it sprouted 2244 other mountains.
The stars, moon and sun revolved around this peak of Hara.
The Vourukasha Sea was the gathering point of water.
This sea occupied "one third of the earth, to the south. It was fed by a huge river, the Harahvaiti.
Two great rivers flowed out from the sea to the east and the west, to form the boundaries of the inhabited world. The River Veh Daiti (Veh Rod) flowed to the east.
The rivers were cleansed as they passed around the earth and, when they returned to the Vourukasha, their clean water was taken back up to the Peak of Hara.
» Trees of Life.
The Saena Tree grew in the middle of the Vourukasha. It was the mother of all trees, the source of all plants. It was the Tree of All Remedies or Tree of All Seeds.
This tree held the nest of the legendary bird Saena (Senmurv or Simurgh). It had the head of a dog and body of a fowl. Seeds fell from the tree when it flapped its wings.
In one version of the legend The bird Chanmrosh forever sits in that vicinity, and collects the seed which drops from the tree and conveys it where Tishtar seizes the water, so that it may rain on the world.
This may be the same as the Camros birs.
- Gaokerena. Another important plant growing nearby was the Gaokerena, the seeds have healing properties when eaten and gave immortality to the living and can resurrect the dead.
The camros is a bird-like creature that collects the seeds of Gao-kerena, the Tree of Life.
It brings those seeds to the god Tistrya who mixes them with water. The mixture provides the peoples of Iran with life, but nothing is left for those who strive for their destruction.
The first animal in the world is a uniquely created white bull as bright as the moon.
It lived on the bank of the River Veh Daiti.
It was killed by Angra Mainyu, the Evil Spirit, and its seed was carried up to the moon.
This purified seed produced many species of animals and It sprouted into plants when part of it fell to the ground.
On the opposite bank lived Gayomartan (Gayomard). He was the first man, who was as wide as he was tall and as bright as the sun.
He was slain by Angra Mainyu (Ahriman), but the sun purified his seed and, after forty years, a rhubarb plant sprang from it.
The Rivas or rhubarb plant which was born from Gayomard grows up and contains the bodies of the first mortal man and woman (Mashya and Mashyanag).
They receive the breath of life.
They were beguiled by Angra Mainyu and turned to him as the creator and committed the first sin.
» Sin Begins.
After 3000 years of good reigned under Ahuramazda, in the year 6000 of time, the 3000 year reign of evil Ahirman began. At the head of millions of fiends, he rushed into the material world, mixed smoke with fire, corrupted the waters, sowed thorns in the earth, covered the trees with bark, destroyed the vegetation, killed the Primeval Ox and distressed Gayomard, and created billions of noxious creatures such as ants, lice, locusts, and destructive beasts. He also dug a great hole in the earth and established there the infernal regions of hell and purgatory. He debased all mankind by filling them with evil thoughts and wicked desires; he made them vicious and corrupt.
He filled the world with misery. Nature itself served his evil purpose, and generated storms, drought, earthquakes, and devastating cold. The human race seemed destined only for suffering, extinction, and the everlasting fires of hell.
After 300 years he sent a devastating frost for seven years.
It almost wiped out the world.
Instead of peace and harmony, their world was filled with corruption and evil. Only after fifty years were they able to produce offspring, but the first twins were eaten by their parents.
After a long period of childlessness another set of twins was finally born, and from these sprang the Persians race.
The Divine Comedy And Dante's Inferno: The Nine Levels Of Hell.
Here we see the Pagan structure of hell as a part of a Christian belief.
It is the medieval world view of the afterlife.
Around 1300AD, Dante claimed to have a vision of the structure of heaven, purgatory and hell and the journey of the dead.
|The Nine Circles of Hell|
|Sin ||Occupant ||Terrain|
|1||Limbo ||The unbaptized and virtuous pagans ||Green fields, castle|
|2||Lust ||Blown by a violent storm, no rest ||Violent storms|
|3||Glutton ||Consume their excrement ||Muddy, cold rain, hail|
|4||Greedy ||Hoarded goods ||Push great weight against each other|
|Prodigals ||Squandered goods |
|5||Wrathful ||They fight ||Swamp waters of the river Styx|
|Sullen ||Lie beneath the river |
|6||Heretics ||Trapped in flaming tombs ||Flaming tombs|
|7||Violent to others and property || Homicide, vandalism ||Phlegethon, River of boiling blood|
|Violent to self ||Suicide ||Thorn bushes and trees chased by ferocious dogs|
|Violent to God and nature ||Blasphemers, sodomite, userer ||Desert of flaming sand and rain of fiery flakes|
|8 ||Those who perpetrate fraud ||Ten ditches connected by bridges|
|Panderer, seducer ||Scourged by horned demons|
|Flatter ||Immersed in Excrement|
|Simony ||Put head first in holes in a rock, with flames burning the soles of their feet|
|Astrologer, false prophet, sorcerer ||Head twisted back. They walk backwards|
|Corrupt politicians ||Lake of boiling pitch|
|Hypocrites ||Wear lead cloaks |
|Thieves ||Pursued and bitten by snakes|
|False Advisors ||Encased in flames|
|Sew discord and schism ||Hacked by demons with swords|
|Perjury, alchemy, counterfeit ||Diseases|
|9||Betray family ||Caina ||Sunk in ice head down|
|Political traitors ||Antenora ||Gnawed on their heads|
|Betray guests ||Ptolomaea ||Heads up in ice|
|Betray benefactor ||Judecca ||Completely immersed in ice. Home of Satan||
|Seven Terraces of the Mountain of Purgatory |
|1||Proud ||Carry giant stones on their back |
|2||Envious ||Their eyes are sewn shut |
|3||Wrathful ||They walk around in acrid smoke |
|4||Slothful ||They must run continually |
|5||Greedy ||Lay face down on the ground |
|6||Gluttonous ||Abstain from food and drink. Passing cascades of cool water and forbidden fruit |
|7||Lustful ||Burn in an immense wall of flame |
|Garden of Eden ||Located on the summit of mount purgatory |
|Nine Spheres of Paradise (Heaven) |
|1||Moon ||Those who abandoned vows |
|2||Mercury ||Did good for fame |
|3||Venus ||Did good because of love |
|5||Mars ||Those who fought for Christianity|
|7||Saturn ||The contemplative, e.g. monks|
|8||Stars ||All the blessed|
|9||Primium Mobile ||Angels|
- Hell. It is located under Jerusalem to the center of the earth and is shaped like a funnel with nine circles. Satan lives in the ice of the lowest level of the ninth circle.
Lucifer is trapped up to his waist in ice. He has six weeping eyes, six flapping wings which keep the area cold, three faces (red, black and pale yellow) and three mouths which chew a sinner.
Judas is head first in the center mouth while Satan claws his back. Brutus and Cassius are in the left and right mouth with their heads hanging out.
- Purgatory. It is a mountain that is located on an island in the southern hemisphere with the Garden of Eden at its summit. It has seven terraces which correspond to the seven deadly sins.
Garden of Eden. Here, one is returned to a state of innocence by drinking water from the river Lethe which causes the soul to forget past sins.
Then they drink from the river Eunoe which causes the soul to remember good deeds.
- Paradise. The nine spheres of Heaven are in outer space.
Fairy Tales And Nursery Rhymes
Let us take a look at an ancient and modern fairy tale.
It appears that they might have been used to tell biblical truths.
If so they are based on common beliefs about sin and the plan of salvation, not simply on the imagination of the author.
With that understanding, the basic teaching of the story is their truth because it is based on the author's belief that it is true.
Ring around the rosie
A pocket full of posies
We all fall down!
This nursery rhyme became famous during "black death" or the plagues in Europe.
A sign of the plague was the circular swelling on the body.
People believed that posies or a bag filled with crushed flowers and herbs might protect them.
"Ashes, ashes" is the sound they made when they sneezed.
Sneezing was a symptom of the plague.
But eventually they "all fell down" or died.
The names have changed but it is the same story.
A woman disobeys a warning and eats a fruit that causes her eternal sleep.
A prince on a white horse who comes from a far country will awaken her and they live happily ever after.
» Snow White. The perfect condition of Eve before she sinned.
» Warning. Seven dwarves warned Snow White not to open the door to strangers. God warned Eve not to eat the fruit.
» The Wicked Step Mother. Anger, jealousy and pride caused her to murder Snow White by giving her a poisoned apple. Just like Satan. He was full of pride and jealous of God.
He tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit.
» Wicked Witch. This is Satan who tempts Eve.
» Eats an Apple. Eve eats a fruit which kills her and Snow White eats an apple which causes her to sleep forever.
» Falls Asleep. Eve also falls asleep and sleeps the sleep of death. Jesus refers to death as a sleep.
It is possible that the act of sleeping came to the planet the moment she sinned, just like rain came to the planet after the flood. Sleep is a sign of the death that would come to her.
If this is what happened then God is correct because she died the day that she sinned and began the process of physical deteoriation and her body began the process of repair which is a function of sleep.
» Washing. The dwarves washed her with water and wine. This is baptism and the blood of Jesus which gives new life.
» Resurrection. A prince saves her by removing the offensive apple.
The story of Sleeping Beauty also uses this theme. A beautiful princess who was condemned to death because of a malicious fairy.
But a good fairy changed the curse. The princess falls asleep instead and the entire castle falls asleep for a long time until a prince from a far away land awakens her with His love. The entire castle is also rescued.
When Eve sinned, the entire world fell asleep in death with her until Jesus comes from a far country to rescue them.
» The Prince. Jesus, the Prince of the Covenant, comes as a king on a white horse to rescue His bride.
» Punishment. The wicked queen was forced to dance in red hot shoes until she died. Satan will dance in the red hot fires of hell until he is dead.
» They Lived Happily Ever After. Heaven will last forever. The church is the bride of Christ and God lives with us.
The Whizard Of Oz.
This is a modern story of the ancient struggle between God and Satan in which humans have gotten involved.
But heaven has the remedy which will take us back home.
» Dorothy. The lost girl who wanted to go home to Kansas. Eve is the lost woman who wanted her previous life.
» Cowardly Lion. He needed courage. We need courage.
» Silly Scarecrow. He needed a brain. We need wisdom.
» Emotionless Tin Man. He needed a heart. We need love.
» The Wicked Witch of the West. She was killed by melting her with water.
The power of evil is broken by the power of the Holy Spirit. Water is used to represent the Spirit and our cleansing.
» The Good Witch of the East. She gave Dorothy the ruby shoes and told her to follow the yellow brick road to the emerald city.
Jesus comes from the East to rescue His people.
» Field of Dreams. They encounter a poppy field where the evil witch tries to make them fall asleep.
This is the sleep of death that Satan lured us into when Eve sinned. This field of dreams is death.
» Ruby Red Shoes. This will get her home, like the red blood of Christ.
» Yellow Brick Road. Heaven has streets of gold.
»The Emerald City. In heaven, God sits with an emerald rainbow surrounding His throne.
»The Whizard of Oz. A kindly old gentleman who controls everything. He disguises himself to strike terror in the hearts of evil.
He helps Dorothy and her three friends to achieve their dreams.
While one might not immediately think of fairy tales and plays as reservoirs of religious teachings, there are many modern tales that do.
The Pilgrim's Progress and the Chronicles of Narnia are two of the best known modern fairy tales on Christianity.
From these we can agree that the story was not simply made up from random ideas, it was made to preserve a religious truth in symbols.
The flood is recorded in Genesis 6-9. Noah preached for 120 years while he made the ark.
But only his wife and three sons and their wives were saved.
It had never rained on the earth because of the geological structure. The earth was floating on an aquifer like a controlled swamp.
There were no vast oceans to generate rain clouds. So underground water watered the earth at night in a mist.
Therefore nobody believed and obeyed Noah when he described rain.
|Region ||Civilization ||People ||Boat ||Animals||Birds||Mountain |
|Hebrew ||Noah, wife, 3 sons ||Ark ||Pairs of Animals ||Raven, dove, dove ||Ararat|
|Mesopotamian, Sumerian ||Utnapishtim, family, friends ||Boat ||Seed of all living things ||Dove, swallow, raven ||Nisur |
|Babylonian ||Atrahasis and family ||Boat ||Cattle, wild animals, birds || - ||- |
|Chaldean ||Xisuthrus, wife, daughter, pilot ||Boat ||Pairs of animals ||Birds sent 3 times ||Corcyraean |
|Zoroastrian ||Yima ||Vara ||Pairs ||- ||- |
|Norse ||Bergelmer, wife ||Chest
||Blood Legends. Blood from the wounds of the giant Ymir caused the flood. For the Celts, the blood spilled when heaven was cut up. Icy water flowed from the wounds in Scandanivia ||Jotunheim|
|Scandinavian ||Bergelmer, family ||Boat ||- |
|Celtic ||Man, woman ||Boat ||- |
|Welsh ||Dwyfan, Dwyfach ||Boat ||Animal pairs ||- ||Pyrdain |
|Lithuanian ||People on a mountain ||Nutshell ||Animals on the mountain ||Rainbow ||- |
|Greco-Roman ||Deucalion, Pyrra ||Boat ||- ||- ||Parnassus |
||Hindu (India) ||Manu ||Boat ||Every species ||- ||Manu's Descent|
|Miao (South China) ||Nuah and Gaw Bo-Lu-En, 3 sons, wives ||Boat ||Male and Female ||Dove ||-|
|Miao and Yao (South China) ||Fu Xi, Nu Gua ||Gourd
The Asian legends involve the marriage of a brother and sister who were saved by being sealed in a hollowed out log (a drum).
They all explain the beginning of the different races as humans who came from a gourd.
In the Burmese legend only one man and a cow were saved. There was a gourd inside the cow and the humans emerged from it. Other gourds held animals, plants and rivers.
|Jino (China) ||Mahei, Maniu
|| Sealed hollow Log |
|Kammu (Thai) ||Brother, sister |
|Lisu (China) ||Brother, sister ||Gourd|
|Shan (Burma) ||Lip-Long and a cow ||Raft|
||Hawaii ||Nuu, family ||Ark ||Reef forming legends. Most legends tend to explain their physical environment ||Mauna Kea|
|Mangaia (Cook Islands) ||Rangi and people ||Walked ||Rangimotia|
|Palau Isles ||Milathk ||Raft ||- |
||Komililo Nandi ||Ilet ||- || Hospitality legends. ||Tinderet|
|Mandingo ||Brave people ||Canoe ||Jefferson|
|Tumbainot, 2 wives, 6 sons ||Ark ||Pairs of Animals ||Dove, vulture and 4 rainbows ||The Steppes|
||Pima ||Suhu, good people ||Walked ||Animal Helper legends. Animals play a major role.||Crooked Top Mountain |
|Squamish ||Man, woman, all babies ||Canoe ||Baker|
|Cowichan ||Wise People ||Raft ||Cowichan|
|Algonquin ||Michabo, muskrat ||Walked ||- ||Raven, otter, muskrat ||-|
|Ottowa ||Giant, maiden ||Canoe ||Pairs ||Beaver, muskrat, raven ||-|
||Aztec ||Tapi, wife ||Boat ||Pairs ||Dove ||Mountain|
|Aztec ||Cocox, Xochiquetzal ||A hollow tree ||- ||Dove ||Colhuacan|
|Toltec ||7 friends and wives ||A closed chest ||- ||- ||-|
|Huicol ||Man, dog ||Box
Animal Transformation Legends.
Man marries dog who is transformed into a human wife. Others are transformed into different animals because of disobedience.
|Tlapanac ||Man, dog, chicken ||Box |
|Cora (Mexico) ||Man, dog, sandpiper, woodpecker, parrot ||Boat |
|Totonac (Mexico) ||Man, dog, dove ||Ark |
||Jivaro (Ecuador) ||2 men, two parrots ||Walked ||Man marries parrot |
|Inca (Peru) ||Man, woman ||Box ||People lived in caves after the flood ||Tiahuanacu|
|Inca (Peru) ||Giants ||-||Giants |
|Names of the Patriachs |
|Bible Names ||Miao Legend||Chinese Sovereigns|
|Adam ||Dirt ||-|
|The word Adam means dirt |
|Seth ||Se-Teh ||-|
|Enos ||Lusu |
|Lamech ||Lama ||-|
|Noah ||Nuah ||Nüwa |
|Shem ||Lo Shen ||Shennong|
|» Elam ||Elan ||-|
|» Asshur ||Ngashur ||-|
|Japheth ||Jah-Hu ||-|
|» Gomer ||Gomen ||-|
|Ham ||Lo Han ||Huang, Han|
|» Cush ||Cu-Sah ||-|
|» Mizraim ||Mesay ||-|
|» Sinite ||- ||Shi|
Some Chinese legends about their ancestors (three sovereigns and five emperors) are similar to the flood legends in terms of timeline, the sound of names and the
possible behavior of the ancestors.
- Nüwa and Fuxi. Nüwa was the wife of Fuxi and they both are the ancestors of humans after a devastating flood and are the first two sovereigns. Although the legend lists this person as a female, yet
the similarity of the sound of the names Nüwa and Noah and the fact that both were the ancestors of humans after a flood and the dates fit within the time frame are evidences of the veracity of the story.
They also taught the people to hunt and fish. These are skills that were needed when the trees and plants had not recovered yet and they were transitioning from a vegetarian to a meat diet.
- Shennong (The Third Sovereign). He was the father of agriculture and taught the people what was edible.
The trees probably matured during the life of one of Noah's sons.
The name Shennong sounds like Shem.
- Huang Di (The Yellow Emperor). He was the first of five important emperors after the three sovereigns.
He was the ancestor of the Han Chinese people.
Sinite was a grandson of Ham who is believed to be the ancestor of the Chinese people.
The names Han and Huang sounds like Ham.
- Emperor Zhuanxu. Led the Shi clan to migrate east to Shandong around 2491 BC.
The name Shi sounds like it could have come from Sinite who led them east from the tower of Babel towards the land of China.
The year of this migration corresponds to the global migration imposed at the Tower of Babel around 2474 BC.
- The Chinese Calendar. It began in 2637 BC. This was the time frame of Noah and the flood.
The Miao People of South China.
The legend of the Miao people says there was a man named NuWah (Nuah) with his wife (Gawboluen) three sons (Lo Han, Lo Shen and Jah-Hu) and three daughters who escaped the flood in a ship.
The flood happened around 2300 B.C.
After the flood they built a tower and their speech were broken up into six languages.
The sons of Noah had sons who had similar sounding names as the sons of the Miao legend.
The sons of Lo-Shen were Elan and Ngashur.
The sons of Lo-Han were Cu-Sah and Mesay.
The son of Jah-Hu was Gomen.
There was a quarrel between two of the more powerful gods, they decided to settle it with a fight. When the water god Gong Gong
saw that he was losing, he smashed his head against Mount Buzhou, a pillar holding up the sky. The pillar collapsed and caused the sky to tilt towards the northwest and the earth to shift to the southeast.
This caused great floods and suffering to the people. Nüwa cut off the legs of a giant tortoise and used them to replace the fallen pillar and alleviate the situation.
She seals the broken sky using stones of seven different colors, but she was unable to fully correct the tilted sky.
Now the sun, moon, and stars move towards the northwest, and rivers in China flow southeast into the Pacific Ocean.
Tumbainot, a righteous man, had a wife named Naipande and three sons, Oshomo, Bartimaro, and Barmao. When his brother Lengerni died, Tumbainot, according to custom, married the widow Nahaba-logunja, who bore him three more sons, but they argued about her refusal to give him a drink of milk in the evening, and she set up her own homestead.
The world was heavily populated in those days, but the people were sinful and not mindful of God. However, they refrained from murder, until at last a man named Nambija hit another named Suage on the head. At this, God resolved to destroy mankind, except Tumbainot found grace in His eyes. God commanded Tumbainot to build an ark of wood and enter it with his two wives, six sons and their wives, and some of animals of every sort. When they were all aboard and provisioned, God caused a great long rain which caused a flood, and all other men and beasts drowned. The ark drifted for a long time, and provisions began to run low. The rain finally stopped, and Tumbainot let loose a dove to ascertain the state of the flood. The dove returned tired, so Tumbainot knew it had found no place to rest. Several days later, he loosed a vulture, but first he attached an arrow to one of its tail feathers so that, if the bird landed, the arrow would hook on something and be lost. The vulture returned that evening without the arrow, so Tumbainot reasoned that it must have landed on carrion, and that the flood was receding. When the water ran away, the ark grounded on the steppe, and its occupants disembarked. Tumbainot saw four rainbows, one in each quarter of the sky, signifying that God's wrath was over.
Deucalion was warned by his father Prometheus of a great flood with which Zeus planned to destroy humanity. He built an ark and survived it. Afterwards, he and his wife Pyrrha successfully begged Zeus to recreate humanity, which he did by having them toss stones behind them.
As the world got worse, the immortals agreed to wash mankind off the face of the earth by a mighty deluge. The winds were instructed to gather together the rain clouds over the earth.
Neptune let loose the waves of the sea,and told them to rise, overflow, and deluge the land. Then the elements obeyed. The winds blew, the rain fell in torrents, lakes, seas, rivers, and oceans broke their bonds.
So the terrified mortals forgot their petty quarrels in a common impulse to flee from the death which threatened them, climbed the highest mountains, clung to uprooted trees, and even took refuge in the light skiffs they had constructed in happier days.
Their efforts were all in vain, however, for the waters rose higher and higher, overtook them one after another in their ineffectual efforts to escape, closed over the homes where they might have been so happy, and drowned their last despairing cries in their seething depths.
Six thousand years after the creation the thousand year rule of Aharman began.
He destroyed the creation, created dangerous animals and created the regions of hell and purgatory.
He filled man with evil thoughts and sent misery, earthquakes, drought and storms.
Then, three hundred years later, in 3300 BC, he sent seven continuous years of cold and frost that almost exterminated mankind.
But the god Ahuramazda saved the good man Yima and a remnant in a cave filled with supplies.
Norse. The three brothers Odin, Ve and Vili killed Ymir.
As Ymir fell, his blood caused a giant flood, drowning all the creatures of darkness except the frost giants Bergelmer and his wife.
They escaped in a small boat and arrived on the mountain of (Jotunheim), which became the home of the giants.
The world was over populated and people began quarreling over territory.
Some wise old men all had the same dream about a coming flood.
They decided to build a raft by tying many canoes together. Some people listened but others laughed at them.
One day the rains came and they took some food and tied the raft to a rock on Mount Cowichan.
After the flood they rebuilt their homes and after a long time the land was full of people again.
This time they separated into tribes and clans and spread out over the earth.
A pious man named Tapi lived in a valley in Mexico. The creator told Tapi to build a boat to hold his wife and a pair of every animal.
Everyone thought that he was crazy.
When the boat was finished, it rained and flooded the valley. The people fled to the mountains but they were drowned.
After the rain ended, Tapi sent a dove. When the dove did not return he knew that the waters had receeded.
Aztec. In Atonatiuh, the epoch of water, a large flood covered the earth and all people were changed into fish. Only Coxcox and his wife Xochiquetzal survived by hiding themselves in a hollow Ahahuete, cypress tree. When this landed on the summit of Colhuacan, they reproduced themselves.
But these children were all born dumb. A dove imparted tongues to their children, thus enabling them to speak languages (Toltec, Aztec, and Acolhuas).
But these languages were so different that they could not understand one another.
The men who survived the deluge were transformed into apes, but recovered speech and reason by degrees.
The people perished in the flood or were turned into fish and in a single day everything perished. However, a man named Nata and his wife Nena had been warned, and advised to build a ship from a cypress tree.
Titlacahuan closed the door behind them and so they were saved. They prepared a fire inside and grilled fish. Citlallinicué and Citlallatonac were surprised to see this fire and it angered Titlacahuan Tezcatlipoca.
The survivors of the flood escaped in a canoe. When the waters abated, God sent the vulture out of the canoe to see whether the earth was dry enough. But the vulture did not return, because he devoured the corpses of the drowned. God then turned the vulture black instead of white. Then the ring dove was commanded to go out and the earth was dry. The beasts drank the rivers dry.
On the bottom of the seas lie all the proud cities, the flying patuwvotas [shields] and the worldly treasures corrupted with evil.
To escape the disaster, some people hid inside the earth while others escaped by crossing the ocean on reed rafts, by going from island to island.
In this legend the first world lasted 1,716 years and was destroyed by a great flood that covered the highest mountains.
A few men escaped the destruction in a "toptlipetlocali," (a closed chest).
After the great flood, they began to multiply and built a very high "zacuali," or great tower, to provide a safe place if the world were destroyed again.
However, the languages became confused, so different language groups wandered to other parts of the world.
The Toltecs claim they started as a family of seven friends and their wives who spoke the same language. 520 years after the great flood they crossed great waters, lived in caves, and wandered 104 years till they came to Hue Hue Tlapalan (southern Mexico).
Mesopotamian. The Epic of Gilgamesh.
Once upon a time, the gods destroyed the ancient city of Shuruppah in a great flood.
But Utnapishtim, forewarned by Ea that Enlil was sending a flood, managed to survive by building a great ship.
It was a cube that was 120 cubits on each side.
It had six decks, so that there were seven compartments. Each floor was divided into nine sections.
He caulked it with tar and asphalt.
The frame was built on the fifth day and the ship was finished in seven days.
On the ship he was told to take the seed of every living thing.
He filled it with the best animals, gold, silver, his family and the craftsmen.
Then the rain lasted for seven days and rested on Mount Nisir.
He waited seven days and sent a dove, then a swallow and a raven which did not return.
Then everyone exited and he made a sacrifice.
His immortality was a gift given by the repentant god Enlil.
Comparison Of The Flood Stories By Region
All the flood stories have two or more of the following elements in common in this order of appearance.
Before the flood the earth was one continuous land.
The races dispersed 100 years after the flood, then the "land was divided" (Genesis 10:25)
- The Cause
- A flood kills most creatures
- A family is saved
- The boat
- The pairs of animals
- The birds
- Creation of languages
- Dispersion of the races
|The Dispersion of the People and Animals of Pangea After the Flood
The land was not divided before the flood.
This division was probably tribal and geographical so that at the time the land was breaking up, the nations were being separated by language.
It took that long for the deep layers to dry and begin to crack.
It began to break apart into our current continents after the flood.
Pangea is the scientists name for the unified land before the continents broke apart and floated on the
tectonic plates. It had mountain ranges in the north and south.
The description is remarkably like the New Jerusalem.
This is the new earth that is supposed to be a recreation of the perfect old earth.
So we used the model of Pangea to theorize about the dispersion which occurred 100 years after the flood.
All migration must start at the region of Mount Ararat and there must be a route for land and marine animals.
All these routes followed water so marine animals could swim and people could use canoes.
» America. Land animals traveled west across North Africa.
Marine animals, like the penguin, swam through the Mediterranean and down the Atlantic river. Small canoes could even be used by people as the separation between the continents increased.
||One Group, One Land
100 Years (Animals Migrate)
||400 Years (Humans Migrate)
We also show that Australia fits next to East Africa. So marine animal migration could have come to that continent from the Red Sea or the Persian Gulf.
Land animals came from the horn of Africa and Arabia instead of the long trek through Africa and Antarctica.
|Genetic and Environmental Changes|
We do not currrently see genetic changes that cause immediate structural changes.
In fact we can only speculate by population studies that certain genetic differences are due to certain persistent, local and environmental factors.
But we cannot find a testable and repeatable mechanism by which this happens.
Several huge changes occurred after sin that points to sudden changes.
These are the withdrawal of the light of God that existed on the first day, rain, change in diet and the speed of light.
The sun and moon became the prominent source of light.
After the flood, and probably after the sin they began to eat animal flesh. Their life span immediately dropped from 1000 years to 100 years.
The size of the creatures decreased to about 33-50% of the original. The forces required to support giant animals require a smaller force of gravity. So gravity might have increased after sin.
Given the law of gravity, this could only occur if the mass of the earth grew larger.
The mysterious layer of water from the heavens could be this source.
Death and probably sleep occurred.
The final change that occurred is that the speed of light probably dropped quickly.
So how does a sudden introduction of new genes, and a drastic change in radiation and increase in gravity permanently effect the body?
Our genes are probably too contaminated and altered to have a controlled experiment.
We have no perfect specimens remaining.
» Europe, Asia and Africa. These continents could be reached at any time.
» Antarctica. This continent probably broke away early, because it is only populated with birds and penguins.
Penguins are called "the birds of the ocean" because they travel very fast under water.
No creature who walked seemed to have reached here, or they died because of the climate.
» Under the Sea. Most of the land under the sea was above water before the flood.
The mountain ranges in the north and south probably formed a barrier.
This land could have been mostly occupied by dinosaurs or very large creatures.
The existence of pools of oil point to a rapid burial of organic material, not a slow erosion.
This is why we find oil deposits from the vegetation and large creatures buried under the sea.
However, the availability of tar (pitch) before the flood points to its possible existence at creation (Genesis 6: 14), but pitch can be made from wood.
Continental Drift: Separating Pangea.
According to our 6,000 year time line for the age of the earth, the flood occurred at year 1656 and the separation of the continents began as late as 100 years later. Abraham was called 400 years after the division.
I am assuming that the "division of the earth" was not only by language, but by continent.
Two sons were born to Eber; the name of the one was Peleg, for in his day the earth was divided ...
(Genesis 10: 25).
The theory of evolution says that the continents drifted apart over a period of 100-250 million years at the rate of 2.5 cm (1 inch) per year.
The widest separation is the four thousand miles (6664 km) between America and Africa.
We need the earth to move this distance in 400 to 500 years.
So is it possible for the continents to separate by so many miles in such a short time?
4000 miles in 400 years is an average movement of ten miles (17 km) each year.
This is six feet per hour (183 cm per hour) or (1.2 inches (3 cm) per minute).
Of course these values assume that only the continent of America moved the 4000 miles.
Although I suspect that the American continent had the most movement, the Asian continent must have moved also.
If both continents moved at the same speed then each would move only 2000 miles (3332 km) in opposite directions. This is three feet per hour (92 cm).
So our requirements are a speed of 3 to 6 feet per hour (0.05 to 0.1 feet per minute).
Can the earth move at such a speed?
What do we know?
The Ring of Fire.
The land was soaked with water from deep within its core and this should have made the land slide easier with much smaller earthquakes.
The foundations of the earth were broken along the ring of fire on the outer edges of Pangea, and America moved west while Asia and Africa moved East.
The ring of fire still exhibits the stress of the continents pushing together.
San Francisco Earthquakes.
So I used the San Francisco geology as a model, because the earth after the flood was soft and San Francisco is built on soft earth and it is located in an active region.
Even though the earth after the flood was much softer and unstable, and located on an incline into the Pacific,
San Francisco should give us a model of the minimum types of displacements that were possible.
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake of magnitude 7.9 was centered 25 miles (40 km) below the surface and 150 miles (240) out in the ocean.
In one minute it moved the soft earth 21 feet (640 cm) and broke apart for three hundred miles (500 km)! This is a speed of 21 feet (640 cm) per minute or 210 to 420 times faster than our requirements
of a minimum of 0.05 to a maximum of 0.1 feet per minute. It is possible.
The Marianas and Puerto Rico Trenches.
It would take a great rupture in the ocean to cause the continents to have the freedom to move.
The deepest point in the Pacific is the Marianas Trench at 35827 feet (6.79 miles or 10.9 km).
The deepest point in the Atlantic is the Puerto Rico Trench at 30246 feet (5.73 miles or 9.2 km).
Could the earth be ruptured to this depth? The radius of the earth is 6370 km.
Most earthquakes occur at a depth of 20-25 km, but 30% of earthquakes occur at depths below 70 km with some as far as 700 km.
Since earthquakes can occur far below this point, it should be possible that an earthquake in very soft mud would rip the earth open like butter
and the soft earth would crumble and slide in the sea.
The Pillars of the Earth.
We will continue to use legends to examine the nature of the planet.
So we smiled at the idea of strings, turtles, elephants and the columns under the earth, but suppose the pillars were within the earth supporting it like a frame.
|Collapse of the Internal Pillars|
|1||Eden ||2||Flood |
|3||Continental Drift ||4||Today |
... for the pillars of the earth are the Lord's and He set the world on them.
(1 Samuel 2: 8).
If God had a structural component in the earth that kept the land stable, then breaking one or more could set the continents adrift and submerge that part of the land into the ocean.
These could simply be massive areas of pure rock that are the foundations of the plates and the same material as the core. They are probably curved walls.
The African pillar seems to be very stable because that continent rarely gets earthquakes.
The one that is west of the American continent broke, submerging most of the land into the Pacific, allowing the remaining to shift west.
The stability of the African plate was the will of the merciful God who kept the region where civilization was emerging stable.
So that the ancients were oblivious to the earthquakes and large scale movements of the continents around them during the centuries after the flood.
If fact, it was during the time of Moses that they experienced an earthquake as a "new thing".
If these men die the death of all men or if they suffer the fate of all men, then the LORD has not sent me.
"But if the LORD brings about an entirely new thing and the ground opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that is theirs, and they descend alive into Sheol, then you will understand that these men have spurned the LORD."
As he finished speaking all these words, the ground that was under them split open;
and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, and their households, and all the men who belonged to Korah with their possessions.
So they and all that belonged to them went down alive to Sheol; and the earth closed over them, and they perished from the midst of the assembly.
(Numbers 16: 29-33)
If the region was subject to the same forces that were ripping apart the other continents then we might have some indication of how long the continental drift occurred.
Instead, we have a region that is still stable 4000 years later.
- Eden. After the creation everything was stable. Most of the surface of the earth was land floating on water with low hills, rivers and lakes.
- Flood. An object broke the earth and tilted it, causing the waters below the earth to cover the earth. The most significant breaks occurred in the Pacific Ocean. The southern pillar and the land in the north collapsed under the weight.
The land would be permanently submerged in the Pacific ocean and the northern hemisphere has a dent.
- The Shifting Continents.
With the supports removed, the American continents were probably sliding west over the mantle of the earth.
The stability of the earth under the African continent probably restricted its shift.
Its resistance to the force probably makes its eastern edge at the ring of fire more unstable as the more flexible American continent pushes against it.
Is there a force in the Atlantic ocean that makes the continent continue to move west?
If the American plates are tilted west and the Asian plate tilted east then gravity is the force.
The force caused by the direction of the spinning earth also helps to move the American continent west.
So the continents are sliding down a shelf into a trench made by the impact in the Pacific when their structural supports collapsed under the plates.
Submerged Continents. The only visual clue that the continents were once together is the fit between South America and Africa.
Land was submerged under the Pacific, then Pangea started the continental drift when it was free to move.
However, the continents could be in their present position not because they shifted to these locations but because the land between them collapsed into the ocean.
In this case, our pillar theory still holds.
The Lost Continent Under the Sea.
These legends could have emerged from local catastrophes. But they could be remnants of stories about the land before the flood.
- Keftiu. ("The land of the pillars which held the sky"). This is the name of the lost continent in the Egyptian legend.
Even the name "the land of the pillars" supports our theory that the disaster affected the pillars of the earth.
The title "which held the sky" must be a reference to the unusual rain that fell when the disaster began because the pillars no longer supported the sky.
- Atlantis. It is believed to be under the Atlantic ocean. It is the land between America and Africa that was submerged.
Around 355 BC Plato introduced the idea of the lost continent of Atlantis.
Some claim that he put a Greek spin on the Egyptian legend.
10,000 years ago the gods decided to destroy the land when the people became corrupt and greedy.
A giant earthquake shook the land and giant waves sunk the land.
Except for the length of time, this does not contradict the events of the flood.
- Lemuria (Pacifica, Mu). It was a land sunk by a cataclysm of earthquakes and volcanoes under the Pacific ocean.
The idea of Lemuria surfaced between 1826 and 1908 by a writer who claimed to have translated Mayan writings.
Others claim that this is nonsense. The late origin suggests a fictional place that may be based on ancient legends.
But it cannot be used to decide what happened in the past.
- Today. Water covers most of the surface of the earth. The drift created huge mountains and cracked the plates.
There is seismic evidence that the continent is as deep as 400-650 km not 200 km as originally proposed.
This means that they extend all the way to the lower mantle.
These are probably the pillars described by the Bible.
Active Faults and Tectonic Plates.
A visual examination of our map explains the reasons why certain areas are more active.
- San Andreas Fault (California to Central America). To get to the current configuration, South America would have to travel at a faster speed and swing north west to line up with North America.
This would squeeze the continents together near central America at the San Andreas Fault.
The Cocos, Nazca and Scotia plates in western South America are evidence that this great movement of the continent westward and northward either caused these fractures or were facilitated by them.
- Denali Fault (Alaska). The continents of America and Asia would be squeezed together as they moved apart and collide at Alaska.
- India, Pakistan and Nepal. As India crashed into Asia the stress pushed up the mountains and created an unstable region.
However, if a great meteor struck the earth at Chicxulub to crack the earth at the beginning of the flood it could cause shock waves that pushed up the earth at the opposite end in this region if India was always attached to Asia.
- Indonesia. This region was also the leading edge of the eastern continental drift. But they never developed huge mountains and their land was fractured more than the continents that drifted west.
This could probably be explained by the effect of erosion by the ocean currents. The land moving east moved against the tide and the rotation of the earth. So it was constantly reshaped and washed away by the ocean currents.
According to the geology of Pangea, they did not have high mountains along their edges to protect them.
But the American continents did have mountains along their western edge.
- Ring of Fire. The friction caused by the rapid movement of the earth along these faults and in opposite directions melted the rocks below and created lava and volcanoes and unstable faults.
- Tectonic Plates. An object that smashed in the earth was powerful enough to tilt it off its axis.
The best evidence would be that it happened at the point that is opposite our highest mountain.
Several impacts could have fractured the foundations into plates to begin the continental drift.
The drift itself would have created more stress fractures.
- Oil and Tar. Noah used tar to make the ark water proof. It must have been easily found in the area just as it still exists in the Middle East today.
But this was before the flood and massive burial of animal and plant life. Therefore, the great pools of oil are from another source. If they existed at creation then they are the hydraulic system of the earth.
So what happens if we remove it all? Probably heat from underground, more volcanic activity and earthquakes will occur.
The Dispersion Of Animals.
I believe the continental drift and land bridges explains the evidence better than submerged continents because it explains the migration of animals.
The truth probably involves both phenomena.
|Animal||Region ||Meters ||Feet |
|Human||America ||3 ||10 |
|Human||Turkey ||4.2-4.8 ||14-16 |
|Giant Sloth||America ||6 ||20 |
|Giant Beaver||America ||2.5 ||8 |
|Giant Turtle||- ||3.6 ||12 |
|Wooly Mammoth ||Siberia ||4.5 ||15 |
|Mastadon ||Africa ||3 ||10 |
|Bear||England ||3 ||10 |
|Cockroach||World ||0.6 ||2 |
|Dinosaur (Lizard)||Argentina ||45 ||146 |
|Alligator||Amazon ||12x2.4 ||40x8 |
|Giant Penguin||New Zealand ||1.5-1.8 ||5-6 |
|Kangaroo||Australia ||3 ||10 |
|Giant squid||Ocean ||17.4 ||57 |
A 47.24 inch (120 cm) human femur was found in the Euphrates valley in Turkey.
This belongs to a human 14-16 feet tall with 20-22 inch long feet.
Driven by an internal force to leave the area, the animals began migrating years earlier and migratory tribes later brought animals with them.
Notice that larger and slower creatures are concentrated in Africa and Asia. They did not reach the American continent before the separation of the land began 100 years after the flood.
The fast, predatory animals and the ones who swung in trees made it to South America, probably over the African continent.
If the lions claimed the territory around the Middle East, it probably pushed the other predatory felines further out.
So leopards and panthers are found on the American continent.
Animals that could live in the cooler climate stayed in the north. Bears and Buffalo herds walked across northern Europe and Greenland.
Sloth. Here we have an anomaly. In South America we find the slowest creature on the face of the earth.
The sloth is a nocturnal mammal that lives in the trees of South America. Extinct species have been found in North America as far as Alaska and Antarctica.
If we assume that they reached these places unaided, then we must get them to the eastern shores of the American continent within 100 years.
They probably never met the leopard as they headed towards America because there were not enough animals to create a predator problem.
On the ground they move at the lightning speed of 90-180 meters per hour (30-60 feet). In the trees where it is safer they move at 180-299 meters per hour (60-100 feet).
Trees would have covered the earth within five years.
If we assume that they are small, lazy and only travel eight hours each day, then they can travel an astounding 53-88 km (33-55 miles) in one year.
So they can travel west 5100 km (3200 miles) to the American continent in 19-96 years.
To reach the Antarctic, they could travel south down the Arabian peninsula to Australia then to Antarctica.
From the American continent they had unlimited time to migrate north to Alaska or to South America.
|| 100 Years (Possible Sloth Migration Routes)
|Ararat || Time|| 10 Years || 20 Years || 50 Years|| 75 Years || 100 Years ||Babel|
| Route||1||West|| Israel || Egypt || Libya || Algeria|| || America |
|2 ||South || Iraq || Arabia|| Yemen || Australia ||Antarctica |
|Distance ||500 miles |
|1000 miles |
|2500 miles |
|3750 miles |
|4200 miles |
And perhaps their ancestor, the giant sloth, was a good runner or covered more territory with each step.
The point is that even when using the worst case scenario, we can place the sloth on the American continent before the drift began.
The theory of evolution claims that the animals made it 4000 miles from Africa to a separated America on floating rafts.
In their defense, these rafts are randomly created tangled masses of vegetation, not basket weaving monkeys and sloths.
This is still a less sound explanation because each specie would have to experience this same lucky raft trip and survived starvation.
And many creatures were giants!
Even if we assume that they can live on salt water and lucky encounters with hapless fish, the raft would have to travel 100 miles per day to arrive in 40 days.
This insults the intelligence in terms of the lucky formation of such a sturdy raft, for every lucky pair of species setting out on an adventure.
In addition, survivability parameters state that we cannot go for more than 5-10 days without water and 21-42 days without food.
Exposure under the hot sun would have pushed those parameters to the lower end.
Africa and Asia.
Anything that could walk made it to Africa and Asia because the continents were never separated from the Middle East.
Those that preferred the warmer climates survived in Africa.
Australia and Madagascar.
They have some of the most unique animals. This can be explained by the fact that the original pairs probably migrated to the land before they multiplied in large numbers and before the land separated.
This means that Australia and Madagascar probably separated first and stranded these animals.
The lemur was stranded on Madagascar.
The kangaroo and koala were stranded on Australia.
Australia fits in the pocket below Arabia and east of Africa. So the creatures had access by land and through the Persian Gulf.
Although the entire region was once a thick forest, Australia now has the same underlying geography as Arabia possibly pointing to similar structure. It is mostly desert.
Penguins are only found in the south. They probably swam south to the Antarctic region along the coast of East Africa or the Mediterranean route to the emerging Atlantic Ocean on the coast of West Africa.
They could not walk to the North Pole or Greenland.
So they went in the cool waters and swam in the only possible direction, south.
They populated the three places that met at that point in Pangea - South Africa, Antarctica and South America
Domesticated Animals. They stayed in the region until they were brought with migrating people or by ships to America.
The Dispersion Of People.
Communication problems began 100 years after the flood. God scrambled their language after they built the tower of Babel.
This led to the dispersion.
It is possible to walk 2,000 miles (3200 km) over very steep and rugged terrain in six months.
This is an average of 11 miles or 18 km each day. The distance from the Middle East to America across northern Africa is 5100 km (3200 miles). This can be reached by walking in ten months.
This is the first year of the separation, so they could still reach America.
They would have been walking by a supply of water, so this is a logical route.
Or, they could have traveled in boats on a route along the area of the current Mediterranean and down to Central America.
That could have been fresh water, until the American continent split and allowed the salty Tethys sea to flood the area.
In 2008 a young man rowed 3000 miles across the Atlantic by himself in seven weeks, travelling about 50 miles per day.
» Africa, Asia and Europe.
Genesis 11: 2 says they first journeyed east. They walked to these continents.
The distribution of the nations shows an easterly path away from the central point in the Middle East.
The Indo-Iranians who were descended from Japheth lived in the north near the Russian steppes.
They separated into the Persians and Indians hundreds of years later.
The Persians went west and the Indians went east. By that time the region of India had joined the Asian mainland.
We can see that the only other migration was south and west as the children of Ham who lived in the region of Egypt journeyed south in later years.
Pyramids were found among the descendants of Ham in Egypt, Central America and in China.
Mounds and other conical hills are found in many places but the greatest architecture is found among these groups.
The earliest design probably resembled a ziggurat, or a step tower.
It was their relatives who designed and supervised the building of the tower of Babel.
So the basic design should be known to all people. Their ability to successfully copy the structure may have been dependent on the role their ancestors played in building the tower.
Sinite, the son of Ham went east and settled in China and eventually became the first two Chinese dynasties.
So construction technology appears to have been kept among a certain group of the sons of Ham as a competitive advantage.
Before the wide separation of the continents of Pangea,
Native Americans could have made it across the Northern African land route to central and eastern America carrying the knowledge of building pyramids with them.
» Australia. Since this continent fits next to North East Africa and the Middle East they could have walked to it and traveled easily by boat or a raft before the separation was complete.
|Skin Color |
|Middle Brown |
|MaMb ||Mamb ||maMb ||mamb |
||MaMb ||MaMb |
|Mamb ||MaMb |
|maMb ||MaMb |
|mamb ||MaMb |
|One set of brown parents can produce all colors
We showed how the dispersion to each continent could have happened from Pangea.
But there could have been a later migration from Asia to Alaska and then down through the American continent centuries later.
By island hopping in the fifth century A.D., Polynesians could have traveled east by canoe to the Easter Islands and then to South America.
The early Australians could have traveled by boat from East Africa or Southern China to Indonesia then to Australia and New Zealand.
The Origin of the Nations (The Theory of Relativity).
The human race started with Adam and Eve who were created from the clay. The name Adam means "red". And this may be a clue to his original color.
All skin is the same color, the difference is the amount of melanin beneath the surface of the skin.
It takes six genes to determine skin color. If both Adam and Eve were a middle brown color, they could produce all colors in one generation.
We illustrate this using the dominant and recessive pair of genes of both parents.
A similar distribution of other traits that create distinctive variations can just as easily produce other racial features.
|Physical Features |
|Feature ||Color ||Texture ||Size |
|Skin ||Black - White||Smooth - |
|-||-||-||- ||- ||- |
|Hair ||Black - Blonde||Curly - |
|Short - |
|-||-||-||- ||- ||- |
|Eyes ||Brown - Blue||Clear - |
|Round - |
|-||-||- ||- ||- ||- |
|Lips ||Brown - Pink||Smooth - |
|Full - |
|-||-||-||- ||- ||- |
Every trait that people have tried to designate as belonging to a particular race can be seen among every other group.
The Australian Aborigines are black people with blonde hair.
The major groups are Negroes, Caucasians and Mongoloids.
The physical traits people generally identify are color of skin, hair and eyes, the shape of the eyes, the texture and length of hair,
structure of facial bones and sometimes height.
But there are also chemical and biological features that are more common among some groups, such as
blood group, ear wax and a compound in urine.
Many of these traits that are common to a particular group can be explained by the fact that groups split off and were isolated.
This could have been by choice or because they were rejected for some unwanted features.
When they began intermarrying in isolation, certain features started to dominate.
The Amish are a isolated group that have a high percentage of some of the rarest disease and in some cases they have the only incidence of these diseases.
This can be attributed to this phenomenon of isolation and a shallow gene pool.
After the flood, the nations emerged from the three sons of Noah and their wives.
They had seventy descendants before the dispersion.
The three brothers could have given similar traits to their descendants. While their wives could have added much variation.
Centuries later, the effects of war, slavery, shipping, migration and imperialism brought the nations back from their isolation and produced many new mixtures.
God mixed up the races as much as He mixed up the languages.
|Table of Nations |
|Japheth||Indo-European ||West Asia
||Africa, East Asia, America and Oceania
|Sons||Gomer, Magog, Madai, Tubal, Meshech, Tiras, Javan
||Sons of Ham ||Cush, Mizraim, Put, Canaan
|Nordic ||Alpine ||Syrian
|Iberian || ||Afghan
|South West |
| ||Assyrian ||Berber ||Ethiopian
||Negro ||Mbuti ||Adamanese ||Cherokee
| Arab ||Cushite ||Egyptian
||Bantu ||New Guinea ||Eskimo
||Yemeni || ||Saudi ||
|Shem||Elam, Asshur, Lud, Arpachshad, Aram ||Middle East
||Ham||Negro and Mongoloid
The Dispersion Of The Language.
Now the whole earth used the same language and the same words. It came about as they journeyed east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.
... Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, so that they do not understand one another's speech.
(Genesis 11: 1-2, 7)
Before the flood the people spoke one language.
By the time of the dispersion 100 years after the flood, the three sons of Noah had become seventy nations.
We do not know how many languages were created then.
But there could have been from three to seventy languages.
But now there are about 6,912 living languages that are the branches of over 100 language families.
Because of conquests and trade and globalization, languages crossed the barrier from families to regions.
Arabic, Latin, Greek, Spanish, French and English are some of the conquering languages.
If we could eliminate the effect of conquest and subjugation, we could trace the original distribution of language.
|Descendants of Noah ||Language Tree |
|Sons||Grandsons||Family ||Branch ||Languages |
||Arphaxad, Elam, Aram
||Arabic, Hebrew, Maltese, Aramaic, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Gurage, Harari, Geez.
Syriac, Akkadian, Phonoecian, Punic, Ugaritic, Nabatean
||Mizraim ||Egyptian || Coptic |
|Phut ||Berber ||Shluh, Tamazight, Riffian, Kabyle, Shawia, Tuareg, Guanch |
|Cush ||Cushitic ||Somali, Galla, Sidamo, Beja, Afar, Saho |
|Chadic ||Hausa |
|Nilo-Saharan ||Ethiopia || Nubian, Dinka, Masai, Songhai |
|Niger-Congo ||West African Languages |
|Kwa || Yoruba, Ibo, Ewe, Twi, Fanti, Ga, Adangme, Fon, Edo, Urhobo, Idoma, Nupe, Agni, Baule, Kru, Grebo, Bassa |
|Mande ||Mende, Malinke, Bambara, Dyula, Soninke, Susu, Kpelle, Vai, Loma |
|West Atlantic ||Fulani, Wolof, Serer, Dyola, Temne, Kissi, Gola, Balante |
|Voltaic ||Mossi, Gurma, Dagomba, Kabre, Senufo, Bariba |
|Eastern ||Zande, Sango, Gbaya, Banda) |
|Other ||Ijo (Ijo). Adamawan (Mbum). Efik (Efik, Ibibio, Tiv) |
|East and South African Languages |
|Bantu || Swahili, Luba, Kongo, Lingala, Mongo, Ruanda, Rundi, Kikuyu, Kamba, Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Hehe, Chagga, Makonde, Yao, Ganda, Nkole, Chiga, Gisu, Toro, Nyoro, Nyanja, Tumbuka, Bemba, Tonga, Lozi, Lwena, Lunda, Shona, Fang, Bulu, Yaundé, Duala, Bubi, Mbundu, Chokwe, Ambo, Herero, Makua, Thonga, Sotho, Tswana, Pedi, Swazi, Zulu, Matebele, Xhosa, Venda |
|Khoisan ||South Africa || Hottentot, Bushmen |
||Polynesian ||Maori, Uvea, Samoan, Tongan, Niuean, Rarotongan, Tahitian, Tuamotu, Marquesan, Hawaiian, Rapa, Nui |
|Western ||Indonesian, Tagalog, Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Visayan, Malagasy, Achinese, Batak, Buginese, Balinese, Ilocano, Bikol, Igorot, Maranao, Pampangan, Pangasinan, Jarai, Rhade, Cham |
||Austro-Asiatic ||Mon-Khmer ||Khmer, Mon, Palaung, Wa, Bahnar, Sedang, Khasi, Nicobarese, So, Nancowry, Sengoi, Temiar |
|Viet-Muong ||Vietnamese, Muong |
|Iroquoian ||- || Cherokee, Mohawk |
|Algonquian ||- || Ojibwa, Cree, Blackfoot, Micmac, Cheyenne, and Delaware |
|Athapascan ||- || Navajo, Apache |
|Uto-Aztecan ||- || Hopi, Comanche, Tamahumara, Nahuatl, Kwakiutl |
|Oto-Manguean ||Mexico ||Otomi, Mixtec, Zapotec, Chiquihuitlan Mazatec |
||Sino-Tibetan ||Southern || Miao, Yao, She |
|Tibeto-Burman ||Burmese, Tibetan, Yi, Lisu, Moso, Lahu, Karen, Kachin, Chin, Bodo, Garo, Meithei, Lushei, Newari, Murmi, Jonkha, Lepcha, Mizo, Manipuri |
|Tai || Thai, Lao, Chuang, Puyi, Tung, Nung, Shan, Kam-Sui, Zhuang, Li, Be |
|Sinitic ||Mandarin, Wu, Gan, Min, Hakka, Xiang, Cantonese, Yue |
|Altic ||Japonic ||Japanese |
|Korean || Korean |
|Mongolian || Mongolian, Buryat, Kalmyk |
|Tungusic || Evenki, Lamut, Manchu, Nanai, Sibo |
|Turkic ||Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Tatar, Bashkir, Uzbek, Uigur, Chuvash, Balkar, Nogai, Salar |
|Dravidian ||Southern ||Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu |
|Central ||Brahui, Gondhi, Kurukh, Kui. Elamite |
||Indic ||Hindi, Bengali, Urdu, Punjabi, Konkani, Nepali, Assamese, Oriya, kashmiri, Sindhi, Gujerati, Sinhalese, Maldavian, Romany |
|Iranian ||Farsi, Kurdish, Pashto, Baluchi, Ossetian, Tadzhik, Persian, Avestan, Scythian |
|Javan ||Latin ||Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, Moldavian. Latin |
|Hellenic ||Greek. Koine, Byzantine, Mycenaean, (Attic, Doric, Aeolic, Ionic) |
||Celtic ||Gaelic, Irish, British, Breton, Welsh. Manx, Cornish, Gaulish, Cumbrian |
|Germanic ||German, English, Dutch, Frisian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faerose. Visigoth, Vandal, Lombardo, Gothic, Frankish |
|Magog, Tubal, Meshech
||Slavic ||Russian, Bulgarian, Polish, Ukrainian, Czech/Slovak, Slovene, Serbo-Croat, Kashubian, Macedonian, Romany |
|Baltic ||Latvian, Lithuanian. Prussian |
|Uralic ||Finnic ||Finnish, Estonian, Mordvin, Udmurt, Mari, Votyak, Komi, Sami |
|Ugric ||Hungarian, Ostyak, Vogul |
|Caucasian ||Kartvelian ||Georgian, Laz, Svan, Chan, Mingrelian |
|Daghestanian || Tsez, Hunzib, Beshta, Avar, Andi, Chamali, Lak, Dargwa, Lezgian, Tabasaran, Tsakhur |
Just as many different races and mixtures emerged from the eight original pairs, many languages emerged from the few original tongues.
Noah had three sons, sixteen grandsons and seventy male descendants by the time of the separation.
So the one hundred language families might represent the original languages of the original tribes.
Generating New Languages.
It has been 4000 years since the flood.
We had one language for 1750 years. Is it possible for over 6912 languages to develop from three to seventy languages over 4000 years?
How fast is this process?
|Old Low German
|| Low German (Old Saxon) |
(Old, Middle, New)
|| Middle Low German |
New Low German
|Frankish ||Low Franconian ||Middle Dutch || Afrikaans, |
| Anglo-saxon || English (Old, Middle, New) |
| Frisian (Old, Middle, New) || West, East, North, Saterfriesisch |
|High German || High German (Old, Middle, New) || Alemannic, Franconian, Swabian, Yiddish |
|East || Old Norse || Danish (Old, New), Swedish (Old, New), Gutnish |
|West || Faroese, Icelandic, Jamtska, Norn
|Years ||Number of Languages|
|1 ||3 ||16 ||36 ||50 ||70 ||70 |
|2000 ||150 ||336 ||504 ||600 ||700 ||840 |
|4000||7500 ||7056 ||6860 ||7200 ||7000 ||10080 |
|Growth per language every 2000 years|
|Rate ||50 ||21 ||14 ||12 ||10||12 |
| Norwegian || Nynorsk, Bukmal |
| East ||Burgundian,Lombardic,Vandalic,
|Gothic || Gepid, West, East |
The island of Papua New Guinea has over 700, virtually a different one in each valley and some are not related.
Mexico has 52 languages.
India has over 800 languages and Nigeria has over 400.
The Indo-European family has about 449 living languages.
If we take the example of the Germanic branch, it became over fifty languages in about 1500 years.
The Old English branch, which was spoken in the late seventh century, developed into about eleven languages in one thousand years.
So if one language can become fifty languages in 2000 years, then those fifty would become 2500 in the next 2000 years.
Therefore, three original languages could become 7500 languages in four thousand years! It is possible.
Since there were probably about seventy original languages, the low number of languages now may be due to the fact that the families were small and they did not split apart for centuries.
Separation and isolation develops new languages and isolates distinctive features that we would describe as a new race.
As the races interacted again, the languages changed quickly.
The growth table demonstrates that if one language becomes ten every 2000 years, then seventy will become 7000 in 4000 years.
Similarly, if one language becomes fifty every 2000 years then three would become 7500 in 4000 years.
The Dispersion Of The Legend.
The successive conquest of Europe and Asia by the Persians, Greeks and Romans probably affected the legends of both the conquerors and the conquered.
The Romans adopted the Greek culture.
Earlier, the Middle East was also conquered by Assyrians. The Jews were slaves of the Egyptians, and God tried to replace knowledge of the Egyptian culture with knowledge of Himself.
The conquest of Central and South America by the Spanish in the sixteenth century affected these legends also.
Nevertheless, the distortion of the story shows a pattern among the sons of Noah.
- Shem (Middle East). The legend remained closer to the Hebrew version among his descendants.
Animals are not given the magical powers that they have in other legends.
- Japheth (Aryan). The legends changed, but they maintained many of the essential elements.
One can see an attempt to find an explanation for cosmic realities. The focus is still on the spiritual.
The Indo-Iranian clan remained intact for a while until they split. Some Indian and Celtic concepts are similar.
We even find a sacred cow among these groups.
The bull was one of three animals that could be used as a sacrifice in Judaism.
The others were the lamb and the goat.
But the bull was the only one of these three animals that was also represented as one of the faces of the cherubim.
Therefore, the bull is the most holy of these animals. It appears in many legends as one who gives life.
- Norse. In all these legends the flood is the blood of a giant. Audhumbla was a cow that was one of the original creatures who created life.
- Indian. The legends in India are closer to the original than those in China. The cow is also sacred in Hinduism.
- Ham (African and Asian).
The worst corruption of the legend occurred among his descendants.
One can see an attempt to find an explanation for every day realities. The focus is on themselves and their environment.
This might reflect their struggles to survive since they migrated the furthest.
Since the animals also had to migrate, Ham's descendants might have been responsible for taking smaller creatures with them.
The strong influence of animals in their legends could be a result of this legacy.
- Africa. These are hospitality legends that show what happens when you are unkind.
The Masai legend begins with a hospitality problem and proceeds to a story that is very similar to the original.
It mentions Middle East customs and are so close to the original story that there was either Judeo-Christian influence or
their location in central east Africa puts them close to the region of Shem.
A missionary who worked with the Masai once described them as the "French people of Africa".
He meant that they were jealous of their culture. This isolationist mind set may have preserved their legends.
- Eastern Asia (China). These are the gourd legends. Most of them end with the emergence of life from a gourd. The theme of brothers and sisters marrying is also common.
- America. Here we have animal transformation legends.
The way to a man's heart is apparently through his stomach.
The men marry animals after they discover that they were secretly preparing meals for them.
It was also obvious that some of these legends were mixed with information from Catholicism since they mentioned Saint Michael and Saint Gabriel.
Their creation myths have a constant theme of a color assigned to each direction of the compass. This may be a memory of the dispersion by nations.
In south America we have very strange reasons for the cause of the flood. The stories are very magical and seem to be combined with the creation.
Their legends are similar to those from Oceania.
The Inca legends appear to describe accurate features of life after the flood. There were giants, people lived in caves and the permanent geological features caused by the flood were explained.
If we look at Pangea we see that lower South America was close to Australia, where similar legends occurred.
- Oceania (Australia). These legends try to explain how their current environment shows signs of the flood, and why certain animals have certain features.
Pyramids and Ziggurats.
It was the descendants of Ham, like Nimrod, who were great builders and hunters.
They started the ill-fated Babel project.
The knowledge of superior building technology before the dispersion explains the fact that both the Egyptians and native Americans and early Chinese had the knowledge to build such vast structures. They have traditionally been defined as descendants of Ham.
The fact that these three groups retained this knowledge may show that they were more directly related to Nimrod and may have been given more knowledge of the construction techniques as supervisors of the Babel project and the knowledge was kept as a family secret.
The Curse of Ham. The descendants of Ham were cursed because of his sin of exposing his naked father. They also led the revolt at the tower of Babel.
But this group is the largest and seemed to be the most technically proficient of all the groups.
So what was the curse? It is most likely related to the prescribed curses for sin.
Biblical curses have a specific characteristic and sequence. Plague, famine, disease, war, exile, dispersion, loss of children, abandonment by God and destruction.
Their legacy seems to be decreased knowledge of God as seen in their legends and greater fragmentation of their language as compared to Shem and wider dispersion of their family in terms of physical features and location. Their language and people were more scattered.
So dispersion and loss of family through greater fragmentation of their language and people, and loss of the pure knowledge about God are the curses that seemed to affect them. The other curses would have wiped out such a small initial group.
Ark Science (Quantum Mechanics).
|Possible Distribution || |
|Flying Creatures. Birds, insects, eggs and humans |
|Unclean Animals. Cats, monkeys, rodents and climbing animals |
|Clean Animals. Those without the ability to climb stairs easily. |
|Heavy Loads. Aquarium. Fish and marine animals. Tall, heavy animals |
» The Ark.
The ark was designed to float, not to move. The ratio of the ark was 30:5:3. A Norwegian ship builder used the dimensions of the ark to build a ship. He found that it is the most stable design in rough weather. Oil tankers are now built to this ratio.
It was a rectangle that was ten times longer than its height.
This reduced the possibility that the wind would capsize it.
It would float like a log. Tar was used for water proofing.
It was 300 cubits by 50 by 30 high. (450 x 75 x 45 feet) or (137 x 23 x 14 meters). It had one window (or skylight), one door and three decks which were subdivided into compartments.
This would hold four decks eleven feet high (335 cm) or three decks fifteen feet (457 cm) high.
Since the antediluvians had an average height of over ten feet, the dimensions fit.
|The Boat of Utnapishtim |
(The Epic of Gilgamesh)
This was a cube that was 120 cubits on each side (180 feet or 55 m), seven floors and it was made in seven days.
Critics accuse Bible writers of plagiarizing this story as they "made up" their religion.
But there are several key differences. One is the dimensions of the boats.
The 1:1:1 ratio of a cube is not stable in rough seas. It is a bad design.
But the 30:5:3 ratio of the ark is extremely stable in rough weather.
Floor. Each floor was 17 cubits high. That is 25.5 feet. That is too high.
Seven Days. The construction time is also highly improbable since they had to construct 32,400 square feet of floor space every day, and also load the boat in a week.
In fact, according to the story they had only two days to cover the frame.
Noah's ark makes mathematical sense in terms of time and design, while this boat does not.
» Loading The Animals.
The unclean animals went in twos, but the clean animals went in by sevens.
Several strategies could be used to hold more animals. He could have carried the eggs or young animals.
If the predators were cubs, it would reduce any chance of aggressive behavior.
God could have used hibernation to control the animals.
This would mean less feeding and work.
» The Rain.
It rained for forty days and nights. Then there was wind for 150 days.
The ark rested on the mountain after five months.
But it took 370 days after the beginning of the flood before they could leave the ark.
Noah sent a raven then a dove which returned with an olive branch.
Finally he sent the dove again and she did not return and he knew that the land was dry.
Noah reestablished the covenant with God, and God placed a rainbow in the sky.
We also assume the following basic design on each floor.
There are four corridors, four feet wide along the length of the boat that separate eight rows of compartments. There is one corridor running along the width to the door.
The compartments are 6 feet deep by 9 feet wide by 15 feet high.
Since the total height is rarely required, several tiers of cages can be held in each room.
There are 48 rooms in each row.
A storage room is located in every fifth space. There are 388 Rooms on each floor, sixty four are for storage.
Modifications. The human living space is a modification of one section on the third floor and we used a quarter of one floor in our model.
The area near the door is modified to allow a wide entrance.
The first floor has the dung and compost rooms.
The design could also have most of the animals on the first floor and the storage on the second floor.
This allowed grain silos or feeding troughs to be refilled from above by the action of gravity.
Animals that never needed feeding and cleaning and much supervision would be on the second and third floors (reptiles, insects, birds).
The boat had 33,750 square feet per floor (3151 square meters) and Noah preached for 120 years.
With his three sons, this would mean 1,497,600 man hours of work if they worked ten hours per day and six days per week.
This is 2,537 square feet of construction per year for the boat and all compartments.
|Rooms ||Section and Capacity ||Length ||Width ||Feet2 ||Mammal Room Construction (6 x 9 x 15) |
|4 ||3 decks and 1 roof ||450 ||75||135,000
Two pairs of animals can be kept in the lower cage which is 8 feet wide, 6 feet deep and 6 feet high.
Two feet of height space is used to collect waste in the six inch space below each level.
Each room requires 354 square feet of construction for divisions. Common walls are counted once.
The labor involved in gathering and storing grain is not included. The four women could have done this in seven years.
|Level ||Height ||Width (feet) ||Animals ||Pairs |
|Upper ||1 feet ||2 ||2 ||2 ||2 ||Small||24 |
|Upper ||2 feet ||2 ||2 ||2 ||2 ||Small||24 |
|Middle||2 feet ||4 ||4 ||Medium||6 |
|Middle||2 feet ||4 ||4 ||Medium||6 |
|Lower ||6 feet ||8 ||Large ||2 |
Insects. Suppose there is no formal space for insects but that they roam freely and devour waste matter.
If we assume that the average insect pair occupies space in a one inch (2.54 cm) cube then 1,000,000 pairs of insects would occupy a cube that measures 100 inches (254 cm) on each side.
|2 ||Sides ||450 ||30||27,000 |
|2 ||Front, back ||50 ||30||3,000 |
|1 ||Double Hull ||2 sides, front and back||30,000 |
|Capacity Per Room (6 x 9 x 15) (feet) |
|4 ||Humans (30 x 20 x 15) ||Room with door, beds, storage ||4,000 |
|240 ||62 Mammals ||6 x 9 x 15 ||84,960 |
|10 ||Marine Mammals ||Swimming pool and deck ||3,540 |
|12 ||1000 Birds ||12 levels 15 inches high. 700 ft2 of construction per room ||8,400 |
|12 ||1400 Reptiles ||12 levels 15 inches high. 800 ft2 ||9,600 |
|10 ||1500 Amphibians ||Pool, logs ||2,000 |
|10 ||70,000 Insects ||Open room with door, logs, sugar water. Or roaming free on the piles of dung ||900 |
|88 ||Storage (Hay) ||Open room with door ||11,880 |
|88 ||Storage (Grain) ||4 Bins (2 x 15 x 6). ||36,960 |
|582 ||Unfinished ||Open room with door (135 ft2) ||78,570 |
|1,056 rooms ||Total construction area ||435,410 ||3.43 man hours per square feet for 4 people |
Gopher wood was used to construct the ark. No one knows what type of wood this is.
Experts claim that the date palm is the only large species native to that region and that it is not suitable for building.
However, these assumptions were made by looking at the resources in the area after the flood.
Just as humans decreased in size and health after the flood, the plant life could also have decreased in size and strength.
The climate could have changed and any species of plant could have been living at that time.
The quality of the wood could have been stronger.
Experts also claim that a boat that size would have leaked and imploded if it were made of wood and not iron.
I disagree, houses that size and made of wood do not leak and implode in bad weather.
In fact, if they are damaged it is because flood waters force them from their fixed locations.
The ark was designed to be a house boat. It was designed to float, not move.
They used tar to seal the boat on the outside and inside and make it water proof.
In addition, Noah could have used several construction techniques to strengthen the ark.
The hexagonal structure of a honey comb, double hull and liberal use of cross braces that serve as the supports for each room.
Capacity (1,518,750 Cubic Feet Or 44,114 Cubic Meters or 11,361,001 Gallons).
The common cubit was 18 inches (457 mm) giving a volume of 1,518,750 cu ft (43,006,210 liters).
The king's cubit was 24 inches (610 mm) giving a volume of 2,234,473 cu ft (63,273,220 liters).
There are less than 50,000 mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians identified currently. We need space for animals and food for one year.
Just as the races came from the genetic pool of eight people, the wide diversity of animals could be a result of such interaction.
So there would be less types of animals to transport. For example, there are now thirty seven species of cats which came from one pair.
If there are an average of ten species per family, then that would only be 5,000 original pairs of vertebrates.
In addition, millions of species like insects and fish could be transported as eggs and require little space or food.
Millions more would survive in eggs outside the ark.
So the problem to resolve is the storage and care of mammals with a backbone. Specifically, vertebrates who do not lay eggs and large animals.
|Total Pairs ||Cubicle Size ||% Space |
|76,000 ||15||0.44 ||75% |
|50,000 ||15||0.44 ||50% |
|18,112 ||50||1.47 ||60% |
|9,112 ||100||2.9 ||60% |
|7,500 ||100||2.9 ||50% |
|5,000 ||150||4.4 ||50% |
Most birds and dinosaurs could be carried as eggs.
50,000 mammals would occupy an average of thirty cubic feet per pair of animals (0.88 M3).
This is an area (10 feet x 3 x 1) (30 m x 0.9 x 0.3) or (5 feet x 3 x 2) (15 m x 0.9 x 0.6). That is more than generous.
But most mammals are small and they probably loaded the ark with young animals. That would require an average space of ten cubic feet for a pair of cats.
We do not have many species who are large babies or large one year olds that require over 100 cubic feet per pair.
We can transport 7,500 animal pairs in 100 cubic feet rooms with 50% of the space used for food, passage ways, and other wasted space.
As the food supply diminished, it left more space for the growing animal.
» Growing Pains.
The age of the animals leaving the ark must be at least 2 years old. They must have been weaned when they entered and they stayed on the ark for about 13 months.
As the young animals grew in size, the empty feed rooms would be used for housing.
Loading The Ark.
The Flavian Amphitheatre colosseum in Rome seated 55,000 people in 10 minutes using 80 entrances.
Modern stadiums can load 80,000 in one hour using 10 gates with multiple queues, using a moderate flow rate of 19.9 people/minute walking at speeds of 195 feet/minute (59.4 meters/minute).
If we can load and unload a 80,000 seat football stadium in eight hours, then Noah could load hundreds of thousands of land animals in a week.
|If the door was as wide as a two car garage door and located between the first two floors then loading would be very fast.
The door, hinged at the bottom, could be used as a ramp to the first floor and a temporary ramp could be built to the second floor where the lighter animals were kept.
Birds fly in above the walking animals and through the window.
Insects crawl in anywhere along the side of the ark.
We could easily get a minimum of six lines of traffic, six feet wide, three for birds above and three for animals below, and dozens for insects.
|Lines of Traffic ||Speed of Entry ||Pairs Per Day ||Pairs Per Week|
| 1 ||20 ||1 ||20 Feet ||28,800 ||201,600 |
| 1 ||12 ||1 ||20 Feet ||17,280 ||120,960 |
|* 6 ||72 ||1 ||20 Feet ||103,680 ||725,760 |
|10 ||120 ||1 ||20 Feet ||172,800 ||1,209,600 |
|10 ||240 ||1 ||10 Feet ||345,600 ||2,419,200 |
|Sports stadiums can load 80,000 people in two hours|
Food. Grain, seeds, nuts, grass, dried fruit and water would not be perishable.
The food and supplies could be loaded three to seven years before the flood as each deck was completed.
Weather was not a factor since it never rained.
The door was so massive, that God had to shut it. But let us assume that only two animals at a time could walk through the doors.
Since the animals came to the ark by themselves, they were probably also guided to their stalls by the same divine force.
They could have came in twenty four hours a day, with nocturnal animals coming at night and the rest by day.
At the slow pace of one pair per minute, 1440 pairs of large animals can be loaded in a day, or 10,000 in a week.
It takes me five seconds to walk twenty feet at a normal pace.
So if each pair was twenty feet apart, the ark could be loaded at a reasonable pace of
twelve pairs of large mammals per minute in a single row. That is 17,280 pairs of large animals per day!
If birds flew in simultaneously in a second queue above the animals, then that would be 34,560 pairs per day and 241,920 pairs per week.
Simultaneously, Noah and His sons could have loaded the eggs, large tanks of fish and other animals that could not walk in.
Hundreds of fish could swim into a net and then be transported in tanks to the ark.
I assume that Noah would have built the ark next to a lake.
All of this could be done in a week with the animals arranged twenty feet apart.
The average distance could have been five feet and that would increase the number of animal pairs by four or decreased the time to load by four.
If there were more lines of animals through the wide doors the rate could increase even more.
Our metrics are in pairs of animals, but the bible says that the clean animals were loaded in by sevens (Genesis 7: 2).
It is unclear whether this is seven pairs or seven animals.
The number of unclean animals is much more than the clean ones.
Leviticus 11 lists few clean animals and so the total should account for less than ten percent of the animal population.
In fact, there are only 194 clean animals among the estimated 5000 mammals.
The infraorder "pecora" seems to be the branch that are the clean animals.
Pronghorn (1) Giraffe and Okapi (2), musk deer (7), deer (49),
cattle, sheep, goat, antelope (135)
We have demonstrated that we could comfortably store 76,000 pairs of medium animals and also load two and a half million pairs in a week.
So we can accommodate a reasonable target of 70,000 pairs of animals, although it is more likely that there were about 10,000 pairs of each kind of animal.
In summary, these factors affected the number of animals loaded on the ark.
- Multiple Queues. Like our modern stadiums, multiple queues would allow many animals to be loaded, especially since the doors were wide.
- Air Breathing Land Animals. Genesis 7: 22 reports that the land animals who breathed died.
The vast majority of the parents of millions of current species survived outside the ark because Noah only carried the breathing animals.
- Majority Unclean. Although clean animals went in by sevens, most animals are unclean.
- Young Animals. Noah could have loaded eggs and baby animals.
- Fewer Species. The many varieties of each species can be traced to one parent. So the number of some species can be reduced by a factor of ten to twenty.
Each of their original pairs produced ten to twenty different species.
- New Species. 1.3 million species have been named. Scientists estimate about ten to one hundred million undiscovered species.
Since we populate the whole earth, we can assume that there many not be more than ten to one hundred large land animals among these that have not been discovered. So the rest are insects and other microscopic species and sea creatures.
Large air breathing sea mammals would have been discovered also because they must surface to breathe.
So new discoveries should not be an additional burden on our capacity or food requirements.
Current Total Named Species
After I made the previous estimates, I decided to research real numbers to see if my arguments were valid.
|# ||Kingdom ||Example ||Ark||Genus ||Named ||Estimate 1 ||Estimate 2|
| ||1 ||Monera ||Bacteria, blue-green algae, spirochete ||No||- ||4,000 - 10,000 ||1,000,000 ||5-10,000,000|
| ||2 ||Protista ||Protozoans, algae ||No||- ||80,000 - 250,000 ||600,000 ||?|
| ||3 ||Fungi ||Fungi, mold, mushroom, yeast, mildew ||No||- ||72,000 - 100,000 ||1,500,000 ||74-120,000|
| ||4 ||Plantae ||Mosses, ferns, woody, non-woody, flowering ||Food||16,167 ||298,900 ||320,000 ||321,212|
| ||5 ||Animalia ||Invertebrates|
|Sponges, worms ||No||-
||634,337 ||9,780,832||? |
| || Fish ||No||- ||31,300|
| || Corals ||No||- ||2,175|
| || Mollusks ||No||- ||85,000|
| || Crustaceans ||No||- ||47,000|
| || Insects ||Yes ||?? ||663,120 ||1-30,000,000|
| || Arachnids ||Yes ||9,500 ||102,248|
| || Vertebrates |
| Amphibians ||Yes ||584||5,378||6,894||15,000|
| || Reptiles ||Yes ||325 ||7,925||9,084||10,000|
| || Birds ||Yes ||2014 ||9,998||9,998||10,000|
| || Mammals ||Yes ||192 ||5,490||5,490||5,500|
| Total Air Breathing Creatures Of Relevant Size ||3115||28,782||31,466|| 40,500 |
| Total Animals ||-||1,326,239||13,232,298||30,000,000|
|Total Of All Species (Plants and Animals) ||1,752,239-1,956,239 ||13,232,298 ||30,000,000|
| ||Bacteria. They were not deliberately loaded on the ark by Noah. But they could have been in the stomach of the animals, in the wood, on food and survived in the water and soil outside|
| ||Fungi and Protista. They were also not loaded in the ark. |
| ||Plants. They could have survived outside as seeds. So the only plant stored in the ark was for food. If Noah needed to preserve plant species he would have brought seed.|
The estimated named creatures is about 1.4 million.
Mammals are about 0.4% of this number and insects are 50%.
97% are invertibrates and 3% are vertibrates (backbone).
Some guess that there may be as much as 30 million or more.
Of those who estimate over 30 million species, the estimated number of the larger species remain the same as those who estimate 1 million species.
The excess number of species is attributed to insects.
So even if this is true and all existed at the time of the flood, almost all of these would be microscopic creatures and would not substantially affect the space requirements.
Since they were in the ark for about 13 months, then the average age or size of the animals many be under two years old since he must have brought weaned animals into the ark if he brought babies.
Named Versus Estimated.
We are comfortable with calculating size based on the named species, because we believe that any of the unfounded species among the estimated number will not be large creatures which would effect our space requirements or loading deadlines
|# ||Animalia ||Phylum ||Example ||Ark ||Named ||Space (ft3) |
|1 ||Mammals ||Mammalia || Human, whale, dolphin, lion, dog, bat, ruminant ||Yes ||5,000 ||281,000 |
|Artiodactyla Ruminantia ||Clean animals (224 ruminant species, 194 clean) ||Yes ||194 ||260,736 |
|2 ||Birds ||Aves ||Birds ||Yes ||10,000 ||5,000 |
|Families with Clean Birds ||Galliform (256), Anseriform (150), Columbiform (300) ||Yes ||35,000 |
|3 ||Insects ||Arthropoda ||Crustaceans, scorpions, spiders, insects ||Yes ||663,120 ||16,578 |
|4 ||Reptiles ||Reptilia ||Turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, alligators ||Yes ||7,925 ||7,925 |
|5 ||Amphibians ||Amphibia ||Frogs, toads (4714). Salamanders, newts (505). Caecilian ||Yes ||5,378 ||2,689 |
|6a ||Fish ||Osteichthyes ||Bony fish such as perch, trout, koi ||No ||29,000 ||0 |
|Agnatha ||Jawless fish without scales. Lampreys, hagfish ||No ||40 ||0 |
|Chondrichthyes ||Cartilage skeletons: Rays, sharks, skates ||No ||1,000 ||0 |
|7a ||Marine ||Echinidermata ||Star fish (sea star), urchins, sand dollars ||No ||6,000 ||0 |
|7b ||Mollusca ||Clams, snails, slugs, mollusks, oysters, squid, octopus ||No ||50,000 ||0 |
|7c ||Brachipoda ||Lamp shells ||No ||335 ||0 |
|7d ||Cindaria ||Corals, jelly fish, sea anemones, hydras ||No ||9,500 ||0 |
|7e ||Ctenophora ||Comb jellies ||No ||90 ||0 |
|7f ||Sponges ||Porifera ||Sponges ||No ||10,000 ||0 |
|8 ||Worms ||Acanthocephala (600), annelida (8,900), chaetognatha (100), entoprocta (150), nemetoda (80,000) and others ||No ||114,761 ||0 |
|Animal Species ||Cubicle Size /Pair || Total Space + Weight||Food (Space-Wgt) |
|Type ||Species||Ark Total ||Length ||Width ||Height ||(ft3)||(m3) ||(Kg) ||(m3)||Kg||Menu|
|1||Humans ||1 ||8 ||30||20||15 ||36,000 ||1,022||24,640 || 7.77|| 5,280|| 1,2|
|Clean Mammals ||194 ||1,358 ||6||8||4 ||130,368 ||3,699 || 221,014 || 7,204|| 1,873,044|| 3|
|Unclean Mammals ||4,806 ||9,612 ||See space below ||245,000 ||6,952 || 53,686 || 10,321 || 1,001,877|| 3, 6|
|☆||10% Large ||500 ||1,000 ||6||8||6 ||144,000 ||4,088 || - |
|☆||40% Medium ||2,000 ||4,000 ||3||4||2 ||48,000 ||1,362 |
|☆||50% Small ||2,500||5,000 ||1||2||1 ||5,000 ||142 |
|2||Unclean Birds ||9294 ||18,588 ||1||1||1 ||9,294 ||264 ||24,107.7 || 14.3|| 468,312|| 2|
|Clean Birds ||706 ||4,942 ||1||1||1 ||2,471 ||170 ||7,535 |
|*||Unclean Birds ||9,700 ||19,400 ||1||1||1 ||9,700 ||276 ||Pigeons and doves as the only clean birds|
|Doves, Pigeons ||300 ||2,100 ||1||1||1 ||1,050 ||30|
|*||Unclean Birds ||5,000 ||10,000 ||1||1||1 ||5,000 ||142 || 50% clean and unclean birds|
|Clean Birds ||5,000 ||35,000 ||1||1||1 ||17,500 ||497 |
|3||Insects ||663,120 ||1,326,240 ||40 pairs per feet 3 ||16,578 ||471 ||21,259.7 || - || 711.5|| 4|
|4||Reptiles ||7,925 ||15,850 ||1||1||1 ||7,925 ||225 ||3,150.5 || *|| *|| 5,6|
|5||Amphibians ||5,378 ||10,756 ||1||1||.5 ||2,689 ||76 ||538 || *|| *|| 5|
|Total Space for 1,438,874 air breathing animals ||402,325 ||11,324 || 355,931 || -|| 3,349,224|| -|
|6||Fish ||30,040 ||60,090 ||1||1||1 ||30,040 ||852
|# ||Animal ||Food Menu |
|0 ||All ||Water, salt |
|1 ||Humans ||Flour, beans |
|2 ||Birds ||Seeds, fruit |
|3 ||Animals ||Hay, grain, pellets |
|4 ||Insects ||*Dung, sugar, fruit |
|5 ||Reptile ||Insects |
|6 ||Carnivores ||Meat, rats |
|7||Marine, sponges ||75,925 ||151,850 ||1||1||1 ||75,925 ||2,154 |
|8||Worms ||114,761 ||229,522 ||40 pairs per feet3 ||2,869 ||81 |
|Total Space for 441,462 water creatures ||108,834 ||3,087 |
|Total Space for all 1,880,336 living creatures ||511,159 ||14,414 |
|* This food and space is produced on board through other systems |
The Total Cargo Weight.
Besides the weight of the timber used to construct the boat, we have other cargo that adds to the total weight on board.
|Cargo ||Count ||Mass (Kg) ||Use |
|Animals ||- || 355,931 ||Rooms |
|Food ||- || 3,349,224 ||Food |
|Hay Bales ||8,109 || 1,248,804 ||Food |
|Rubber ||- || 914,379 ||Bedding |
|Packing Material ||141,976 ||Storage |
|Water+Tank ||26 || 82,834 ||Water |
|Pond ||- ||27,592 ||Turtle, gator |
|Hens ||1000 || 2300 ||Eggs |
|Hen Food ||- ||68080 ||Eggs |
|Salt ||- || 20,720 ||Salt |
|Seeds ||- ||1.5 ||Microgreens |
|Gardens ||450 || 15,800 ||Bamboo, Vegetables |
|Soil and Mulch ||- ||285,436 |
|- ||90,387 ||Burrows |
|- ||132,862 ||Compost |
|Flies ||10m || 100 |
|Worms ||1 m || 3,000 |
|Dung Beetles ||1m ||20,000 |
|Termites ||100m ||210,000 ||Food|
|Total Cargo || 6,969,427 ||- |
|Ark (Empty) || 6,727,493 ||Boat |
|Total Boat || 13,696,920 ||- |
The total animals named today are used as the total at that time even though the true amount may be ten percent of this number because the "kinds" of animal may represent the genus which was taken on board.
Inheritance in isolation brings out different variations in the genus that we see today as the species.
All space, weight arguments are settled if we use genus as the number of land animals on the ark larger than insects (about 3100).
However, we will calculate for species.
Total Space (511,159 (ft3)).
The space calculated for all living creatures using all species in the families with clean birds, or using 50% clean birds, is still less than half the total volume of the ark (1.5 million cubic feet).
The total space for the land animals is one third the volume of the ark.
Either situation leaves enough space for food.
Space requirements were based on these average cubicle sizes for each type of animal. Each space is large and is probably double the size needed.
Large Land Animals.
Our ark carries only the weaned child of all species who will be one year older when the ark lands.
The largest animals are whales which are not on board.
We over estimated the number of clean birds as half the bird population.
However, we also showed the value for the number of clean bird species and the number of doves and pigeons.
We have other estimates because the definition of a clean bird is not as clear as the definition for animals.
The Standard Space (Unit).
All designed space and containers are based on a fixed space called a unit.
The width of the ark allows two 30 foot areas on either side of the central corridor.
The length allows 42 units on each side separated by space for stairs.
Each unit is 30 wide x 10 long x 15 feet high (127.43 3).
- Living Space. There is the hull on one side, an open mesh on the opposite end and there may be walls or dividers on the two sides.
- Food Storage. This space must have barriers on all sides to prevent the food from falling out.
Depending on the cargo the barrier can be solid walls or a fence.
- Square Barrel (1 m3 and (91.44 kg Covered) and (76.2 kg Uncovered). Liquids or foods in liquid must be stored in a barrel.
Our barrel is a cube, 1 cubic meter (1,000,000 mL or 1000 L).
36 barrels can hold in each 10x10x15 foot space or 108 in each unit (30x10x15).
This leaves a 3 ft space on top for manouvering.
The barrel is made of oak which weighs 600 kg/cubic meter.
» Barrel Sides = (.0254x 1x1)m = 0.0254 cu meter of oak weighing 15.24 kg
One barrel requires 6 sides. If they are stacked then only the one on top needs 6 sides (91.44 kg) and the others have 5 sides (76.2 kg).
» 36 Barrels /Room or 108 Barrels /Unit. In a 10x10x12 ft room there are 27 barrels without tops (2057.4 kg) and 9 with tops (822.96).
Total of 2880.36 kg/room. The rooms are 15 ft high with 1 ft of construction.
1 bushel is 35 liters. 1 barrel holds 28.57 bushels or 1000 liters or 4227 cups or 235 gallons.
- Cloth Sacks (1 m3 and 3.325 kg).
6 square meters of fabric fit one barrel of food. However, we need extra fabric to close the top. We will assume 7 square meters of fabric (3.325 kg).
Cotton denim is 475 g/m2.
It is impractical to store food in heavy barrels.
We will use the barrel as a unit of measurement but store dry good in sacks.
When opened, they will be in covered barrels.
We will supply barrels in each type of food room for this purpose.
- Grain Silo. The entire room has barriers on 4 sides and can be filled to the top.
It must have an outlet below or on the side for the grain to pour out.
- Hay Silo. The sides next to animal compartments or next to the corridor must have a fence as the barrier.
- Remodeling. As food space is emptied and animals get larger the space can be converted to living space.
- Common Space. The corridors and stairs (ramps).
We base the sizes, weights and diet on animals that represent the average in at least 3 size classes.
The large size group is very overestimated to account for the few outliers.
I selected a standard to represent the type of food and measured its volume and weight and number of servings per consumer per year (370 days on the ark).
|Standard Food (1 Consumer) |
|Menu ||Serving |
|# ||Food|| (m3) ||(g)|
|1 ||1xPasta || 45 g|| 2.72 || 16,650|
|1 ||3xBean || 38 g|| 1.44 || 42,180|
|1 ||3xLentil || 32 g|| 1.8 || 35,520|
|1 ||2xRice || 45 g|| 1.64 || 33,300|
|1 ||Flour || 1/2 loaf|| 0.024 || 27,972|
|1 ||Apple || 1|| 0.146 || 55,500|
|2 ||1x Raisin ||0.25c/ 40 g|| 0.926 || 14,800|
|2 ||Powder |
| 1 TBS || 0.0055 || 2,722 |
|2 ||Seed || 2 TBS|| .004 || 7,200|
|3 ||Pellets || 2 cups 740|| 0.175 || 352,000|
|3 ||10k Fish ||In the pond||1,200,000|
|4 ||1m Worm ||In the compost heap||455,000|
|4 ||10m Flies ||In the dung room||100,000|
|4 ||1m Beetles ||In the dung room||40 million|
- Fresh Food.
It is probably more effective to prepare and store all the dried food we will need and take advantage of the opportunities for food that present themselves.
However, we will evaluate the fresh food production to see what would be feasible if we had the space.
Some fresh food has a cargo weight of 0 kg because we have accounted for the weight of the things that will produce them.
- 1000 Eggs (0 kg). 1000 hens will produce 1000 eggs every day.
- Apples. Those with high sugar content, stored in a cool place can last 6-12 months, otherwise it is 3-6 months.
Rotten fruit can be fed to insects.
The average medium apple weighs 150 g (5 oz).
» Ancient Preservation Methods.
Submerged in honey, packaged in dry sawdust or plastered with clay, fruit remained fresh for over a year.
Sawdust can also used to feed the termites and insects and honey can be used to feed everyone.
1.4 million insects on .005g/day eat 15 lbs (45 medium apples).
16,650 apples per year is 799,200 cubic inch or 13 cubic meters and weighs 2497.5 kg.
They store well. 5 lbs bag potato use a space of 10x10x2 inch.
But a 20 lb bag dehydrated fits in a 2 quart bag when powdered and into 4 quarts when sliced.
Potatoes are about 80% water while dried chips are 1.5-2.5% water.
So a 20 lb bag (39.916 kg) of dehydrated potatoes weighs 4.4 lbs (1.9958 kg) and fits in a space (2 - 4 quarts) or (1.8927 - 3.785 liters).
20% of food for pigs, cows and other ruminants can be potatoes but they must be cooked.
- Vegetables. Mushrooms, sprouts, microgreens and plants that grow in the dark or low light could be grown in trays.
We will carry 1500 g of seed.
Also tomatoes grow fast and constantly produce so we will plant them with other fruit and vegetables.
- Fish Pond
Farmed fish can be kept for food. Tilapia is a fast growing fish which can be harvested in 6 months and catfish in 18 months.
The ark can be stocked with mature catfish, bass, bluegills and tilapia and juveniles which will be ready throughout the year.
The fish feed on algae, mosquito larvae and bluegills.
We will add this option if we are not overweight.
|#||Animal ||Liter/1 /Day ||Year |
|3 x 27 ||Cow ||8-35||30 || 899,100 |
|Total 21 Cows||630 ||233,100 |
|3 x 25 ||Goat ||2.7-3.6 ||3 ||83,250 |
|3 x 8 ||Sheep ||0.9 ||0.9 || 7,992 |
|3 x 1 ||Moose ||3.78 ||3.78 ||4,196 |
|Total Possible||2,688 ||994,538 |
|1000 ||Hen||Eggs ||1 ||370,000 |
- Milk (150 Cups).
Cows, buffalo, sheep and goats can provide milk if we choose three lactating females among the seven clean animals.
This is an opportunity but we have to bring extra food to maintain this level of milk production.
There are 183 animals to milk twice per day.
Milking time is shortened if the animal has large teats.
It takes about 5 minutes to milk one gallon (3.78 liters).
So it would take 60 man hours to milk 2688 liters from 183 animals.
This is too much work, so the best we can do is to take only 21 adult cows.
If it takes 40 minutes to milk one cow ir is 14 man hours per day, 7 in the morning and evening.
That would be 5 hours for each daughter-in-law or 2.5 hours for all the children.
630 liters of milk per day is 150 cups of milk.
- Dehydrated (Dry Food).
Dehydration preserves food. With moisture reduced to 2% it can last over 8 years.
Fruit, vegetables, seeds and nuts are dried and preserved.
We will take the total food requirements and make pellets out of dried food.
|Group||Animal ||Food ||Total (kg)
||Protein ||Carb ||Fat
For each diet I calculated a ratio of protein : carb : fat.
Vegetarians and omnivores are calculated as 10% Protein, 60% carb, 30% fat for a ratio of 10:60:30.
Carnivores as 30:40:30
|Herbivore || Human || Fresh|| 5,280||528 ||3,168 ||1,584 |
| Animal || Nuts || 8,325 ||833 ||4994 ||2498|
| Cattle, Ruminants || Grain|| 832,536||83,253 ||499,522 ||249,761 |
| Hay|| 1,248,804 ||Calculated separately|
|Omnivore|| Primates || Pellets|| 605,838 ||60,584 ||363,503 ||181,751|
| Small Animals || Pellets|| 75,625 ||7,562 ||45,375 ||22,688|
|Birds || Seeds|| 536,392 ||53,639 ||321,835 ||160,918|
| Insects || Nectar|| 712 ||71 ||427 ||214|
|Mixed|| Special Diet || Live || 8721 ||872 ||5,233 ||2,616|
|Carnivore ||Cats, dogs, bears || Meat||95,073 ||28,522 ||38,029 ||28,522|
|Total || 2,168,502||235,864 ||1,282,086 ||650,552|
Total Packaging: (141,976 kg in 6,271 Barrels in 108 Units). 124,301 kg wood and 17,675 kg cloth bags.
They can be recycled to build homes and clothes.
- Fruit (Raisins).
Raisins 4x6x1.75 15 oz (425 g) 2.5 cups. 40g is 1/4 cup = 130 cal - 11 serving/container.
» Figs, Plums and Apples. Other fruit can be dried and rehydrated.
» Preserves. Fruit can be stored for over 24 months. About one year after opening and indefinitely if unopened.
1 cubic meter holds 2113 large apples preserved in sugar weighs 832 kg.
1 bushel (35 liters) of fresh apples contain 80-120 apples.
Our 1 cubic meter barrel is 28.57 bushels. If 80-90 large apples fit in a bushel then it holds 2286-2571 fresh apples.
2300 apples (521.7 kg) occupy 0.67745 cubic meter leaving 0.32255 space for sawdust (67.7 kg).
Sawdust weighs 210 kg /cubic meter.
Honey weighs 136 g/mL = 136,000 kg/ cubic meter. 0.32255 cu meter honey weighs 43.866 kg.
15% Carbohydrates: Dry Fruit (192,313 kg). 1,201,956 cups or 284 barrels in 8 units.
Packaging: Fabric (944 kg). 3.325 x (284)
15% Carbohydrates: Fresh Fruit (192,313 kg). 737 barrels in 25 units. 1,695,100 apples (4581/day).
Packaging: Wood (104,354 kg). If packed in honey then 32,344 kg honey and 72,010 kg of barrels.
- Vegetables. Depending on the vegetable, a half cup dry is about 14 to 28g (40g/cup).
A bushel of oats is 32 lbs.
A bushel of loose corn is about 55 lbs.
20% Carbohydrates: Mixed Vegetables (256,417 kg). 1516 barrels in 14 units.
20% Carbohydrates: Oats (256,417 kg). 17,666 bushels in 618 barrels in 17 units.
30% Carbohydrates: Corn (384,626 kg). 15,417 bushels in 540 barrels in 15 units.
Packaging: Fabric (8,891 kg). 3.325 x (1516 + 618 + 540)
- Seeds And Nuts. One bushel of virginia peanuts is 22 lbs and a bushel of valencia peanuts is 30-35 lbs.
A bushel of almonds is 37 lbs. Bird seed is about 38 lbs per bushel.
We will assume that a bushel of nuts is 40 lbs (18 kg).
Fat: Nuts (650,552 kg). 36,141 bushels or 1265 barrels fits in 35 [10x10 rooms] or 12 units.
Packaging: Fabric (4,206 kg). 3.325 x (1265)
Bird Seed (536,392 kg). 29,800 bushels or 1043 barrels in 10 units. This is extra food.
Packaging: Fabric (3,468 kg). 3.325 x (1043)
Fat: Olive Oil (200,000 kg). 218 covered barrels in 2 units.
Olive Oil density is 7.64 lb/gallon or 916.8 kg/m3
Packaging: Wood (19,947 kg). 91.44 x (218)
- Dehydrated Meat (Beef Jerky, Shrimp, Tuna). 3 lbs beef = 1lb jerky. 2 cups cooked ground beef = 1 lb dehydrated.
2.5 lbs fresh meat package is 1.5x8x10 inches. 3.81x20.32x25.4 = 1966.45 cm3.
1 lb fresh meat uses 786.58 cm3 space.
1 lb jerky uses 262 cm3.
1lb cooked dehydrated uses 393 cm3.
» Powdered Milk.
1/3 cup dry powder = 1 cup milk.
Water milk is 8.6 lbs/gallon.
Protein (235,864 kg).
Cooked jerky is 42 m3 = 42 barrels in a 20x10 ft space.
Packaging: Fabric (140 kg). 3.325 x (42)
- Hay (1,248,804 kg In 8109 Bales).
One 14"x18"x36" (36x46x91 cm) bale weighs 60-70 lbs (132-154 kg) or more depending on how tightly packed it is.
We assume 154 kg per bale.
12,360 Bales Around The Hull.
The 14"x18"x36" (36x46x91 cm) bales are stacked 5 high and 2 deep on each floor.
They are placed between the diagonal braces which protrude 4 feet and are set every 5 feet along the interior hull.
4 bales fit between each diagonal along the 14" edge, the 18" edge protrudes out into the room and the 36" inch side go up vertically.
20 bales in each 5 ft section. There are 206 sections per floor.
This is 3x206x20 bales stacked 1 deep = 12,360 bales weighing 1,903,440 kg.
» Bales In A 30x10x15 Units.
5 high, 8.5 wide x 20 deep = 850 bales = 130,900 kg
- Artificial Nectar (162 kg in 1 Barrel). We will feed the bees and birds with this.
Powdered sugar uses half the space of granulated sugar.
A 5 lb bag of granulated sugar is 5x3x8 inches.
37 bags of granulated sugar is 4440 cubic inches (72,758 cc). This is 36,379 cc powdered sugar.
- Thick (61.5%). Active bees eat 50 mg/day (0.005g). 130,000 species of bees and wasps = 240.5 kg for 370 days = 109 lbs = 21.8 bags
- Medium (50%). Butterfly and hummingbird nectar is 25%. 175,000 species butterfiles = 161.9 kg for 370 days = 73.44 lbs = 15 bags granulated sugar
Packaging: Fabric (3 kg). 3.325 x (1)
- Salt (20,720 kg in 7 Barrels).
Sheep eat 8-11g salt per day and their weight is about 70 kg. This is 0.157 g of salt per kg of body weight.
Using this as the estimated amount per body weight then we need 55,932 g of salt per day for 355,931 kg of animals.
This is 20,720 kg for 370 days occupying 7030 liters of space or 7 barrels.
1 lb (2.2 kg) of salt fits in a 3.25x5.5 inch (8.255 x 13.97 cm) round container = 0.7475 liter.
Packaging: Fabric (23 kg). 3.325 x (7)
- Free Food (Dung and Garbage). We can solve some of our food problems and dung problem at the same time.
The population of insects can regenerate between feedings because many of the insect eaters also hibernate or can survive for long periods without food.
We will place more of these animals on board to solve the waste problem while serving as food supplies to our small carnivores.
Our design has the affected animal quarters surrounding the dung room.
The wall is a half wall with mesh at the top and the ceiling is a mesh to the bat caves, reptile and amphibian quarters above.
The mesh is small enough to let the flies come in but keep the animals out of the dung and compost room.
- Calcium Supplement (0 kg). Crushed egg shell powder will be used in the feed of the egg laying hens.
An egg contains 6 g of calcium. This is 6kg daily for 1000 hens.
We can carry a weeks supply (42 kg) or feed the hens additional calcium before boarding and create supplement from the used eggs.
- Dung Beetle. No special food needs to be stored for them because their food is the waste.
- Worms. The soil used will be mixed with dried leaves. This and the compost generated will be the worm food.
Worms are used for composting and for food.
The night crawler size ranges from 9-30 cm and a 32 cm (12.6 inch) worm weighs 11.2 g.
A 7 cm (2.75 inch) worm weighs about 3g.
Worms produce 3-80 cocoons/year each carries 1-20 eggs which incubate in 14-23 day and mature in 10-55 weeks.
If we assume that the average worm produces 5 cocoons per month each with 12 eggs then each worm will produce 2 worms each day.
1 million worm can produce 2 million worms per day. The first set will reach maturation after 30 days.
Since our underground dwellers store food then we can integrate them into their environment for at least 3 months before so that they can dig tunnels and store worms.
We can also carry extra worms for them to store if they are brought on board the ark during the seven day final boarding period.
Fruit flies live for 8-10 days, laying around 500 eggs, using rotting fruit or vegetables as their nest.
So with an initial population of 10 million flies, we can potentially multiply them by 200 in one week using our dung and garbage to feed them.
- Brown Rat.
They are mature in 5 weeks and the gestation period is only 21 days and litters average 7 and can be as high as 14 as much as 5 times per year.
They will even increase their reproduction rate if their population is being exterminated.
A single pair of rats can produce more than 15,000 descendants in a year.
Brown rats love cereal (especially oats), scrambled eggs and corn. However they will eat anything, even feces.
- Pigeon. They are clean meat and eggs incubate in 10-18 days and are mature by 28 days.
There can be 7 nests per year each with 2 birds.
- Crickets, Grasshoppers, Cicadas and Katydids.
If the 17 year locusts emerged just before the flood, then Noah could have had millions stored for food.
We can feed birds and reptiles.
- Termites and Ants. Mounds are placed in the compost, dung rooms and the quarters of the Edenta species.
300,000 termites will eat 22 feet of 2x4 in one year (1.22 cubic feet).
All we need is to bury soft wood or place it on top of the soil
- Cellulose (Wood). As our barrels are emptied they become food for termites and wood for rodents to chew on.
- 508,685 kg Soil (497,813 kg Dirt and 10,872 kg Mulch ).
We need soil for underground animals, compost and dung rooms. All these rooms are 50x10x15 feet.
We also need soil for the bamboo and vegetable gardens.
» Soil Density [1.5 g/cc].
A cubic foot of packed earth weighs about 95 pounds per cubic foot. (43103 g/28316.8 cu cm = 1.5g/cc)
This soil is mixed in with extra dried leaves to give food for the millions of worms we need to feed.
One cubic foot of dry leaves weighs between 3.5-6 lbs (1.59-2.72 kg) = 0.096 g/cc.
We start with 2 feet of dirt in the dung and compost rooms and vegetable garden.
3 feet in the animal and bamboo areas.
Each room has 2 feet of dry leaves (mulch).
Potato hills are planted so that mature tubers are underground in the dung, compost and mole rooms.
- Dung Room [50x10] feet2 or [1524 x 304.8] cm2. 3 ft dirt (91.44 cm), 2 ft (60.96 cm) mulch.
Total: 63,713 kg dirt and 2,718 kg mulch = 66,431 kg.
- Compost Room [50x10] feet2. 3 ft dirt, 2 ft mulch.
63,713 kg dirt and 2,718 kg mulch = 66,431 kg.
- Underground Burrow [50x10] feet. 4 ft dirt, 4 ft mulch.
84,951 kg dirt and 5,436 kg mulch = 90,387 kg.
- Bamboo Garden [420x4x3] feet3. 12802 x 121.92 x 91.44 cc = 214,075 kg dirt
A 15 foot bamboo can be grown in 30 inches of soil.
- Vegetable Garden [420x2x2] feet3. 71,361 kg dirt
- Bamboo Grove Garden (15,800 kg).
The skylight over the three story atrium allows us to cultivate live plants.
Sprouts and mushroom grow in the dark and there are fast-growing foods that could be cultivated for human use.
Animals could also get fresh foliage. Some species of bamboo can grow up to 100 cm (39 in) within 24 hours.
If they planted bamboo in the atrium on the lower floor or planted them in portable containers one year before, then they would have a mature grove which could be harvested daily to feed the elephants and other grazing animals.
The reeds need to be tethered to ride out the motion of the boat.
There is lots of dung for fertilizer and this dung soil is recycled into food for the bamboo.
Although the vegetable garden and bamboo grove are represented as one continuous bed along opposite sides, they are actually alternating beds so that more light can enter on each side through the gaps created by the vegetable gardens.
» 2 Eucalyptus Trees (1,400 kg). A tree can be planted in the corner at one end of the atrium corridor.
» Bamboo Tree (14,400 kg).
A 12' tall, with 12 to 14" root ball weighs up to 70 pounds/32 kg.
A 30" square pot holds about 10 bamboo in a clump. This is 700 lbs or 320 kg.
We will have one clump of bamboo in front of every unit space on one side. This is 45 clumps.
|Side View Of Water Unit |
|Hull||Alligators||Fish||Turtle and Platypus |
|Shrimp and Shell Fish |
- Pond (27,592 kg).
The design is one large tank with mesh separating the animals.
There is mesh at the bottom that allows dung to fall through and bottom feeders to remain secure in a 12 inch space.
There is also two fences to separate the crocodiles, alligators and turtles.
Water fills the entire 30x10 space. Another 30x10 space is used for land assigned to each group.
|Top View Of Water And Land Units |
|Water||Alligators||Fish||Turtle and Platypus |
|Land||Alligators ||Turtle and Platypus |
» Tank Structure (1,687 kg).
(Deck (30x10x2") + Front (20x5x2") + Side (30x5x2") ) x 650
(Deck (9.144x3.048x0.0508) + Front (6.096x1.524x0.0508) + Side (9.144x1.524x0.0508) ) x 650
The walls are 5 feet high with 3 feet of water.
The "land" area is a deck 3 ft high with walls that extend 5 feet. There are already walls on 2 sides.
» 0.25" Tar Water Proofing (408 kg). 0.00635 x ((24.384 x 1.524) + (9.144x3.048)) x 1153 kg/m3
» 3' Water (25,167 kg). (30x10x3) ft = (914.4 x 304.8 x 90.3) cm = 25167433 cc
» Aerating The Water. The alligators thrashing around.
» Clams (330 kg).
There are about 12 clams per pound. I will populate the tank with clams at a density of 6 per square feet to clean the tank.
This is 1800 clams 150 pounds (330 kg).
- 2 Days Of Water (48,100 kg Water + 34,734 kg Tanks).
Since our water supply is taken from the outside, then we only care about what we need to store on board for a day or two.
|2000 liter Water Tanks |
|Days||#Tanks||Empty (kg) ||Water (kg) ||Volume (m3) |
|-||1|| 1335.9 || 1850 || 2 |
|1||13|| 17,367 || 24,050 || 26|
|2||26|| 34,734 || 48,100 || 52|
|3||39|| 52,100 || 72,150 || 78|
|4||52|| 76,146 || 96,200 || 104|
- Drinking Water (26 Tanks).
Based on the drinking water requirements of humans and elephants, both need about 1 liter for 35 kg of weight.
The total weight of all creatures is 857,202 kg.
This is 24,491 liters of water daily which weighs 24,491 kg.
This fits in thirteen 2000 liter tanks (530 gallons) which use 26 cubic meters of space (one 10x10x10 ft room).
Each 2000 liter tank is approximately 70x70x400 cc.
39 tanks hold a 3 day supply.
- Washing Water (2.5 Tanks).
We will wash the two levels of the first floor daily but the others less frequently.
If we allocate 2 gallons of water per unit of space for 4 floors. This is (2 x 4 x 80) = 640 gallons or 1.25 tanks per day.
1/4 cup vinegar to 2 gallons of water or 1/2 cup to 1 gallon of water.
80 cups to 320 cups (5 to 20 gallons of vinegar/day or 1800 to 7200 gallons per year (8 to 30 barrels).
» English Oak With Brass Lining.
They can be made of oak or chestnut boards with brass plating. This is 4 tanks per floor.
The density of brass is 8400 - 8730 kg per m3 (8.4 to 8.73 grams per cc).
The density of English oak 680 kg/m3
» Tank Construction Materials.
Sides 4(80x400) + ends 2(80x80) = 140,800 cc.
It is made with 4 inch (10 cm) thick English oak = 1.408 3 = 957.44 kg
and 1/8 inch (0.32 cm) brass plating = 0.045056 3 = 378.5 kg
» The First Seven Days (Water Resupply Source).
Noah was locked in the ark for 7 days before the rain began. So he needs about 8 days supply of water in the beginning.
He could resupply the tanks through pipes feeding through the skylight from an external tank or near a water fall.
When the flood begins all the tanks will be full.
- Dung Production And Disposal.
About 75% of manure is water.
Each day, on average, people produce 0.0283 kg of poop for each 5.44 kg of their body weight or 0.005 kg per kg.
A 7020 kg elephant produces 50 liters urine and 100 kg dung.
This is 0.014 kg dung per kg. So dry solids are 0.00356 kg per kg of elephant and urine production is 0.007 liters per kg.
If we use the elephant as the standard and assume a 0.004 kg of solids per day then 355,931 kg of animals produce 1423.724 kg of solid waste, 4,271 kg liquid evaporated waste, and 2491 liters of urine each day.
If it is the same density as soil (1.5g/cc) then the solids fit in 949 liter (0.949 m3).
» Annual Poop Production.
The production for 370 days is 526,778 kg which is 351,185 liters of solids, 1,580,334 liters of evaporated liquid waste and 921,670 liters of urine.
A 30x10x15ft room is 127.43 m3.
The dung room volume is 212.376 m3.
The dung and compost rooms are 1/3 filled with soil leaving 141.4 cubic meter of empty space in each room. Each can hold 40% of the waste and will fill in 149 days.
» Dung Management.
20% or 70 days of dung need alternate disposal if it is not used up.
We could convert an empty storage room at the opposite end as another dung room or dispose of the waste outside.
The dung will also be burnt as fuel and processed through the methane digester, reducing its volume.
This overflow room requires 66,934 kg of material (63,713 kg of dirt and 3,221 kg of walls).
If we move the freshly composted soil here then we do not need the dirt.
» Bilge Pump. The above situation represents the worst case scenario but some or all of the dung can be removed through holes in the hull with a displacement pump after the first 40 days.
» OutHouse Portholes. Dung can go directly outside from the first two floors and pumped up from the first floor. Then the dung room can be used to store dung for 2 months after the ark lands and while the earth is drying and then use only the rear port holes. It prevents a sewer around the front exit of the ark.
The Standard Animal.
Each type of animal is separated into large, medium and small group. Then I calculated the number of species in each size group and chose one animal as my standard for this group.
I used its weight and feeding habits to determine the typical requirements for the group.
On my Creation-Evolution page is my research on the number of animals in each species.
|Large Animal Weight and Height |
|Adult Animal Sizes ||Baby||2 Yr||Food |
|Animal (Maturity) || (kg) || (m) ||(Kg)||(m) ||(Kg)|
|Elephant (13-20) || 4900 || 7.5 || 100 || 35|| 600 ||food|
|Rhino (5-8) || 2100 || 4.4|| 50|| hgt || 640 ||food|
|Hippo (6) || 1800 || 4|| 30|| hgt || 600||1-1.5% wgt|
|Giraffe (3-5) || 1015 || 5.15 ||55 || 2 || 500|| adult 38 l/34kg|
|Walrus () || 944 || 2.8||60|| 0.110 || 2yr || 3-6% wgt|
|Camel (6) || 1000 || 3 || 37 || hgt || 340||food|
|Moose || 500 || 2.5 || 15|| - || 200||food|
|Giant Hog (1-3) || 320 || 1.1 ||0.7|| .90 || 220||food|
|Polar Bear (10-11) || 700 || 3.05 || 6|| hgt || 140||food|
|Siberian Tiger (3-6) || 180 || 3.5 || 1|| hgt || 80||food|
|Gorilla (13) || 200 || 1.6 || 2.3|| hgt || 32||adult 18kg|
|Chimp (15) || 50 || 0.9 || 1.9|| hgt || 27||Child 8 yrs|
|Crocodile (4-7) || 454 || 3.8 || 56g || hgt || 165||food|
|Tortoise (5-25) || 200 || 3.8 || Child || hgt || 27||food|
|King Cobra (4-6) || 12.7 || 5.7 || Child|| 45cm || 5||food|
|Ostrich (3-4) || 104 || 2.1 || Child|| hgt || 52||food|
|Lion (3-4) || 200 || 2.5 || 1.5|| hgt || 50||food|
Finally, I accounted for the few large outliers, looking at the growth, maturation and feeding requirements of the very large animals.
- Large Babies.
I calculated weight of a 2 year old as = Weight of average male + female /number of years to maturity * 2.
This is the weight used for the animal at its maximum size in the ark.
Finally, I estimated their number as 10% of the population (480) animals. This is much more than the existing number.
- Elephant. It is 90-130 kg, and height is from 0.85 to 1 meter.
The adult eats 270 kg of vegetation and drinks 254 liters of water daily. Newborns drink 10-15 liters of milk daily.
Elephants in the wild eat 100-200 kg (220-400 lbs) per day while in the zoo they eat 57 kg (125 lbs) and drink about 30 gallons (113.5 liters).
Animals eat about half their normal food in captivity.
- Giraffe. The baby is 55 kg and 1.6 meter tall, growing another meter in 1 year.
- Lion. A 2 year old lion is about 3/4 the size of an adult.
- Birds, Dinosaurs, Alligators. All creatures born from eggs could be loaded into the ark as eggs. In cool temperatures at the high elevations maturation could be delayed.
Depending on how long the eggs can remain viable, the eggs could be incubated for hatching in the month before the ark is opened or until after the first violent months.
This is either the fourth or seventh month.
This saves on food and work.
Food Requirements ( 3,417,304 kg) 3,349,224 (Specimens) and 68,080 (Hens).
The following is the food required for the animals taken as specimens for the ark.
Animals may eat 5% of their weight in food daily.
The food listed as 0 kg is the food that is generated on board.
Some animals are also brought on board for food or for services.
Their food requirements are listed separately.
|Standard Animal Size ||Total ||Daily |
|Animal ||Size ||(g) ||(%)|
|Insect ||Ant || Small || .0003||20% ||Garbage|
|Fly || Medium ||0.01||10% || Dung|
|Beetle || Medium ||40||40% || Dung|
|Worker bee || Medium ||0.09||10% ||0.005 g|
|Butterfly ||Large ||.30 - .04||20% ||-|
|Amphibian ||Frog || Medium || 22.7-50||100% || Insects|
|Reptile ||Lizard || Small || 198||99.7% || Insects|
|Crocodile || Large || 454||0.3% || 1 kg |
|All Birds ||Songbird || Small || 80||50% || 2 TBSP|
|Chicken || Medium ||2300||44% || 50-85g|
|Chicken ||Laying hens || 110-170g|
|Pigeon || Medium ||454||3% || 2 oz|
|Eagle || Large || 7711||3% || 10%|
|7% Clean |
|Chicken || Medium ||2300||58% || |
|Pigeon || Medium ||454||42% || 10%|
|Mammals ||Hamster || Small || 142||50% || 2 TBSP|
|Bat (Insect) ||Small || 60||14% || 30%|
|Bat (fruit) ||Small || 60||5% || 30%|
|House Cat || Medium || 4000||11% || 1 c|
|Dog || Large || 9072||10% || 2 C|
|Cow || X-Large || 635,017||10% || |
|3% Clean |
|Sheep || Large ||70,000 ||90% || 3.5-4%|
|Cow || X-Large || 635,017||10% || 2-2.5%|
|Daily food listed as % body weight or actual amount |
- Insects (711.5 kg).
Insects feed on fruit, artificial nectar, wood (cellulose) or dung.
However, we only need to carry food for 30% of the population (butterflies and bees). We will feed them on half fresh fruit and half artificial nectar.
The rest feed on our free supply of dung and garbage.
1,326,240 insects weigh (79.57g ants + 1326.24 g flies + 21219840 g beetles + 11936.16 g bees + 26524.8 g butterflies)
Specimen Mass (21,259.7 kg).
Food Mass (711.5 kg). Butterflies and bees.
Food Mass (393,304 kg). All specimen insects
» Service Insects Requirements.
Additional mass not part of garbage.
Supplies taken from garbage is counted as 0 kg.
Mass (100 kg). 10 million flies (0.01g)
Mass (3,000 kg). 1 million worms (3g and 7cm)
Mass (20,000 kg). 1 million dung beetles (8-50g)
Mass (210,000 kg). 100 million termites (0.21mg)
Food Mass (0 kg Dung). Flies, beetles, worms
Food Mass (0 kg Wood). Termites eat 40 ft3 (1.133 m3)
Average weight of a termite is about 2.1 mg.
A 300,000 termite colony can consume approximately 1.2 cubic foot of wood annually.
This is a (2x4x264") piece of wood. Our 100 million termites need 33 pieces of wood. This is about 40 cubic feet or 1 cubic meter.
This wood can be taken from our barrels as they are emptied, but weigh about 500 kg.
- Amphibians (0 kg).
They feed on insects which will be provided live from the offspring of the insects brought to feed on the dung and garbage.
So their food space and food mass requirements are already calculated for the space in the dung and compost rooms and the insects needed to maintain the system.
The 30 cm (13.5") goliath frog is the largest at 3 kg (6.6 lbs) and the smallest is only 1 cm.
The average size and weight of the common frog is 8 cm and 23 g.
The bull frog is 3.6 to 6 in (9.1 to 15 cm) and weighs 5 - 175 g. I will assume an average of 50g.
Frog will eat an average of 2 to 13 mosquitos per day as as much as their entire body weight.
Specimen Mass (538 kg). 2 (5378 x 50g)
Food Mass (0 kg). We need to generate about 130,000 insects per day.
- Reptiles (0 kg).
7,925 species feed on insects and mice.
Since they hibernate for 6 months and can go without meals for months they will be fed a large meal before boarding the ark.
After several months the rat and insect population will have increased and they will have food.
» Food By Design. The Amphibian and small reptile space is strategically located above the dung room which shares a mesh floor between them so that insects can fly through the grid but the animals cannot fall through.
Specimen Mass (3150.5 kg). 2(7925 x 0.997 x 198g) + 2(7925 x 0.003 x 454g) = 3128.9 + 21.6 kg
Food Mass (0 kg). Free insects and mice. Lizards eat about 20 insects per day. This is 320,000 insects daily.
» Limited Food (Hibernation And Gorging).
Some animals do not need to be fed every day because of a slow metabolism or hibernation. These are mainly reptiles.
Frogs, lizards and snakes do not eat all the time.
Hibernating animals include rodents, reptiles, lemur (7 months), bear (3 months), bats (6 months) frogs and turtles.
If the food is large enough, snakes do not have to eat for several months.
In addition a crocodile can spend up to 1 year without food and can also survive on only 1 kg meat per day.
Our plan is to feed all animals in the weeks before the flood to build up fat stores and give this special group of animals a very large meal prior to boarding the ark.
- Birds (536,392 kg).
Birds seem to eat 3-4% of their body weight in food.
647,975 kg of birds will eat 19,440 - 25,919 kg of seeds.
Using a bag of flax seed as standard, a 12 oz bag (336 g) measures (5x9x0.25) inches.
That is 77,381 bags with 26,000 kg of seeds in 14.26 cubic meters.
Scavengers and carnivores can get some of our free mice.
Specimen Mass Clean (7535 kg).
7 ((706 x 0.58 x 2300g) + (706 x 0.42 x 454g) )
Specimen Mass Unclean (24107.7 kg).
2 ((9294 x .5 x 80g) + (9294 x 0.44 x 2300g) + (9294 x 0.03 x 454g) + (9294 x 0.03 x 7711g) )
Food Mass (468,312 kg). 0.04 x (7535 + 24107.7) x 370
» Service Birds Requirements (1000 Hens).
A hen will produce about 1 egg every day if she is fed double the normal food or about 110-170 g each day.
These are the requirements for 50 extra hens (each weighs 2.3 kg or 5 lbs).
115 kg of chicken eat 3,145 kg of food for the year to produce 18,500 eggs/year.
They require a space of 200 feet3 (185,806 cc or 0.186 m3).
Service Hen Mass (2300 kg).
Hen Food Mass (68,080 kg).
Total Food Mass (536,392 kg). 468,312 + 68,080
The total is 4353 bushels of corn. This is 152 of our barrels occupying 1.88 units.
- Mammals (2,880,200.64 kg). The animals are grouped as follows.
We use the average adult mass which can be reduced by taking weaned children.
We can also take less food because of smaller animal size and reduced activity.
We will count only the mass of the actual food taken on board and the mass of the initial stock required to generate live food and to feed them.
We will not count the mass of the live food generated during the year.
- Insectivores (8325 kg). There is an additional 61,097 kg live food generated.
Moles live underground and the rest live above ground but dig for termites, ants and worms.
|Average Underground Dweller Mass |
|Animal||Species ||Mass (kg) ||Diet|
|Echidna || 4|| 10 ||Ant, termite|
|Pangolin || 7|| 10 ||Insects|
|Numbat || 1|| 0.50 ||Omnivore|
|» Sloth || 6|| 6 ||Omnivore|
|» Anteater || 4|| 12 ||Ant, termite|
|» Armadillo || 19|| 9.979 ||Omnivore|
|Wombat || 3|| 28 ||Grass, bark|
- 375 Moles (* 8,325 kg nuts). They eat earthworms and nuts.
Moles weigh about 120g and eat half its body weight daily.
Specimen Mass (90 kg). 2 (375 x 120 g)
Food Mass (16,650 kg). 0.50 x 90 kg x 370
This is 50% worms (8325 kg) and 50% nuts (8325 kg).
One 7 cm (2.75 inch) worm weighs about 3g. Therefore one mole will eat 20 worms each day.
375 pairs will eat 15,000 worms (7cm) each day or 3,000 worms (32 cm).
- 44 Underground Diggers (0 Kg). Estimate 6 to 10% food by body mass.
They eat mostly ants and termites which will be generated through our breeding stock.
Specimen Mass (937 kg). 2 ((4 x 10) +(7 x 10) +(1 x 0.5) +(6 x 6) +(4 x 12) +(19 x 10) +(3 x 28))
Food Mass (34,669 kg). 937 x 0.10 x 370
- 1100 Bats ( Kg). The average weight is 60g and they eat 30% of their weight in food.
Specimen Mass (13.2 kg). 2 x 1100 x 60g
Food Mass (14,652 kg). 0.3 x 2 x 1100 x 60g x 370
Omnivore (9776.88 kg). 734 pairs of bats eat 0.30 (734 x 2 x 60g) x 370 insects
Fruitarians (4875.12 kg). 366 pairs of fruit bats eat 0.30 (366 x 2 x 60g) x 370 fruit
- Juvenile Large Herbivores (2,081,340 kg). 1,248,804 kg Hay and 832,536 kg grain.
Infant Large Herbivores (1,040,670 kg). 624,402 kg Hay and 416,268 grain.
Below, I calculated the mass of weaned infants who are between 20% to 50% of the adult weight.
The results yielded 14,074 kg of unclean herbivores and 110,507 kg of clean who eat a combined total of 1,040,670 kg of food.
I will double that.
» Clean Herbivores (936,522 kg Food).
There are seven of each species.
|Clean Ruminantia Bovidae Mass |
|Cattle (lactating adult) || 7|| 750|
|Total Adult Females (x 3) || 21||15,750|
| Total Adult Males (x 4)||28 ||21,000|
|*Cattle (young) || 20|| 187|
|*Sheep (young) || 8|| 25 |
|*Goat (young) || 10|| 18|
|*Moose (young) || 1|| 100|
|Total Young Females (x 3) || 117||21,938 |
| Total Young Males (x 4)||156 ||29,250|
|*Tahr, other caprinae || 15|| 30|
|*Wildebeest || 10|| 40|
|*Deer antelope, gazelle || 34|| 6|
|* Reedbuck, oryx, rhebok+ || 19|| 27|
|**Duiker || 21|| 10|
|Cervidae: deer || 48||30|
|Musk deer + pronghorn || 4+1||4|
|*Chevrotain "mouse deer" || 6||5|
| Total Other (x 7)||1106 ||22,869|
| Total All||1428 ||110,807|
|**50% adult weight * 25% adult weight |
Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female: and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female.
(Genesis 7: 2)
I was not clear if seven clean animals or seven pairs of clean animals went on board the ark because if they were not pairs then a male would be without a female.
However, the text seems to list the total number of animals.
If there were two unclean, then the seven must also be the total clean.
The extra animal must have been reserved for sacrifice and is most likely a male.
And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
(Genesis 8: 20)
These herbivores eat 1.8-2.5% of their weight daily.
Alpacas eat 1-2%, cows eat 2.5% of their weight in hay. Lactating females eat 4%.
Cattle eat 20 lbs of hay (44 kg) per day, horses eat about 22 lbs (48 kg) of hay a day and a ewe will eat about 2 lbs (4.4 kg) of soybean hay per day.
Adult elephants in the wild eat 100-200 kg (220-400 lbs) per day while in the zoo they eat 57 kg (125 lbs) and drink about 30 gallons (113.5 liters).
» Lactating Family Mass = 36,750 kg = 15,750 (females) + 21,000 (males)
» Non-Lactating Family Mass = 51,188 kg = 21,938 (females) + 29,250 (males)
» Other Clean Animal Mass = 22,869 kg =
7 ((15 x 30) + (10 x 40) + (19 x 27) + (34 x 6)
+ (21 x 10) + (6 x 5) + (48 x 30) + (5 x 4)) = 7 x 3267
» Food Mass Lactating = 233,100 kg = 0.04 x 15750 kg x 370
» Food Mass Others = 703,422 kg = 0.020 x (21,000 + 21,938 + 29,250 + 22,869) kg x 370
Specimen Mass Clean Animals (110,507 kg). (36,750 + 51,888 + 22,869)
Food Mass (936,522 kg). (233,100 + 703,422)
The diet will be 60% long fiber hay and 40% grain. They need hay to avoid intestinal problems.
» Total Mass Clean Hay (60%) = 561,913 kg
» Total Mass Clean Grain (40%) = 374,608 kg
|Unclean Large Herbivore Mass |
|*Giraffe || 1|| 200|
|*Okapi || 1|| 50|
|*Elephant || 3|| 700|
|*Zebra || 3|| 80|
|*Horse || 1|| 120|
|*Ass || 3|| 90|
|*Camel || 2|| 200|
|*Llama || 4|| 40|
|*Rhino || 5|| 400|
|*Hippo || 2|| 360|
|*Tapir || 4|| 45|
|*Kangaroo || 4|| 20|
|*Wallaby || 46|| 4|
|*Wallaroo || 3|| 3|
|*Pigs || 18|| 12|
|*Giant forest hog || 1|| 40|
|*Peccarines || 4|| 6|
|*Ostrich || 1|| 20|
|*Emu || 3|| 8|
|Weight is 20% average adult || 7037|
» Unclean Herbivores (104,148 kg Food).
There is one pair of each species.
Specimen Mass (14,074 kg). 2 (7037)
Food Mass (104,148 kg). 0.020 x 14,074 kg x 370
» Total Mass Unclean Hay (60%) = 62,489 kg
» Total Mass Unclean Grain (40%) = 41,659 kg
- Special Diets (8720.6 kg). In addition there is 3,751.8 kg of live food.
Beavers and rodents and termites need to gnaw on sticks and barks.
Panda bears love bamboo and the koala eats the eucalyptus tree.
Platypus  Mass (1.45 kg). (450 + 1000) g
This is a water dweller who eats worms, insect and shrimp.
They are about 43-50 cm and weigh 900g (female) and 2000g (male)
Food Mass (51.8 kg). 0.10 x 1.4 kg x 370
Turtle  Mass (225.9 kg). 2 (450g x 251)
They are omnivores and weigh [142g - 817 kg]. We will assume an average mass of 450 g.
Food Mass (8,358 kg). (0.10 x 225.9 g) x 370
Tortoise  Mass (9.8 kg). 2 (100g x 49)
They are herbivores. Babies weigh 3-7 g and adults 400-550 g
We will carry 100 g babies.
Food Mass (362.6 kg). (0.10 x 9.8 g) x 370
Panda Bear  Mass (100 kg). 2 x 50 kg
Eats 99% bamboo in the wild but will eat honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas in captivity. Average adult is 100-115 kg and eats 10% of its mass.
Food Mass (3,700 kg). (0.10 x 100 kg) x 370
|Average Primate Mass |
|Animal||Species ||Mass (kg) |
|Lemur, Tarsier || 125|| 5|
|New World Monkey || 132|| 1|
|Old World Monkey || 135|| 50|
|Gibbons || 16|| 5|
|Great Apes || 6|| 100|
- 414 Primates (605,838 kg).
The average animal weight is estimated as half the adult because primates need to be with their parents longer.
They eat meat, plants, seeds, nuts, grain, fruits, leaves, insects, eggs, and small reptiles.
They eat 10% of their weight in food .
Specimen Mass (16,374 kg). 2 ((125 x 5 kg) + (132 x 1 kg) + (135 x 50kg) + (16 x 5 kg) + (6 x 100kg)) =
Food Mass (605,838 kg). 0.10 x 16,374 kg x 370
This will be 40% Protein (jerky), 50% carbs (potatoes, oats and apples) and 10% fat (nuts and oil).
|Average Rodent Mass |
|Rodent||Species ||(g) ||Diet|
|Myomorph || 1539||10-25 ||Omnivore|
|Sciuromorph || 323||300 ||Mixed|
|Castorimorph || 96||1000 ||Herbivore|
|Hystricomorph || 229||1500 ||Herbivore|
|» Capybara || 1||65000 ||Herbivore|
|Rabbit, hyrax ||87||600 ||Herbivore|
- 2275 Small Omnivores (75,624.5 kg).
These include the small rodents, rat, mice, hamster, gerbil, dunnart , bandicoot, colugo, guinea pig and gophers.
It also includes 87 herbivores (rabbit, hare, hyrax).
They eat 15% of their body weight.
Specimen Mass (1362.6 kg).
2 ((1539 x 18g) + (323 x 300g) + (96 x 1000g) + (229 x 1500g) + 65000g + (87 x 600g))
Food Mass (75,624.5 kg). 0.15 x 1362.6 kg x 370
We will feed them potatoes, oatmeal, carrot, eggs and meat.
- 351 Carnivore Species (95,072.54 kg).
These include 40 cats, 49 dogs and bears, 19 racoons, 11 skunks, 41 mongoose, 93 (weasel, civets and skunks and lingsang) and 98 (Possum , cuscus, Shrew).
We have live mice, fresh milk and pellets made with grain, oats, vegetables and fruit.
Dehyrdrated shrimp, dried shrimp paste and dried tuna.
|Average Carnivore Mass |
|Animal||Species ||(g) ||Diet|
|Large infants || 19|| 45300 ||Omnivore|
|Medium || 69 + 98|| 13590 ||Omnivore|
|Small || 165|| 4530 ||Omnivore|
The larger infant animals are 12 large cats and 7 bears.
Large cats eat 4-6% of their weight in food.
40 cats need fresh meat or milk for carnitine. We can supply 150 cups of fresh milk per day.
115 species of marine mammals such as dolphins, whales, manatees, dugong, seals, sea lions and walruses are not included.
Specimen Mass (6424 kg).
2 ((19 x 45.3) + (69 x 13.59) + 98 (13.59) + (165 x 4.53))
Food Mass (95,072.5 kg). 0.040 (6423.82 x 370)
- Humans (5,280 kg).
We will carry pasta, beans, lentil, rice, flour, apple and raisins.
We also have many sources of fresh food.
The fact that the floors were 15 feet high is circumstantial evidence that the creation were still giants.
The animals taken were based on genus and may have been about 3100 kinds of animals from the size of mammals to amphibians.
Since humans must carry clothes we will include this weight in the estimate of their mass as 300 lbs (660 kg).
They can reuse the cloth storage bags to make more clothes.
The actual body mass for the purposes of calculating food requirements is 200 lbs (440 kg).
Humans eat 4 to 8 times their body mass per year. We will assume 7 times.
Specimen Mass (24,640 kg). 8 (440 kg) X 7
Food Mass (5,280 kg). 8 (660 kg)
- Extinct Animals (0 kg).
Many extinct animals can be traced to species of living organisms so they are not included as separate passengers on board the ark.
Only the dinosaur must be considered because it is clearly different and because its size impacts the logistics.
In the theory of evolution dinosaurs became extinct millions of years before man, but in the six day creation environment dinosaurs coexisted with humans.
Since Noah was asked to take every specimen aboard we must either believe that the dinosaurs became extinct before the flood or because they were long-lived and continuously growing like alligators they achieved these sizes over hundreds of years.
So if they existed at the flood Noah might have had baby dinosaurs the size of cattle or Noah took a pair of eggs on board.
Most dinosaurs were the size of chickens so we could include them with the birds.
We can transport the eggs of the larger species so that we do not have the burden of feeding and caring for these animals.
The same option could be taken for all egg-laying species such as reptiles and other birds.
The Ship Weight.
|Wood ||Ark ||Dry Weight|
|Hard||Rupture ||Elastic ||Crush ||Properties |
|Lignum Vitae ||Frame ||1,350 ||★4,500 ||17,760 ||2,304,000 ||11,400 ||Strength|
|★Ekki ||Exterior ||1,125 ||3,250 ||★26,640 ||2,805,000 ||14,160 ||Strong, Insect, termite and teredo resistant|
|Jarrah ||Floor, Wall ||860 ||1,920 ||16,200 ||1,880,000 ||8,870|
|Teak ||650||1,070 ||13,940 ||1,570,000 ||7,770|
|Balsa ||Walls ||★175 ||90 ||2,740 ||478,000 ||1,750 ||Light|
|Black Locust ||Interior Walls ||825 ||1,700 ||19,400 ||2,050,000 ||10,200 ||Fluorescent, |
|Coffeetree ||675 ||1,390 ||10,500 ||1,420,000 ||6,600|
|Red Palm ||850 ||2,060 ||15,840 ||1,843,000 ||11,310 ||Strength|
|Bamboo ||Interior Walls ||500 ||1,410 ||11,020 ||2,610,000 ||8,990 ||Insect attack, decays in years|
|850 ||1,610 ||24,450 ||★2,900,000 ||★13,490|
|English Oak ||Walls ||680 ||1,120 ||14,100 ||1,544,000 ||6,720 ||Rot resistant|
|Douglas Fir ||Frame ||570 ||620 ||12,500 ||1,765,000 ||6,950 ||Strong, Hard|
|Cypress ||Frame ||525 ||510 ||10,600 ||1,440,000 ||6,360 ||Decay resistant|
Cross Section of 75 ft (22.86 m) (50 cubit) wide Ark
||Living Spaces (30'x10')
||Garden ||Corridor ||Bamboo
||Living Spaces (30'x10')
|| 10x10' || 10x10' || 10x10'
||2' ||2' ||4'
|| 10x10' || 10x10' || 10x10'
Cross Section of 450 ft (137.16 m) (300 cubit) Long Ark
||21 Living Spaces (Units)
||Water ||Ramp ||Water
||21 Living Spaces (Units)
- Structural Support Beams And Posts (2928.507 m3).
Border posts and beams are 12x12 inch (0.3048 x 0.3048 m) and set every 5 feet (1.524 m) apart.
- All Beams (1787.796 m3).
There are 3.75 floors and 1 roof (450x75 ft) 16 long beams on each level 5 feet apart.
However the beams will be throughout the entire floor.
» Horizontal (1014.873 m3). 16x5 beams = 80 x (1x1x448 feet) or 80 x (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 136.55 m)
» 91 x 15 x 5 Cross Beams (772.923 m3). 6825 x (1x1x4') = 6825 (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 1.219 m)
- All External Post Assembly (657.439 m3).
All posts span the entire height of the ark and are braced by the floors every 15 feet we will add braces in the middle of the posts for the top two floors.
Horizontal and corner braces are on each floor
The horizontal brace is a beam in the middle of two posts on each floor
It can be used as the top of a fence
» 210 Eternal Posts (273.135 m3). 2x90 + 2x15 [1x1x45 feet] = 210 (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 14 m)
» 420 Horizontal Brace (47.564 m3). 210 x 2 x (1'x1'x4') = 420 x (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 1.219 m)
» 2520 Short 4-Corner Diagonals (142.717 m3). 210x4x3 x (1'x1'x 2') = 2520 (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 0.6096 m)
» 630 Long Diagonal Brace (194.023 m3). 12"x9"x14.5' = 210 x 3 x (0.3048 x 0.2286 x 4.42). Extends 4 ft.
- All Internal Post Assembly (483.272 m3).
» 264 Internal Posts (44x6) (193.145 m3). 9x9 inch every 10 feet = 264 (0.2286 x 0.2286 x 14 m).
» 1056 Horizontal Brace (155.565 m3). 264 x 4 x (9"x9"x9.25') = 1056 (0.2286 x 0.2286 x 2.819 m)
» 4224 Short 4-Corner Diagonals (134.562 m3). 264x4x4 x (1'x1'x 2') = 4224 (0.2286 x 0.2286 x 0.6096 m)
- Hull: Exterior Walls (682.752 m3). All walls are 3 inches thick (0.0762 m). The posts are 12 inches. So the hull is 18 inches.
» Exterior Hull. (4 Walls) = 0.0762((2x137x14)m + (2x23x14)m) = 341.376 cubic meter
» Interior Hull. These are the same dimensions but may use a different material.
- Hull: Roof 32% Glass (326.54 m3 Wood and 150,089 kg Glass).
» Roof - 16% Glass (403.38 m3 Wood and 83,473 kg Glass).
» Roof - Double Layer Wood (480.21 m3 Wood and No Glass). 2 x (137x23) x 0.0762 = 480.21 m3
» Transparent Roof.
The roof is made with double layer of wood like the rest of the hull with a window.
Window (2 [137x 0.457] Sides + 2 [3.66x0.457] Back and Front + [137x3.66 m] Top) x 0.05 m thick)
Some can be replaced with glass 2 inches (5 cm) thick.
Quartz is transparent to translucent. It is strong, hard but not brittle.
The density of quartz is around 2.65 g/cc (2650 kg/m3).
The roof has a wooden lattice structure 5 feet square. If more wood is needed then the overall weight of the ship will be less because the density of the glass replaced by the extra wooden support is much more.
- Mass 16% Glass Roof. = (125.218 + 3.345 + 501.42) x 0.05 = 629.983 x 0.05 = 31.499 m3 = 83,472.8 kg
16% Coverage replaces (480.21 x 0.16) or 76.83 cubic meters of wooden roof.
This lights the central corridor only, 12 feet wide.
- Mass 32% Glass Roof. = 123.218 + 2 (3.345) + 2 (501.42) = 1132.748 x 0.05 = 56.637 m3 = 150,089 kg
32% Coverage replaces (480.21 x 0.32) or 153.667 cubic meters of wooden roof.
This 24 ft wide section lights the central corridor and 6 feet on either side.
- Hull: Ark Exterior Bottom (240.11 m3). (137x23) x 0.0762 = 240.11 m3
- Floor (873.86 m3).
The floor is sloping with 3 inch soft rubber over 3 inches of termite resistant wood.
- Ground Floor (245.51 m3). The heaviest animals, insects and special systems are located here.
» First Floor. (137x23) x 0.0762 = 240.11 m3
» First Floor Raised Border (28" x 0.5" x 1040' Perimeter). 2 (71 x 1.2 x 31699) cm = 5.40 m3 = 3511 kg of teak
Along the hull where a layer of hay is stored, the floor is raised up 12 inches high and 2 feet deep.
This prevents feces or water which washes the floors to wet the hay.
This will be for the two sub floors of the first floor. The feces on the other floors will be easier to clean up
- Top Floors (628.35 m3) . The lighter animals and no floor under the skylight.
» First Floor Second Layer (75%). (0.75 x 240.11 m3) = 180.08
» 2 Upper Floors. 2 x (137x21.47) x 0.0762 = 448.27 m3
|Option 1 ||Option 2 ||Option 3
|Wood ||Mass (Kg) ||Wood ||Mass (kg) ||Wood ||Mass (Kg) |
|Beams ||2928.507 ||Lignum Vitae ||3,953,484 ||Teak ||1,903,530 ||Cypress ||1,537,466 |
|Floor, 1 ||245.51 ||Jarrah ||211,139 ||Teak ||159,582 ||Cypress ||128,893 |
|Floor, Top ||628.35 ||Teak ||408,427 ||Teak ||408,427 ||Cypress ||329,884 |
|Hull ||1249.40 ||Ekki ||1,405,575 ||Teak ||812,110 ||Cypress ||655,935 |
|Subtotal ||5,978,625 ||3,283,649 ||2,652,178 |
|Interior Walls ||Teak ||99,025
Sewer Brass = 4,732 kg
Water Tank Brass = 9,841 kg
Bird's nest oak (53,500 kg) and hay (56,832 kg)
Subtotal of common items - 3,446,358 kg
* Luxury item
|Walls ||Tar ||157,882 |
|Walls* ||Balsa ||1,872,042 |
|Glass Roof ||Quartz ||150,089 |
|Sewer ||Teak, Brass ||7664 |
|Stairs ||Teak ||30,743 |
|Water & Food Ducts ||Teak, Oak ||66,954 |
|Floor ||Rubber ||914,379 |
|Bird Nests ||Oak and Hay ||110,332 |
|Water Tank ||Oak, Brass ||34,734 |
|Total ||9,422,469 ||6,727,493 ||6,096,022 |
- Rubber Bedding (914,379 kg).
It would be a lot of work and space to store and remove used hay for bedding. The ammonia created by urine is bad for the animals so it must be removed daily.
If the floors were slightly inclined towards the walls so that they could be washed and if the surface is rubber then we have a system which is soft and maintainable.
The ancients had that technology.
The ancient Olmecs and the Mayans boiled latex to make rubber balls.
Latex can be vulcanized with high pressure and temperature or sulphur to produce a stronger product.
We will use 3 inches (0.0762 m) of the hard rubber for the common areas and corridors and the softer rubber for the bedding areas.
All floors have this substance. In addition the space on 75% of the first floor will be divided into two so that the height of the rooms will be 7 feet.
Density of rubber (kg/m3) 1200 (hard), 1100 (soft) and pure gum (0.91-0.93).
Surface area padded for 3.75 floors = 3.75 (131 x 22) m - skylight area (2 x 131 x 1.5) = 10,414.5 * 0.0762 = 798.5849 cubic meters.
» Mass of Skyway = 35,935 kg
» Mass of Bedding (100%) = 878,443 kg
- Water Proofing (157,882 kg).
Apply a 0.25 inch (0.00635 m) coat of pitch on both surfaces of the exterior hull.
Surface area on one surface is 2 (137x23) Roof + 2 (137x14) Long Sides + 2 (23x14) Short Sides = 10,782 m2
Volume for both surfaces = 2 (10782) x 0.00635 m = 136.9 cubic meter.
Mass = 1153 x 136.9 = 157,882 kg (Tar density 1153 kg/meter cubed)
- Noise Reduction. Use design choices to manage noise from the pounding waves and screaming animals.
- Exterior Wall Balsa Insulation. It is very light and has excellent sound, heat, and vibration insulating properties.
This makes the ark much lighter, and muffles the animal sounds and the vibrations from the storm.
The space 12 inch (-0.25 inch tar) between the double hull can be filled with balsa which would also strengthen the wall.
Volume = Total Volume of surface - Volume of tar (one surface) - volume of Wooden posts - Volume of exterior Wooden Beams.
Volume(square meters) = 10,782 - 68.45 - (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 14) x #posts - (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 137) x 8 - (0.3048 x 0.3048 x 23) x 8 = 10,697.38
Mass Balsa = (10,782 - 68.45 - 1.30064 - 12.7277 - 2.13677) * 175 kg/cubic meter = 1,872,042.356 kg
- Exterior Wall Hay Insulation.
We can take advantage of our cargo by using strategic placement of supplies.
If we store hay along the perimeter of the ark it can serve as sound proofing material.
Rope netting retainers are used to hold them in.
The hay wall along the perimeter also serves as a cushion for a rough ride.
The first 40 days were the roughest.
- Barriers And Dividers ( kg).
Pure wooden walls or rail fence will add more weight than necessary. With certain animals we can accomplish our goals with much lighter materials or innovative solutions.
I am calculating the construction mass for a piece of fence or wall that is (3x6) ft= 18 ft2 which is (91x182) cm = 16,562 cm2 = 0.016562 m2.
The purpose is to evaluate the density of each type of wall that will be used to construct various barriers with teak, a washable, rot and termite resistant timber that is 650 kg/cubic meter.
|Sample Barrier Construction||Surface||6x3 ft |
|Wall or Fence ||Height |
|kg/m2 ||Mass |
|Single Plain Wall ||6x15 ft ||16.51 ||27.609 |
|Double Wall ||6x15 ft ||38.34 ||64.11 |
|Single Wall ||6x15 ft ||21.83 ||36.50 |
|Double 3' Wall ||6x3 ft ||42.19 ||70.55 |
|Post and 3 Rail || Height|
|20.182 ||33.744 |
|Post, 2 rail, rope ||20.836 ||34.837 |
|Post, rail, 2 rope ||21.489 ||35.93 |
|Post and 3 Rope ||22.143 ||37.023 |
|Chain Link Fence ||9 guage |
| (2x2") ||3.418 ||5.715 |
| (1x1") ||8.008 ||13.39 |
|13 mm ||108 ft || (4x4") 10cm||12.403 ||20.739 |
|13 mm ||72 ft|| (6x6")15 cm ||8.27 || 13.826 |
|5 mm ||216 ft|| (2x2") 5 cm ||3.54 || 5.925 |
|3 mm ||432 ft|| (1x1") 2.5 ||2.36 || 3.950 |
|Reptile || 0.2032 || 1.7 ||2.9685 ||4.963 |
|? || 0.0711 || 0.564 ||1.08878 ||1.820 |
|Insect || 0.0279||-||0.68842 ||1.151 |
» Interior Solid Walls.
These solid walls use 4"x4" posts, 6"x1" cross bars and 1" teak board as wall cover.
The wall sample is designed as the section from one post to the beginning of the next section where the next post begins.
A 15 ft 4x4" post weighs 30.676 kg [4.572x .1016x .1016] x 650
A 6 ft 6x1" bar weighs 4.6 kg [1.8288 x .1524 x.0254] x 650
A 6x15'x1" wall weighs 138.044 kg [4.572 x 1.8288 x .0254] x 650
- Plain Wall Cover (6'x1"x15'). 138.044 kg. It is used with the existing structural posts.
- Double Wall (6'x6"x15').
Post (15') 3 bars (6') 2 walls (6'x15')
= 30.676+3(4.6)+2 (138.044) = 320.564 kg
- Single Wall (6'x5"x15').
Post (15') 3 Bars (6') 1 Wall (6'x15')
= 30.676 + 3(4.6) + 138.044 = 182.52 kg
- Short Double Wall (6'x6"x3').
Post (3') 2 Bars (6') 2 Walls (6'x1"x3')
= 30.676/5 + 2(4.6) + 2 (138.044/5) = 70.553 kg
These are 3 foot high fences which use 4x4 inch posts set 6 feet apart and 2x6 inch rails.
The ropes are 38 mm (1.5") diameter sisal.
» Teak Post. 4x4x36" [0.1016x0.1016x0.9144 m] weighs 6.135 kg
» Teak Rail. 2x6x72" [0.0508x0.1524x1.8288 m] weighs 9.203 kg
» 38 mm Sisal Rope. 72" [1.8288m] weighs 10.296 kg
Since the wooden fence is lighter and it provides a broader surface area it should be a better barrier.
- Post And 3 Rail Fence (P3R). 6.135 + 3(9.203) = 33.744 kg
- Post, 2 Rail And Rope Fence (P2Rs). 6.135 + 2(9.203) + 10.296 = 34.837
- Post, Rail And 2 Rope Fence (PR2s). 6.135 + 9.203 + 2(10.296) = 35.93
- Post And 3 Rope Fence (P3S). 6.135 + 3(10.296) = 37.023
» Mesh And Netting.
We estimated the amount of rope for a 3x6 ft section of mesh.
It can be used as safety barriers for the top two floors of the skylight corridor and they let light come in.
They are attached to the roof and the 3ft short wall which serves as the safety rail.
Smaller mesh sizes are used for the small birds and mammals.
» Interior Walls (99,024.97 kg).
- Corridor (2x2 Chain Link) (10,001 kg).
8[15'x210'] + 4[7.5'x210'] = (8(4.57x64) + 4(2.29x64)) x 3.418
- Solid Walls (16,872 kg).
» Compost And Dung Room (DW). 2[50x15'] + 2[10x15'] = 1800 ft2 = 6,411 kg = 5,522 kg
» Human Space (DW). 2 [30x15'] + 2 [40x15'] + 3 [10x15'] = 2,550 ft2 = 9,082 kg - 7,823
» Hippo Space (SW). Next to the dung room. 2(8x10)ft 2(2.438x3.048) = 245 kg
» Bamboo Boxes (SW). 2[210x3'] + 2[4x3'] = 1,284 ft2 = 2603 kg = 1,969 kg
» Vegetable Boxes (SW). 2[210x2'] + 2[4x2'] = 856 ft2 = 1736 kg = 1,313 kg
- Animal Fence (3,198.74 kg).
The 30 foot long 2x2" chain link fences are used to separate groups of animals, they are not placed between every unit.
» 30' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x 3']. 18 (4.572 x .9144) x 3.418 = 257.21 kg
» 30' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x30']. 1 (4.572 x 9.144) x 3.418 = 142.89 kg
» 20' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x20']. 7 (4.572 x 6.096) x 3.418 = 666.84 kg
» 20' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x20']. 5 (4.572 x 6.096) x 3.418 = 476.31 kg
» 20' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x20']. 2 (4.572 x 6.096) x 8.008 = 446.38 kg
» 10' Barrier Fence (Animals) [15x10']. 27 (4.572 x 3.048) x 3.418 = 1286.05 kg
» Bat and Reptile Room .
[1.7x1.7] cm brass mesh allows insects to go into the rooms
through the floor of the bat and reptile rooms which is the ceiling of the dung and compost room.
The front screen and the last side is finer mesh that does not let insects through.
Floor 2[10x50'] = 2 (3.048x15.24) x 2.9685 = 275.78 kg
Sides 6 [30x15'] = 6 (9.144x4.572) x 2.9685 = 744.61 kg
Front Grid [60x15'] + Side [30x15'] = ((18.288x4.572) + (9.144x4.572)) x 0.68842 = 86.34 kg
» Insect Room . Front and Back 2[10x15'] + Sides 2[20x15']
= 2(3.048x4.572) + 2(6.096x4.572) x 0.68842 = 57.56 kg
» Large Reptile And Turtle Pond (446 kg).
» Mesh Underwater (223 kg). (30x10') = (9.144 x 3.048) x 8.008 kg/m2
» 4' Mesh Fence (223.176 kg). 3(6x10') water + 2 (4x10') land + (4x10) fish land barrier.
3 (1.8288 x 3.048) + 2 (1.219 x 3.048) + (1.219 x 3.048) = 27.869 x 8.008 = 223.176 kg
- Food Barriers (35,770.83 kg). Food is stored behind animals who do not occupy the entire unit.
» Animal (2588.42 kg). Food behind animal pods uses 2x2 chain link fence except with small animals.
Small Rodents - 1 Unit [10x15'] = (3.048 x 4.572) x 8.008 = 111.59 kg (1x1 chain link fence)
» Hay Wall Fence (33,182.4 kg). 3 floors (2 Walls [420x15'] + 2 Walls [60x15']) = 43,200 ft2 of 6x6" Sisal
Large Rodents, Hares, Weasels - 7 Units [10x15'] = 7 (3.048 x 4.572) x 3.418 = 333.42 kg
Apes, Cats and Dogs - 15 Units [10x15'] 15(3.048 x 4.572) x 3.418 = 714.47 kg
Birds 30 [10x15'] = 30 Units (3.048 x 4.572) x 3.418 = 1428.94 kg
- Bird Nests (110,332 kg Includes Hay).
Birds and small animals are kept in nests with open spaces for food and water.
These nests are 25% hay which is not replaced for the duration of the time.
Only the floors of the common areas will be washed.
All structures are made with teak (650 kg/m3).
Total Units. There are 4 designs based on the size of the creature.
» B1 - 616 nests room 20x6' - 1x1' nests 14 levels 9550 total pairs in 19 units 11,704 structures
» B2 - 154 nests room 20x8' - 2x2' nests 7 levels 1063 total pairs in 7 units 2141 structures
» B3 - 65 nests room 20x10' - 3x3' nests 5 levels 290 total pairs in 4 units 260 structures. 30 pairs in B2.
» HH (Hen House) - 1000 nests room 20x18' - 2x2' on 7 levels 1000 total in 3 units 1008 structures
- Hay Bedding (56,832 kg). The density of loosely packed hay is 0.003 kg/ cu in.
» B1: 11704 (1x1'): Hay 3". 11704 [12x12x3"] = 5,056,128 in3 x .003 kg/in = 15,168 kg
» B2: 2141 (2x2'): Hay 6". 2141 [24x24x6"] = 7,399,296 in3 x .003 kg/in = 22,198 kg
» B3: 260 (3x3'): Hay 12". 260 [36x36x9"] = 3,032,640 in3 x .003 kg/in = 9,098 kg
» HH: 1000 (2x2'): Hay 6". 1000 [24x24x6"] = 3,456,000 in3 x .003 kg/in = 10,368 kg
- Structure (53,499.88 kg).
There are 36 birds units. The pod style is designed in a "C" shape around 3 sides of the unit and opened in the front.
The nests are made with 1/2 inch (.027 cm) thick board and horizontal 2x2 supports attached to vertical rear support posts every 5 feet.
All bases use 44 feet of board (13.4 m). The base is the width of the pod with a length twice the length and width in the rear.
- Base (32,746.87 kg). The floor of the nest.
» B1: 13[44'x1'] = 13 [13.4 x .3038] = 19 (13 x 4.07 x .027 m3) x 650 = 17,642.84 kg
» B2: 6[44'x2'] = 6[13.4 x .6096] = 7 (6 x 8.17 x .027 m3) x 650 = 6,022 kg
» B3: 4[44'x3'] = 4[13.4 x .9144] = 4 (4 x 12.25 x .027 m3) x 650 = 3,439.8 kg
» HH: 3 pods/unit x 3 units x 6 floors/pod [16'x4'] = 54 [4.88x1.22x.027 m3] x 650 = 5,642 kg
- Walls (9,064.9 kg). Walls are made with 1/4 inch teak plywood (0.00635).
» B: 30 Side walls [20x15'] + Back Walls 30[10x15] = 30 [6.096x4.572] + 30 [3.048x4.572] = (836.13 + 418.06) x .00635 x 650 = 5,176.67 kg
30 walls 24 rope walls and 5 walls separating birds of prey and 1 solid wall next to the food stores.
Solid Back wall next to store rooms.
» HH: 2 Unit Sides[20'x15'] + Unit Back [60x15'] + 18 Pod walls [16'x15'] + 16 Nest Walls 9[2'x15']
= 2 [6.096 x 4.572] + [18.288 x 4.572] + 18 [4.8768 x 4.572] + 16 x 9 [.6096 x 4.572]
= (55.74 + 83.61 + 401.34 + 401.34) x .00635 x 650 = 3,888.26 kg
- Posts (11,688.11 kg). Units share common posts which are [2"x2"x15'] (.0508x.0508x4.572) x 650 = 7.67 kg per 15' post.
1 ft beam weighs 0.511 kg, 2ft weighs 1.022 kg and 3 ft weighs 1.534 kg.
Each "B" pod wall has 4 Vertical posts and each pod has 10 posts in the front of the nests.
There is one horizontal floor beam for each inner post that is the length of the nest.
» B (Vertical) 2853.24 kg: ((30 x 4) + (7 x 36)) x 7.67
» HH (Vertical) 759.33 kg: ((18 x 3) + (5 x 9)) x 7.67
» B (Horizontal) 1516.788 kg:
19 pods x 14 levels x 7 Beams x 0.511 = 951.482 kg
7 pods x 7 levels x 7 Beams x 1.022 = 350.546 kg
4 pods x 5 levels x 7 Beams x 1.534 = 214.760 kg
» HH (2' Horizontal) 322 kg: 9 pods x 7 levels x 5 Beams x 1.022
» Front (Nest Box) (6,236.75 kg and 9.595 m3). Front barrier is 50% of height made of 1/2 inch board (0.0127 m).
There is 44 ft (13.4 m) of barriers on every level and 30 feet (9.144 m) in the hen house.
B1 - 19 pods x 14 levels x (13.4 x 0.1524 x 0.0127) = 3.268 m3
B2 - 7 pods x 7 levels x (13.4 x 0.3048 x 0.0127) = 2.541 m3
B3 - 4 pods x 5 levels x (13.4 x 0.4572 x 0.0127) = 1.556 m3
HH - 9 pods x 7 levels x (9.144 x 0.3048 x 0.0127) = 2.230 m3
- Perch (1100 kg). 3 Perch Lines (300 ft) are located in front 8 inches apart and 12 inches below each other.
900 feet of rope (275 m).
1 inch (24 mm) diameter sisal rope weighs 0.4 kg/m and has a 5,760 pounds/ft breaking strength.
» Feeding System (66,954 kg).
The feed and water bins are made of oak (680 kg/m3).
They are in the front against the barrier walls at the edge of the corridor of the 10 feet wide units.
There are 250 units, some with multiple levels.
- Troughs (10,546 kg). They are dug outs one inch thick which are calculated as total units x volume (outer dimensions - core) x density of oak.
» 200 Large Water Trough [4'x1'x1'] (3794 kg). = 200 ((1.2192 x 0.3048 x 0.3048) - core) x 680
Alternative (4 Long Troughs). Long water trough in the rear on the first floor (Level 1 and 2).
» 50 Medium Water Trough [4'x1'x0.5'] (608.6 kg). = 50 (1.2192 x 0.3048 x 0.1524) x 680
» 100 Small Water Trough [4'x1'x 0.25'] (870.4 kg). = 100 (1.2192 x 0.3048 x 0.0762) x 680
» 350 Feeding Trough (5273 kg). Same as water bin.
- Ducts (56,408 kg).
» 12 Horizontal Water Ducts 2" Thick Oak (35,088 kg). 12 [210x1x1.5'] = (64.008 x 0.3048 x 0.4572) - core (63.9 x 0.2032 x 0.3556) = (8.92 - 4.62) = 2924 kg
These are wooden ducts along roof over the barrier walls which carry water to hoses.
» 150 Water Hoses (23.5 kg). Flexible leather hoses between every 2 units.
They are 6" round and 15' long and 1/8" thick (15.24 x 38.1 x 0.3175 cm).
90 ft2 and 11.25 ft3 which is (184.35 cc x 0.85 g/cc) = 156.7 g/ hose x 150 hoses) = 23.505 kg.
The density of leather is 0.76 - 0.95 g/cc.
» 190 Feeding Hose (31.3 kg). Between every 2 units. Flexible leather.
9" round, 15' long, 1/4" thick (15.24 x 38.1 x 0.635). = 368.7 cc x 0.85 = 313.4 g x 100 hoses = 31.3 kg
» 190 Feeding Chute/Hopper (21,265 kg). Attached to each hose is a room of food pellets with the holes over the hose.
Each is a 3 ft (0.9 m) square oak box 2 inch thick. 4 (0.9 x 0.9 x 0.0508) x 680 = 111.92 kg
» Buckets. 2 milk storage tanks, 8 milk pails and 8 food shovels.
» Sewer System (4.51 m3 and 4732 kg Copper).
The system is lined with brass for easier cleaning and to kill pathogens.
All boards are one inch thick (0.0254 m) with 1/8 inch (0.003175 m) brass plating.
- 4 Waste Shafts and 2 Special Dung Room Vent [2x1x45] ft [0.6096 x 0.3048 x 13.72].
8(Long Sides 2[13.72 x .6096] + Short sides 2[13.72 x .3048])
» Wood. 8 (8.364 + 4.182) m2 = 100.365 x 0.0254 m3 = 2.55 m3 wood.
» Brass. 0.318 m3 = 2671 kg of brass.
- 16 Covered Buckets [2x3x4] ft [0.6096x0.9144x1.219] m. Portable covered bins for dung and garbage fit under the shafts. They have a split lid that covers the open end.
16 (Long sides 2[0.9144 x 1.219] + Short sides 2[0.6096 x 1.219] + Top and bottom 2[0.6096 x 0.9144])
» Wood. 16 (2.229 + 1.486 + 1.115) x 0.0254 m3 = 16 x 4.83 x 0.0254 = 1.96 m3
16 x 4.83 x 0.003175 = 0.245 m3 = 2061 kg of brass.
- Reciprocating Displacement Pump And Bilge Holes.
Holes in the sides can be used to remove waste from below through a simple water lifting device or gravity from above water line.
» Ramps, Stairs, Ladders and Bridges (30,742.76 kg).
On each floor the 5' wide ramp with a slope of 9.26° extending from the center corridor and rises 3.75 feet over 23 feet to a 5'x5' landing in the back then turns and rises another 3.75 feet to the back storage rooms in middle of floor.
Then the third section rises to the front then runs parallel to the corridor to reach the next floor.
Ramps and bridges use hand rails.
» 1 ft (0.3 m) Section of Handrail. [12"x3"x2"] Rail + 4 Balusters [36"x1"x1"]
= (0.3048 x 0.0762x0.0508) + 4 (0.9144 x 0.0254 x 0.0254) x 650 = 2.3 kg
So the ramp is in four sections on each floor.
- Ramp (17,571.025 kg). It extends up 2.5 floors on one side in the mid section in an area 30' by 23'.
» Ramp Floor [23'x5'x 2"]. (7.0104 x 1.524 x 0.0508) x 650 = 352.78 kg
» 23 ft of Ramp Handrail. 23 x 2.3 kg = 52.9 kg
» Landing [5'x5']. (1.524 x 1.524 x 0.0508) x 650 = 76.69 kg
» Landing Rails. 15' for 2 landings is (15 x 2.3) = 34.5 kg
» Ramp Base Support.
Edges 2(23'x4"x4") + 12 cross rails (5'x4"x4")
= 2(7.0104 x 0.1016x0.1016) + 12 (1.524 x 0.1016x0.1016) = 216.78 kg
» 750' Posts/ Floor (6"x6"). Set every 5 ft (228.6 x 0.1524 x 0.1524) x 650 = 3451.12 kg
» 184' Cross Braces/Floor (6"x6"). (56.0832 x 0.1524 x 0.1524) x 650 = 846.67 kg
» Floor Ramp Structure (7028.41 kg).
4 Ramp Floors + 2 Landings + 5 Ramp Railings + 15' Landing Railings + Base support + Posts + Braces
= 4 (352.78) + 2 (76.69) + 5(52.9) + 34.5 + 4 (216.78) + 3451.12 + 846.67 = 7028.41 kg
- Bridges (4,877.25 kg).
» 20 Bridges (8').
Across skylight corridor [8'x5'] + 12 (16' of hand rails on 2 sides) + 8 on ends (8' of hand rails on 1 side)
= 20 ([2.4384 x 1.524 x 0.0508] * 650) + 12 (16 x 2.3) + 8 (8 x 2.3) = 3,042.93 kg
» 4 Bridges (23'). Joins Floor Between Ramp
[16'x5'] + hand rails on 2 sides.
= 4 ([7.0104 x 1.524 x 0.0508] x 650) + 8 (23 x 2.3) = 1,834.32 kg
- 8 Stairs (7,368.48 kg). A 15 foot stair with open risers requires 24 steps.
The stair on each floor is in two 7.5 ft sections with a landing for turning in between.
These are the requirements for each section.
Each stair well has 4 sections and 2 landings [4 (220.87) + 37.58] = 921.06 kg
- Stair Section (220.87 kg).
» 12 Steps [12"x42"x1"]. 12 (0.3048 x 1.0668 x 0.0254) m3 x 650 = 64.42 kg
» 2 Stringers [1'x 10'x 2"]. 2[0.3048x 3.048x 0.0508] m3 x 650 = 61.35 kg
» 2 Handrails [10'x3"x2"]. 2[3.048x0.0762x0.0508] m3 x 650 = 15.34 kg
» 48 Balusters [36"x1"x1"]. 48[0.9144 x 0.0254 x 0.0254] m3 x 650 = 18.41 kg
» Support Post [30'x4"x4"]. [9.144x0.1016x0.1016] m3 x 650 = 61.35 kg.
One side is suppported by existing posts.
- 2 Landings [42"x42"x1"]. 2[1.0668x1.0668 x 0.0254] m3 x 650 = 37.58 kg
- 12 Ladders (926 kg). 18 rungs 2 ft wide, 2 rails 20 ft = (76'x2"x 4") = (23 x .0508 x .1016 m) x 650 = 77 kg
- Structural Lighting. The materials for some of the following structural lighting requirements are included in other calculations.
- Skylight (Sun and Moon).
Moses also had a "window" which we believe is a skylight running down the length of the ship about one cubit higher than the roof.
This provides continuous ventilation and light.
If the area is an open atrium and the six segments of the ark end in an open meshed wall then each section will have access to light on all three layers because the ark extends only 36 feet on either side of the skylight.
A skylight along the 450 ft length of the ark over a three story 12' corridor.
How was this constructed so that light could continually flow or come by an action like opening the roof?
A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.
(Genesis 6: 16)
The roof was raised about 18 inches above to make the window.
- Raised Roof. There could be 18 inch windows on the sides which could be opened up when it was not raining. If there was sufficient overhang, these windows could stay open during the rain after the violent part of the flood had ceased.
- Transparent Roof. The roof could be made of transparent material.
- Night Light (Moon). Natural and artificial lighting are used.
- Bioluminescent (Black Locust).
Fireflies and bioluminiscent creatures can be used in the lower layers since animals have better sight than humans.
We have at least two bioluminescent species of wood that can be used on the back walls.
The upper half of the back wall panels could be made from fluorescent material, replacing the Ekki, jarrah or teak inner wall or it could be a veneer.
It could help some animals who can see these wavelengths and maximize vision for others if they had the technology to create black light from potassium chloride or blue glass filter.
- Oil. Since we have proper ventilation, the primitive wax, vegetable oil and wick or carbon fuel lamps could have been used.
- Biogas. Gas lamps from our biogas facilities.
- Strategic Design.
The animals and cargo that do not need light can be stored towards the rear.
With the use of mesh walls they should see daylight streaming down the 3 story open skylight area 30 feet away.
Nocturnal animals are in the back. Underground or thick forest dwellers are behind the bamboo garden.
- Corridor Walls. All living spaces have a common area that borders the skylight.
All walls parallel to the corridor are open (mesh or rope) so that maximum light reaches the back walls.
Units are the number of 30x10x15 foot space from hull to skylight where the pods are located. There are 42 on each side of the skylight for a total of 84 on each floor.
A pod is a type of habitat design.
|Floors ||Animal||Gen ||Species ||Design||Habitat ||Food ||Habitat Designs|
|# ||Section ||Name ||Kind ||Type ||Total||Pod ||Units ||Light ||Habitat ||Diet
|Pod A [30'x10'] |
|Pod||Floor ||Size ||Pair ||Grid |
|A||1 ||- ||* ||10'|
|A1||2 ||Small ||54 ||3'x3'|
|A1c||3 ||Small ||71 ||3'x3'|
|A1d||4 ||Small ||108 ||3'x3'|
|A2||2 ||Med ||36 ||3'x5' |
|A2c||3 ||Med ||54 ||3'x5' |
|A3||2 ||Large ||24 ||6'x5' |
|A3c||3 ||Med ||36 ||6'x5' |
|Water and Food |
|Pod B1 [20'x6'] |
616 Nests (14 Levels)
|84 [1'x1'] Nests |
|266 Nests |
|Pod B2 [20'x8'] |
154 Nests (7 Levels)
|28 [2'x2'] Nests |
|63 Nests |
|Pod B3 [20'x10'] |
65 Nests (5 Levels)
|15 [3'x3'] Nests |
|25 Nests |
|Pod E [10'x10'] 30 Nests |
|Pod||Floor ||Size ||Pair ||Grid |
|E1||3 ||Small ||15 ||2x3x4|
|2 ||Med ||9 ||3x3x4|
|1 ||Large ||6 ||5x3x6|
|Water and Food |
|E2||1-3 ||Small ||45 ||2x3x4|
|E3||1-7 ||Small ||175 ||2x2x2|
|E4||1-5 ||Small ||60 ||1x1x1|
|E5||1-5 ||Small ||500 ||1x1x1|
|EX||1-15 ||Small||1500 ||1x1x1|
|"W" = Water/pool in area |
|Pod W [20'x10'] |
|Pod||Floor ||Size ||Grid |
|Ww||2 ||Storage ||10x10x7|
|Wd||2 ||Land ||10x10x7|
|1 ||Dirt ||10x10x7|
|Pod HH [18'x20'] |
336 Nests (7 Levels)
|Chicken Run [18'x4'] |
|1 || E-G 9-12.l1 || Sheep, Goats || 2 || 33 || 10|| A2c || 12 ||Day || Land ||Clean |
|A-C 9-12.l1 ||Cattle, moose  || 2 || 28 || 7 || A3 || 17||Day || Land |
|A 9-12.l1 ||Wildebeest || 1 || 10 || 7 || A3 || 4||Day || Land |
|A 9-12.l1 ||Pronghorn musk deer || 1 || 5 || 7 || A3 || 1||Day || Land |
|E-F 1-5.l2 ||Deer || 1 || 34 || 7|| A3c || 9 ||Day || Land |
|F-G 1-5.l2 ||Cervidae || 1 || 48 || 7 || A3 || 10||Day || Land |
|A 3-5.l2 ||Chevrotain || 1 || 6 || 7|| A2c || 2 ||Day || Land |
|B 1-5.l2 ||Antelope || 1 || 19 || 7|| A3c || 4 ||Day || Land |
|C 1-5.l2 ||Duiker || 1 || 21 || 7|| A2c || 4 ||Day || Land |
|A 1-5.l1 ||Suina: pigs, peccary || 1 || 23 || 2 ||A3 || 2||Day || Land || Omnivore |
|B 1-5.l1 ||Elephant|| 1 || 3 || 2 || A3 || 1||Day || Land ||Unclean |
|B 1-5.l1 ||Horse, ass, zebra || 1 || 7 || 2|| A3 || 1.5 ||Day || Land |
|B 1-5.l1 ||Giraffe, okapi || 1 || 2 || 2 || A3 || 0.5||Day || Land |
|B 4-5.l1 ||Hippo , rhino , tapir ||3 || 11 || 2 || A3 || 1||Day || Land |
|E 1-5.l1 ||Camel , Llama  || 1 || 6 || 2 || A3 || 1||Day || Land |
|E 1-5.l1 ||Kangaroo, wallaby || 2 || 61 || 2 || A3 ||2 ||Day || Land |
|E 1-5.l1 ||Ratites: ostrich, emu || 2 ||12 || 2 || A3 || 1||Day || Land |
|1 ||A 3 || Echidna, mole || 2 || 379 || 2 ||Wd || **5||Night || Burrow || Insectivore |
|1 ||A 3 || Edentata, numbat, pholidota || 3 || 37 || 2||Wd ||Night || Burrow || Insectivore |
|1 ||A 3 || Wombat || 1 || 3 || 2 ||Wd ||Night || Burrow || Herbivore |
|1 ||G 3-4 ||Tortoise  || 1 || 49 || 2 ||Ww || 1||Night ||Land || Herbivore |
|1 ||G 3-4.l1 ||Turtle , platypus || 1 ||252 || 2 ||Ww ||Night ||Water || Omnivore |
|1 ||G 1-2.l1 ||Crocodile, alligator || 1 || 23 || 2 ||Ww || 1||Night ||Water || Carnivore |
|2 ||A 2-6 ||Possum,cuscus,shrew || 3 || 98 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Day || Land |
|2 ||B 2-6 ||Racoon , Skunk [11}, mongoose || 3 || 71 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Day || Land |
|2 ||B 2-6 ||Weasel, civet, lingsang || 3 || 93 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Night || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2 ||Chiroptera (Fruit Bat) || 1 || 366 || 2|| E5 || 1 ||Night || Cave || Fruitarian |
|2 ||A 1-2 ||Chiroptera (Bat) || 1 || 734 || 2|| E5 || 1 ||Night || Cave || Insectivore |
|2 ||A 1-2||Frog || 1 || 6090 || 2 || EXW || 1||Day || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2||Lizard || 1 || 4470|| 2 || EX || 1||Day || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2||Snake || 1 || 2920|| 2 || EX || 1||Day || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2||Salamander || 1 || 615 || 2 || E5W || 1||Day || Land |
|2 ||A 1-2||Caecilicans (worm-like) || 1 || 189 || 2 ||Day || Land |
|2 ||E 2-6 ||Myomorph: Small rodents|| 4 || 1539 || 2 || EX || 1*||Night || Land ||Omnivore |
|2 ||F 2-6 ||Sciuromorph: Squirrel || 1 || 323 || 2 || E3 || 1*||Night || Land |
|2 ||G 2-6 ||Castorimorph: Beavers || 1 || 96 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Night ||Burrow ||Insect,seed |
|2 ||G 2-6 ||Hystricomorph: Capybara || 1 || 230 || 2 || E3 || 1*||Night || Land ||Herbivore |
|2 ||B 2-6 ||Rabbit, hare, hyrax || 2 || 87 || 2 || E2 || 1*||Day || Land |
|3 ||B 8-9 ||New world monkey|| 1 || 132 || 2 ||E2 || 3 **||Day || Land || Omnivore |
|3 ||C 8-9 ||Lemur, loris, tarsier ... || 3 || 125 || 2 ||E2 || 3 **||Night || Land |
|3 ||C 8-9 ||Old world monkey || 1 || 135 || 2 || E2 || 3 **||Day || Land |
|3 ||C 8-9 ||Lesser apes (gibbons) || 1 || 16 || 2 ||E1 || 2 **||Day || Land |
|3 ||C 8-9 ||Great apes || 1 ||6 || 2 ||E1 ||Day || Land |
|3 ||G 8-10 ||Insects, dinosaur eggs ||* || 2 || E || 1||Both || Land || Omnivore |
|3 ||BA8-9 ||Dogs, bears || 2 || 49 || 2 || E1 || 2 **||Day || Land || Carnivore |
|3 ||B 8-9 ||Cats || 1 || 40 || 2 || E1 || 2 **||Day || Land |
|3 ||A 3-6 ||Birds of Prey (Raptors) || 9 || 290 || 2 || B3 || 4||Day ||Land |
|3 ||A 3-6 ||Owls (Night Raptors) || 1 || 130 || 2 || B2 || 1||Night ||Land |
|3 ||A 3-6 ||Water Birds, cranes || 21 ||351 || 2 || B2 || 2||Day ||Land ||Omnivore |
|3 ||B 3-6 ||Cuckoo, roadrunner, ani || 3 || 126 || 2 || B2 || 1||Day ||Land |
|3 ||B 3-6 ||Swift, hummingbird, game || 10? || 650 || 2 || B1 || 1||Day ||Land |
|3 ||B 3-6 ||Other Small Birds || 33? ||3300 || 2 || B1 || 5||Day ||Land |
|3 ||C 3-6 ||Other Medium Birds || 5? || 456 || 2 || B2 || 3||Day ||Land |
|3 ||F-G 3-6 ||Parrots || 1 || 300 || 2 || B1 || 9||Day ||Land |
|3 ||F 3-6 ||Song Birds || 50? ||5000 || 2 || B1 ||Day ||Land || Vegetarian |
|3 ||F 3-6 ||Clean Birds || 8 || 300 || 7 || B1 || 4||Day ||Land |
|3 ||G 8-10 ||Hens for egg production ||1000 || 1 ||HH ||3||Both || Land |
|3 ||E 8-12 ||Humans|| 1 || 4 * || 2|| A ||4 ||Day || Land |
|1 ||A 1 ||Dung Room || A|| **5 ||Day || Land ||Dung |
|1 ||A 2 ||Compost || A|| **5 ||Day || Land |
|1 ||A 1-2 ||Worm, flies, dung beetle || A ||**5 ||Day || Land |
|* ||Storage * = number of 10'x10' space in front of or behind the living space in the 30x10' unit |
Floor Plan 1.
This arrangements of animals has the heavier animals and big "poopers" above. It allows for easy cleaning of feces and urine for those who produce great quantities.
The sewer goes directly to the chutes, emptying above the water line above the first floor.
The change in construction is to add 1716 kg /1800 ft of chain link fence at the corridors.
|Floor||Plan 1||Plan 2||Animal||Sewer|
|3||3a||2, 3 South ||Man, Primates, Cats, Dogs, Bears, Hens. Food, grain, storage||Rhino|
|3b||1a ||Sheep, Goats, Deer, Cervidae, Antelope, Chevrotain, Duiker [+ Fence]||Pigs|
|2||2a||1a, 1b ||Cattle, Horses, Unclean Animals. These cannot climb easily. Milk Kitchen [+ Fence]||Elephants|
|2b||3 North ||Birds (Water line is at this level) ||Snakes, bats, amphibians|
|1||1||2 ||Rabbits, weasel, rodents, possum, racoon, armadillo, sloth ... anteater, pond ||Dung Room|
Floor Plan 2.
This arrangements of animals has the heavier animals below. It allows for easy entry and exit.
| The First Floor Layout (Level 1) |
========= Double Hull =========+ |
Zebra, ass, horse
||armadillo sloth numbat echidna mole wombat anteater
||Tapir  Rhino
Hippo Pig 
Goat  Tahr 
|0 ||Hay |
|======== Double Hull ======== |
Diggers: Armadillo, Numbat, Anteater, Sloth  Mole , Echidna  Wombat 
The floor is divided into 2 levels.
Food is stored above and the animals are on level 1.
This facilitates shoveling food into the space below and loading these large animals without the use of ramps.
These animals occupy the entire 30x10x7' space of each unit.
» Clean Animal. 63 half units
» Unclean Animal. 8 units
» Underground (Mole).
» Turtle. 2 units G (1-5) - level 1
Total Garbage Space: 24,000 ft3
» Dung. [50x30x8'] - A (1)
» Compost. [50x30x8'] - A (2)
The messiest poopers are next to the dung room.
» Garden Space.
Total Living Space: 153,700 ft3
Total Storage: 182,400 ft3
Level 1 (11 Half Units). Transfer
Level 2 (14 Half Units). Transfer
Level 2 (34 Half Units). 17 corn
Level 2 (30 Half Units). 15 oats
| The First Floor Layout (Level 2) |
========= Double Hull =========+ |
|| Chevrotain 
||Grain and Hay
||Grain and Hay
|0 ||Hay |
|======== Double Hull ======== ||
The second level is for food to feed the herbivores below.
It is also the expansion space for growing herbivores as the food is depleted.
Most deer are kept on this level.
Space (G 9-12) on both levels is a possible location for a second compost room when the food in this section is used up.
» Dung Disposal On Landing.
While the boat is in transit, all the dung portholes can be used.
However, when the boat lands only those to the rear should be used.
In addition, while water still surrounds the boat for 2.5 months, dung should be stored in the dung room.
This ensures that the front half of the boat is not sitting in a pool of dung when the animals disembark.'
|The Second Floor Layout |
========= Double Hull =========+ |
||Acorn, Nuts, Wood
||Fresh Fruit ||Oats
|Fresh Fruit 
||-|| ||- |
||Fresh Fruit  (210x10 feet)
||Fresh Fruit  (210x10 feet)
|0 ||Hay |
|======== Double Hull ======== ||
This space functions mainly as the food silos for the animals below.
Most animals are either nocturnal or hibernating or not fed regularly and live in section A-B row 1-6.
The bats and reptiles are fed through the mesh floors from the insects in the dung and compost rooms below.
Total Living Space: 48,000 ft3
[ 60x30x15'] A (1-6) - Cage
[ 80x20x15'] B (2-6) - Rodents
Total Storage: 327,000 ft3
[ 80x10x15'] B (1-6)
[ 70x30x15'] C (1-6)
[210x30x15'] E-G (1-6)
[420x30x15'] A-G (8-12)
This floor can be food only.
The insect eaters are on level 2 above the dung rooms and the rest on level 1 of the first floor.
|The Third Floor Layout |
========= Double Hull =========+ |
||Seed (210x10 feet)
||Seed (210x10 feet)
||Lemur, loris 
||Nuts (210x10 feet)
|0 ||Hay |
|======== Double Hull ======== ||
All bird space has a 10x10x15 feet space behind the pods for food storage.
Pod "B" also has a 4 x 20 x 15 foot space from back to front and Pod "C" has a 2x20x15 foot space.
All pods have a central space and front balcony for flight, water, food and perching trees.
Total Living Space: 132,000 ft3
» Birds. 30.5 [2/3] units
» Carnivores. 4 [1/3] units
» Primates. 11 [1/3] units
» Egg-Laying Hens. 1 Unit
» Dinosaur eggs. Closet.
» Humans. 4 Units
Free Flight Space [30x10x15']
» 4 Units. (C 1-6)
» 8 Units. (E 1-6)
Total Storage: 246,000 ft3
Food Space Behind Animals
» 30.5 units [10x10']. (A-E 1-2)
» 15 units [20x10']. (B-C 10-12)
» Dry fruit & Vegetables
17 units. (E-G 8-12)
6 units. (A 8-12)
Flood Science Criticisms: Stolen Legends.
I heard these arguments on the Discovery Channel production about Noah's ark in December 2005.
While searching for this broadcast in July 2013, I found a BBC documentary from 2003 with the same arguments.
Undermining the Bible, the BBC documentary immediately labeled Noah as a drunk of questionable character and concluded that the story of Noah in the Torah was stolen from anicent Sumerian mythology about a local flood.
The story was embellished and made up by Jewish priests living in captivity during the Babylonian exile as a cautionary tale about disobeying God.
They concluded that the Sumerian Noah was a trader on the Euphrates who got caught in a local flood with his cargo of animals and beer. All had to drink beer to survive for the 7 days the boat was adrift in the Persian Gulf.
Settling on the local Mesopotamian flood as authentic, it went on to say that the ark was a small boat carrying only 260 animals that were found locally.
They arrived at these figures from the list of clean and unclean animals in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14. These are 10 species of clean animals and about 30 unclean animals and the birds.
Flood Science Criticisms: The Animals.
- 30 Million Species, Not Enough Time Or Space.
They said that it was impossible to find and load so many species in seven days.
For thirty million species,
Noah needed to load 50 pairs per second. It would take 30 years at a more realistic loading rate with a fleet of arks.
In 30 years it takes 2,740/day or 114/hour or 2 animals per minute.
Assuming Noah rested on Sabbath, it would take a rate of 58/second to load 30,000,000 in 6 days.
Their statements are so grossly misleading and in fact it is deliberately dishonest.
They forgot to mention factors such as, multiple queues, fewer large animals and fewer species and did not exclude species that were not in the ark.
They forgot to mention that even their own science says that all the species of cats evolved from one pair and what that could mean for the number of different species in the past.
No matter how many small creatures there were, If there were ten thousand or the current estimated thirteen million species of tiny creatures, they could crawl in on their own at any time during the 120 years and require no maintenance.
- Single File.
Their math assumes loading one pair of every specie at a time in a single queue.
A pair of ants did not crawl in, single file, behind a pair of elephants.
- 13.6 Million Species.
Second, they use an inflated figure. We have named 1.4 million, the best estimate is that there are 2 to 100 million creatures. 13 million is simply the scientist's estimate of the correct number, but no one has seen them.
So 30 million estimate used by the documentary may be another estimate in the 2-100 million range or it is a result of taking 13.6 million pairs of creatures and allowing for seven or seven pairs of clean animals.
But in the worst case there are not that many clean animals.
So the key fact is that even if there are 12 million more unseen and unidentified creatures on earth almost all will be microscopic and possibly only 100 will be of any size larger than a mouse. Practically none will be as large as a horse.
Of the 13 million, most were never manually loaded on the ark by Noah because they were too small or they were not air breathing.
If they were in the ark they were microscopic hitchhikers.
4,676,000 were never loaded and 8.75 million could hitchhike. So 13.426 million were not handled, leaving 174,000 viable candidate species.
Only 50,000 are vertebrates and only 5,000 are mammals.
These facts reduce the critical problem of volume to solve substantially.
Even if we found the upper range of 100 million species (98 million new), all the species found would be microscopic or plants and would not affect our ark loading and capacity.
- No Fungi (1,500,000) or Protozoans (200,000). They could survive outside.
- No Bacteria (1,000,000) or Viruses (400,000) or Nematodes (400,000). They live in the intestines or on surfaces.
- No Fish (106,000) or Mollusks or Crustaceans (350,000). Sea creatures were not taken.
- No Algae and Plants (720,000). No plants were taken. If they were, then seeds would be better.
- Maybe Insects and Arachnids (8.75 million). These could crawl in at any time, not single file.
It takes a few hours to fill a stadium of 10,000. Noah could load 500,000 creatures in seven days.
- Loading The Ark In Seven Days.
Noah had only seven days to find the animals and load the ark.
This is not true.
Noah did not collect AND load the animals in 7 days.
Noah only loaded the animals who migrated to him.
Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.
(Genesis 6: 20)
- Noah's Zoo.
Migration, a force which we observe today, probably drove them towards the ark.
God Initiated The Instinct To Migrate.
There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah.
(Genesis 7: 9)
Sealed By God.
And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the Lord shut him in.
(Genesis 7: 16)
However, in the last years or months before the ark was completed, Noah and his sons could have started collecting animals near by on the clear-cut land which would now be pasture land.
Then they were herded in quickly.
- Extinct Species. We will cancel out the effect of extinct creatures with current new variations.
- Large Animals Only. Their arguments did not make a distinction between the types of creatures.
Noah did not load insects, microscopic creatures and most marine creatures. He loaded larger air breathing animals.
» Undiscovered Species.
Scientists assume that most undiscovered creatures are insects or bacteria, not large creatures.
Therefore our ark capacity will not be substantially affected if we had to load hundreds more new creatures the size of mice.
- "Kinds" Of Animals.
Noah loaded pairs of every "kind" of animal. What does this mean?
Animals within the same species can breed. So the "Kinds" of animals may be equivalent to the Genus or Genera.
Within the potential of breeding pairs in a species is the ability to produce thousands if not millions of variations.
In the 1800's only about 40 species of dogs were recognized until Queen Victoria popularized the breeding of dogs through techniques learned from the Chinese.
Over 400 breeds emerged.
It is believed that all dogs are related to the wolf.
So "natural selection" only produced about 40 species in 6000 years and human intervention produced 400 in less than 100 years.
Noah could have taken only one pair of dogs. If this is the case, then the number of genera is significantly less than the number of species.
Flood Science Criticisms: Conditions On Board The Ark
- Space And Animal Size.
I removed critics arguments that appealed to space hogging requirements.
- Animal Size. The animals spent one year in the ark. If young animals came in the ark, then they must have come after weaning. So the youngest age may be about 2 years old at the time the ark landed.
- Water. We only need about 30 tanks since fresh water is available by rainfall.
- Hay Bedding. We used soft washable rubber bedding, solving two problems, space and cleaning.
They were travelling in a floating coffin with minimum supplies. They could not possibly manage to maintain a healthy environment.
- Ventilation (Vent Ball).
The same system that is used to vent the lamp room in lighthouses could have been used.
The ventilation ball is a chimney which has a series of holes that removes excess heat and exhaust fumes and is specifically designed to keep water outside. It allows warm moist air to be drawn outside while fresh air is pulled in.
These could be placed along the length of the skylight.
On the level where humans lived were the animals that did not produce a lot of waste.
The dung room is located on the first level in the corner opposite the human quarters.
It has a separate ventilation system.
» Air Exchange. Floating high the air temperature outside would have been very cold while the air inside would be warm.
This sets up to perfect conditions for air flow to take place.
- Air Quality And Odor Control.
We need to produce oxygen, remove carbon dioxide, eliminate sources of bad odors, neutralize and remove the odors that escape.
The main contributors of bad smells are urine and feces (ammonia and skatole).
We have ventilation but there are other measures to improve air quality.
The dung and compost rooms are mostly sealed, reducing bad odors.
Sunlight kills microscopic organisms that would thrive in dark, musty places.
Vinegar, eucalyptus oil, charcoal and baking soda will also neutralize odors while disinfecting.
If stalls are cleaned with soap and rinsed with mild vinegar scented with essential oils solution we can control the source of most odors.
Plants provide oxygen while removing carbon dioxide and some are a natural air filter.
Bamboo is one of the plants that improves air quality by removing ammonia.
We have live bamboo and we could also grow herbs at the base of the bamboo trees and bring scented dry herbs and eucalyptus oil on board.
Weeping fig, peace lily and lady palm will also remove ammonia created from urine.
Copper and its alloys also kill microbes which will improve air quality.
- Sanitation And Infection Control.
Control of microorganisms will control air quality.
One natural way to do this is to use copper or brass lining in the ventilation, water and sewer systems.
Ventilation balls are made of brass. Water tanks and sewer chutes are lined with brass.
Brass is used on all surfaces and for the handles of utensils.
Vinegar (stale alcohol) is a product that the ancients can make and it can be used in 5% washing solutions.
It kills bacteria (99%), mold (82%) and viruses (80%).
» Cleaning Stalls. This is a problem with the herbivores. They produce large amounts of dung throughout the day.
Alpacas poop in a designated pile while hippos fling dung every where as a way of marking their territory.
So the hippo will be in a room with full walls.
On each level there are spare rooms and the 30x23 ft space opposite the ramp which are used as temporary transfer stations to place animals while their stall is being cleaned.
Long-handled scrapers or a wide scraper like a spatula can be mounted on wheels to push the garbage towards the sewer chutes.
Bird poop that accumulates on the floor can be removed weekly.
- Waste and Garbage.
The proper design of cages will allow for the action of gravity to move waste material. Proper bedding and straw will trap this also. The ark was waterproof on the inside.
After the first forty days, they could regularly wash out the compartments every three months and the large herbivores daily.
» Compost Pit. To build this system we need worms, beetles, flies and dirt.
We have a separate dung room and a compost room to process the garbage and the slurry from the biogas digester in the dung room.
- Sewer. Vast quantities of poop and urine are produced.
All floors are on a slight incline for water to drain towards the sewer channels along the 2 long walls.
We have three-story sewer chutes that empty into the dung room or into portable storage bins on the first floor or that can be wheeled into the dung room.
The animals with the largest and messiest poop are on the upper floors.
The dung of other animals are much harder and smaller and can be swept up in to the portable dung bins.
» Port Holes. We can use them to dump waste water, urine and excess dung since the lake in which the ark rests will not be used for drinking water.
Above the water line the channels drain into the port hole.
» Screw Pump. It can be used to push waste below the water line out of the bins through the port holes.
» Construction. Sewer chutes and catch bins are lined with brass for better cleaning.
Copper alloys like brass kills bacteria and is resistant to corrosion especially in marine environments.
If properly annealed it will resist damage from ammonia in the urine.
» Dung Beetles.
Cows drop 10-12 patties per day.
Research in the African Savannah shows that a 1.5 Kg pile of elephant dung attracted 16,000 dung beetles who ate or buried the dung in two hours.
» Compost (Vermicomposting). A useful sewer management system turns dung and garbage into food for plants and insects for certain animals.
Sewer system insects include, dung beetles, worms, fly larvae on the dung and garbage piles and shell fish like clams oyster, shrimp in the fish pond.
Some fast methods can produce compost in 14 to 21 days if the material is finely chopped.
Noah could create a screw-auger system which has a blade at one end to chop up the used hay and turn over the compost material periodically.
- Lighting. Many sources of natural and artificial light are available.
- Temperature. Since the ark was high the temperature was cooler.
All the animal food can be made by reconstituting pre-cooked, dehydrated food without additional cooking.
Only human food needs to be cooked by adding warm water.
We do not need to bring wood. We have two options which both use the vast quantities of dung that will be generated.
- Dung. Dried camel, bison and cattle dung can be used for fuel.
- Biogas (Methane). Dung can be easily processed to make methane.
By simply mixing cow dung with water and letting it ferment without air, methane is produced.
Although unnecessary, the impurities can be removed by passing it through a series of cleaners to remove carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water.
The remaining solid left over is an enriched fertilizer that is sent to the compost room.
» Production Quantities.
About one cubic foot of gas may be generated from one pound of cow manure.
Its heat value is about 600-678 B.T.U.’s per cubic foot.
This is enough gas to cook a day’s meals for 4-6 people.
||Cow Dung Slurry
225 cubic feet of gas equals one gallon of gasoline.
The manure produced by one cow in one year (11,250 lbs) can be converted to 11,250 cubic feet of methane which is over 50 gallons of gasoline.
So one cow can produce enough gas to cook for 8 people for 23 years.
We have 7 each of cows, bison, deer, elk and 2 elephants and camels and many other large dung producers. We have enough fuel to cook and light the ark.
|Work Schedule |
|Time ||Job ||Activity ||Workers |
|Milk 21 cows (4-6 AM)
|Gather eggs, boil water || Mrs Noah |
|Mix nectar, potatoes, crush fruit |
|Scramble eggs, crush shells |
|People breakfast |
|Cut Bamboo ||Noah |
|Feed herbivores |
|Feed primates || Men |
|Feed cats, bears, dogs |
|Feed rodents, turtles |
|Feed birds |
|Feed insects, hens 1x ||Mrs Noah|
|10-12 || Clean || Clean floor, large animals || Men |
|12-3 ||Rest ||Personal Time, weekly chores ||All |
| Dinner || Repeat most AM tasks || All |
|Gather eggs, fruit, vegetables ||Mrs Noah|
|Feed cats, bears, dogs || Women|
|5-8 ||Staging ||Refill food Hoppers ||All |
|Daily||- || Resupply salt, water plants || Women |
| Weekly || Dung ||Stir compost (MWF) || Men |
| Clean || Clean bird floors (TTh) || Women |
| Clean ||Laundry (F) || Women |
| Monthly || Feed ||Reptiles (Sunday, Week 4) || Men |
| Month 9 ||Hatch ||Incubate dinosaur eggs ||All |
It is an impossible task for 8 people.
Hibernation would reduce the need for food and the work required to distribute food.
But a water supply system can be easily designed to reach all cages and stalls by filling one central station which flows to the feeders.
The same can be done for grain. But since this does not flow as easily as water, it will require more filling stations, but this is also manageable.
All feeding stations are visible from the front of the sections so that they can easily be inspected.
Feeding troughs are filled from the storage rooms behind or above the living quarters.
The animals must have been in very cramped conditions without any way of moving around. without exercise their muscles will waste away and they will die.
This claim is a bit melodramatic. We leave immobile grandparents in nursing homes all the time where they do not move or move in place and they hang on for years.
However, we have designed a series of common areas where the animals can move.
Their quarters are not cramped. As the storage spaces are emptied the growing animals fill these places.
- Clean Water.
Critics say that the weight of food and water and space requirement for a year is too much.
They dismiss using the water outside because it was salty and argue for bringing all the fresh water they would need on board.
The elephant requirement alone makes this seem impossible.
At any given moment they may need to have only a days supply on hand.
Since they were sitting in a resovoir of water outside they did not need to carry any.
The earth was covered with water, there must have been regular, normal rainfall after the forty days of continuous rain.
When the salt water evaporates to form rain clouds no salt is included.
So rain water is NOT salty.
The ark could have been designed to collect water from the roof to supply the ark through pipes that can be closed during the storm.
When the ark stopped, it could have been near a lake of fresh water with periodic rainfall.
We have designed a series of wooden, brass-lined water storage tanks to supply each section of the ark.
Pathogens would kill the animals under these conditions.
Most of these can survive outside. Others are found in the lining of the stomach, intestines and mouth or on the body.
Bacteria does not affect the healthy body when their colonies are low, so there is no reason to believe that all the pathogenic organisms would kill the animals who were healthy and in near perfect condition.
We have included antibacterial surfaces in our design as well as good hygenic protocols.
Flood Science Criticisms: Constructing The Ark
|Construction Schedule |
|Age ||Project ||Activity ||Workers |
|480 ||Gather |
|Cut trees and replant ||Hired Workers |
|Make fasteners (nail, pegs) |
|Make tools and replacements |
|490||Saw wood into planks, dry and cure and position supplies around the ark work site |
|500 ||Sons Born |
|520 ||Assemble Frame ||Children |
|530||Assemble base and frame |
|540 ||Each Deck |
|Construct exterior walls+floor |
|Construct Interior walls |
|Construct stalls and storage |
|Prepare more wood |
|550||Deck 2 ||Construct Deck 2, food silos |
|560||Deck 3 ||Construct Deck 3, frame roof |
|570 ||Special |
|Make fish pond, bamboo grove |
|Make dung and compost rooms |
|Roof||Cover roof (wood and quartz) |
|580 || Duct ||Water, Sewer, Feeding ducts|
|Collect resin for pitch and rubber|
|Apply pitch (Several Coats)|
|Apply rubber floor beds|
|Storage||Make 1359 food, 26 water tanks|
|Fence||Make rope and wire fence|
|590 ||Bags||Make 5,316 food storage bags ||Women |
|Food ||Gather grain, nuts, seeds, hay|
|595 ||Lamech dies (1651) |
|598||Bamboo ||Establish grove, garden |
|Insects ||Start termite and ant hills|
|Start dung beetle, worm colony|
|Fish Pond ||Prepare pond. Shell fish filter|
|Zoo ||Temporary zoo in clear-cut area|
|Prepare Food || Dry fruit, grain, nuts, seeds, flour|
|Dehydrated food, pellets, flour |
|Intense Evangelism ||All |
|600 ||Methuselah dies (1656) |
|Make temporary water duct |
|Gather animals (Migrate), eggs ||God |
|Month ||Pre-Load |
|Fill food and water bins |
|Assemble entry/exit ramp |
|Week ||Load |
|Feed large meals to reptiles |
|Week ||Load all Animals |
|Load entry/exit ramp |
|Week||Wait ||Shut door ||God|
- Construction Tools.
The most basic wood working tools such as a saw, a hammer, knife, rope, bucket and ladder are are all that are needed.
However there is evidence that they had very superior technology.
They built great cities and 100 years after the flood they were building the Babel sky scraper.
So cutting, hauling and raising logs may not have been a problem.
- Construction Material.
Critics say that a boat of that size would have to be constructed of steel because a wooden boat would collapse under the work load and the stress.
» Response (Superior Natural Fibers). The ark was made of "gopher wood". No one knows what the properties of this wood are like.
They leave the impression that natural fibers are not strong. So let us examine the lowly silk thread.
Ounce for ounce, silk is stronger and tougher than steel although it is one fifth the density of steel.
It is more ductile with the ability to stretch four times its length without breaking.
So it is difficult to fracture.
Only kevlar is stronger but not tougher than this steel.
However, the silk from the species Caerostris darwini is twice as tough and is even tougher that kevlar.
So extremely light weight bullet proof vests could soon be made from silk!
So never underestimate the properties of natural fibers.
If the fibers of gopher wood are made like silk, then millions of bundles of these interlocking fibers would be better than steel.
This is a man-made material using wood pulp (paper) or saw dust saturated with water and frozen.
The material can be used to make a boat in cold waters. It can be as strong as 2 inch (3 cm) thick plywood.
» Lumber Size. Silly critics trying to make their case limit the lumber to the 20 ft lengths available for sale in modern construction.
However, as late as 1918, 140 ft (43 m) length lumber was available for sale.
Lumber size is only restricted by the height of trees.
» Float. Engineers have discovered that the ratios of length:width:height of the ark is perfect for an object that needs to float and remain stable in rough seas without pitching and rolling constantly.
- Ancient Technology.
They did not have the technology to build such a large ship.
We cannot explain how they built the pyramids or the large patterns seen in the South American landscape.
So what we think should be possible for them is arrogant.
- Tools. Hammer, ax, shovel, saw.
- Ropes, Pulleys And Oxen. Lifting.
- Food Preservation. Salt, honey (sugar).
- Ramps And Levers. An inclined plane
- Metallurgy. Gold, silver, bronze, iron.
- Displacement Pump. Water lifting device.
- Rubber. Olmecs and Mayans boiled latex.
- Pitch (Bitumen).
Noah could not possibly use pitch to cover the ark because tar came from buried forests supposedly caused by the flood.
Petroleum reserves are not the only source of pitch.
It can be made by collecting and boiling resin from the pine tree, making charcoal out of the tree and then boiling the powdered charcoal in the resin.
- Glue. Tree sap, tar, beeswax, bone and grain.
- Construction. Carpentry, joinery (mortise and tenon), weaving.
There was naturally occurring glass such as obsidian and hardstone carving of clear quartz (rock crystal).
Evidence of glass making has been dated to at least 3500 BC from Mesopotamia to Egypt.
When did Noah find the time to preach and build the ark?
If we assume that the population was centrally located in the unbroken land of Pangea, then Noah could be centrally located so that he could regularly visit key cities in all directions.
- Passive Evangelism. Noah preached while he worked or conducted his other business.
- Tourist Attraction. The ark itself must have been a Mecca for scoffers, the curious and all sorts of people who wanted to see the crazy man who was building a giant boat for nonexistent rain.
It had never rained and water from below sprinkled the earth.
A Global Natural Sprinkler System.
And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.
But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.
(Genesis 2: 5-6)
Noah must have used this opportunity to preach to the people and to use on site signs, billboards, displays and literature to explain his cause.
- Location, Location.
His cause would be best served if he was building the ark along a popular route and near a popular attraction or on an exposed face of a mountain.
- Advertising. He could have a constant reminder of the flood by staging billboard displays at central locations and routes.
- Tricked Out Cart. His mode of transportation could be a loud travelling billboard as he hauled supplies. His donkey had bells.
- Active Evangelism.
Noah took time from the construction project to preach in other locations.
- Regional Market Places. He could have scheduled appearances at central locations or popular events. For example, he could visit the central market place, schools, government institutions and appear at popular gatherings and annual festivals.
- Planned Mass Evangelism. He could set up a presence at any time in any place to conduct a week long crusade.
This type of evangelism could be best conducted near the end of the 120 years when he wanted to tell people when to come to the ark.
- Papyrus Evangelism. Printed or handwritten notices.
- Third Party Evangelism. The actions of others publicized the message.
- Word Of Mouth. The critics spread the message as Noah became the butt of jokes.
- Supporters. At some time he may have had friends and supporters who gave up after much ridicule or much waiting or death. Methuselah and Lamech must have preached until they died.
- Construction Crew.
Not enough people to make the ark.
- Noah. He gathered tools and supplies until his sons were old enough.
- Mrs Noah, Her Young Sons And Her Daughters-in-Law. They planted, prepared dried food, preserves and milled flour for years.
She must have saved seed, woven cloth and made supplies for the years after the flood.
- Three Sons. They helped when they were old enough and assisted in evangelism.
- Relatives. Noah's father and grandfather and siblings must have helped.
His grandfather, Methuselah, died the year the flood came (1656). His name means "when he dies it shall come".
His father Lamech died five years earlier (1651). God might have let many of the righteous die just before the flood.
They helped with others who died before the flood and also provided financing.
- Supporters. Some must have believed for a while until peer pressure made them abandon their faith.
- Hired Hands. He could hire people to cut and haul trees and saw wood. There is not much to sabotage.
- Gate Crashers.
Why did the people not break down the ark with axes to get in?
A sizeable crowd must have gathered in curiosity to see the animals come to the ark.
Then, with peer comfort the unexpressed concerns must have turned to mockery.
- The Smell.
Noah would have been dumping sewer waste daily, making the surrounding environment very inhospitable. After 2 hours of this they would have left.
Who would stand around watching poop splatter for 7 days?
- No Crowds.
The ark was closed for seven days. At first they must have continued their scoffing and they must have given up by the seventh day, ready to come back and ridicule Noah the moment he was forced to come out in shame and disgrace.
So they were mostly at home when the flood struck and the ark was far away.
- Flash Flood.
The soil was saturated due to a natural mist, so flash flooding was inevitable.
Flash floods can occur within a few minutes to less than six hours of excessive rainfall.
- Weather Conditions.
Fear of the new phenomenon of the heavy rain, lightning, earthquake and strong winds would have delayed any action until their homes started to flood and staying inside would be just as risky as going to the ark.
The violence of the convulsion and the flash flooding and the force of water would have prevented any of them from reaching the ark by the time they discovered that the water was flooding their homes and would not stop.
Therefore, such an assault was unlikely.
If any managed to reach the ark, then the sheer force of water would prevent them from doing little more than pounding on the ark.
- Slippery, Muddy Slope.
The area around the ark must have been clear cut and with construction traffic it would have been dirt. With a flash flood this would turn to mud, making it difficult to walk through.
- Loading The Ark. Here is a possible schedule for loading the ark.
Assuming that as the area around the construction site was clear cut, that it became pasture land that supported a temporay zoo staging area.
While the animals are outside and the door is open hired hands could take care of the feeding and loading.
A week before the loading some species can be placed in portable cages (insects, reptiles and amphibians).
- Hay. This can be loaded in the ark several months in advance.
Hay is placed in the walls of the completed decks. Since it did not rain anything could be stored out in the open.
- Food And Supplies. Load preserved food in the weeks before.
- Animals. They are stored in the order that requires less work, using paid helpers.
- Hibernating And Self-Sustaining. These are loaded the previous week.
» Self-Sustaining Habitats (840+). 750 moles, 88 underground dwellers and insects
» 2200 Bats. Fattened for weeks. Some can hibernate 6 months.
» Amphibians (12,000). They also hibernate.
- Reptiles (16,000). Reptiles fed large meal and will not be feed for 6 to 12 months.
- Birds. 20,000
- Clean Birds. 5,000 and 1000 laying hens
- Animals (4550 Small). Rodents, rabbit (4550)
- Animals (1264 Medium). Carnivores (664), turtles, tortoises, platypus (600)
- Large Mammals (2418). Primates (818), carnivores (38), clean (1358) + 202
» Food And Supplies. Load fresh food. Noah signs over his property as payment.
- Sabbath. No Work.
- Other Strategies. There are other strategies to reduce the workload or save resources.
- 12,000 Amphibians. They could be stored as tadpoles or eggs which hatch in 2 to 20 days, then released down the sewer chute after the 40 days of wild weather.
They survive on flies and floating debris.
- The Ark Will Sink.
The weight was too much and the ark is too fragile so it would not float for 370 days.
- Stable. The ratio of the external dimensions (30 : 5 : 3) represents the optimum design for stability, comfort and strength in rough seas.
It was designed to withstand wind generated waves.
Critics claim that a wooden boat that large would fall apart.
Cheng Ho (born 1371) built 444 feet wooden ships.
The "Spruce Goose" is an airplane built of wood (218 ft 8 in (66.65 m) long, 320 ft 11 in (97.54 m) wide and 79 ft 4 in (24.18 m) high).
- Tethered Ark.
The water went 15 cubits above the mountains (Genesis 7: 20) and the ark was 30 cubits high. So if the ark was above this spot it would not sink because it was 15 cubits higher.
Five months after the flood, it settled on Ararat and stayed there for seven months.
If the ark was built on top of the mountain, then neither weight nor navigation would be an issue, only water proofing.
- High Launch Site. Ideally, on Mount Ararat, high on a mountain near a water fall which can resupply water during the seven days when the ark is closed.
If the canopy theory is correct then the humid planet did not have the temperature extremes and this location could be much warmer.
- Cargo Mass.
The total mass of the cargo and the ark is 13,696,920 kg. The volume of the ark is 44,114 million cubic centimeters and the density of fresh water is 1 gram per cubic centimeter.
This means that the ark can displace 44,114,000 kg of fresh water before it is covered.
The density of salt water is 1.025, giving a displacement value of 45,217 million kg.
There is 31% displacement in fresh water and 30% in salt water. So one third of the ark will sink up to the first floor.
Flood Science Criticisms: Other Issues.
||150 Days (Water)
||150 Days (Wind)
||Calmer Seas (253 Days)
||Incubation (77 Days)
|Trees and Forests
||Trees Destroyed and Submerged
||Olive Tree Grows
||1 Year (370 Days)
- Birth Control.
Species which mature within that year and then could have gestation and live births before they exited the ark should have males and females separated.
- Animals. There are multiple rooms so we will designate some as male and others for females.
- Birds. They do not need to be separated. We can take their eggs for food.
|Incubation Periods (Days) |
|Animal ||Period||Average||Start |
|Turtles ||65-110||80||Adar 1 |
|Snakes ||52-104||60||Adar 17 |
|Birds ||12-81||60||Adar 17 |
|Dinosaurs ||Same as birds||Adar 17 |
|Pigeons ||10-18||18||Iyar 1 |
- Egg Incubation.
If eggs are used to populate some species then incubation could occur after they exited the ark.
If not, the temperature in the incubation chambers should increase around the ninth to the twelfth month so that the babies will hatch by the time Noah exists the ark.
Dinosaur incubation periods are estimated to be the same as birds. Their egg sizes range from 19 inches (48 cm) to a tennis ball.
Incubation could begin during day 1 to 17 of the twelfth month for the 70 days they waited before exiting the ark.
I have not found informaion on storing eggs longer than 14 days before incubation.
- No Uniform Marine Sediment.
A scientist declared that he has searched throughout the world and found no evidence of the sea covering the continents.
There is evidence of marine sediments and life in places it should not be, but is is not lying in nice pristine layers. Instead it is broken, pushed up, pulled down because of the shifting mud and violent upheaval of the earht.
Structures like the grand canyon are evidence of layers of mud.
Marine life on top of mountains are evidence of the mountains being under water as is or later thrust up during the violent upheaval of the earth at that time.
Seashells are on top of Mount Everest at the 26,000 foot level.
10,000-16,000 feet on the Andes
- Noxious Sulfur Gases.
When the fountains of the deep broke up noxious sulfur gases from geysers were released and would have killed Noah.
This assumes that there are pockets of sulfur gases under every square foot of planet earth and that such gases existed in large quantities at the time of the flood.
Perhaps the process after the flood created these gases from decaying wood as they made oil and coal.
Sulfur dioxide gas reacts with water to produce sulfuric acid in the form of acid rain.
So, long before the gases reached the atmosphere it would have been converted to very diluted acid.
- Drowning In Air.
After 40 days so much moisture was in the air that it would have drowned Noah.
Noah was in a sealed boat.
- Exiting The Ark.
The ark rested on Mount Ararat on Nisan 17 and they exited the ark 7 months later.
The earth was dry 5 month after it rested but they stayed inside for 2 more months.
Without careful planning they could have exited in a sea of poop.
Depending on where the door was located, Noah could have used only the poop chutes at the other end, especially during the last two months when water could not distrubute the waste around the ark.
He could have released dung beetles all around the ark for those 2 months.
Finally, the dung room also has enough capacity to store extra dung.
I believe that all creatures of that time were giants. If so, how did they fit into the ark?
The measurement was based on the cubit which was the length from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. In the days of the Hebrews this was about 18 inches (regular cubit) to 22 inches (king's cubit).
Noah's cubit would have been in proportion to his size so the ark would have been proportionately bigger.
So the issue that remains is if the beams that are proportionately larger would have supported the structure or if we need more beams.
A hexagonal structure uses the least material to create a lattice of cells within a given volume.
Flood Science Criticisms: The Flood.
Critics also claim that it was not a global flood because there is no evidence of a global flood and there is not enough water to cover the earth.
- No Evidence Of A Global Flood.
Creation scientists argue that the entire planet is evidence of a massive geological disaster.
The vast oceans, layers of sediment, the Grand Canyon, the geological columns and flood basins with petroleum deposits are the visible proof of the soil settling in layers under water.
Every time I hear the opposition say there is no evidence of a global flood, they just simply state that phrase without addressing the evidence that creationists use.
This technique is effective because the audience assumes that there is no evidence, just "blind faith".
- Not Enough Rain.
If it rained 12 inches per hour (31 cm) for 40 days that is only about half a mile of water.
The tallest mountain is 5.5 miles above sea level.
This would not cover the earth.
The flood was not only caused by the rain, it was also caused by water coming out of "the fountains of the deep"
and also sinking the land.
Sea creatures have been found on top of mountains including Mt. Ararat.
- Not Enough Water.
Our evidence also challenges the statements that there is no evidence of the global flood and not enough rain water.
Below we will show that using only the water in oceans, while leaving other water in other phases of the water cycle that this is not true.
Using a model of the earth as one land mass over an aquifer, without mountains, the ocean water can cover the earth to a depth of 2.6 km (1.64 miles).
With 50% of the surface covered with mountains 2.6 km high, the flood waters would rise to 3.05 km (1.9 miles).
This does not cover either Ararat or our highest peaks but they are very high mountains.
These high mountain peaks are volcanic and probably emerged under pressure after the flood through the cracked plates.
So working with the current shape of the earth, there is a scenario which will allow us to cover these high mountains.
Flood Science Evidence: Enough Water.
The planet is 71% water on the surface area. But they claim that this is not enough water to cover the tops of the mountains.
However, the Bible claims that the surface of the earth was very different before the flood.
It did not rain because the surface was mostly land floating on water. The entire planet was land floating on an aquifer with rivers, springs and small lakes above ground.
The planet probably did not have huge mountains, miles high but smaller hills.
If so, then these could have easily been inundated by the water below as the earth sank below the water and displaced it.
So it is not only a problem of water rising to cover the highest point of land, the land probably sank below the water.
|Mountain Height||Height Flood Waters ||Earth Surface|
| # ||Base ||(km) ||A. [Km (mi)]||B. (km) ||Mountain Coverage |
| ||0|| 0 || 2.6176 (1.636)||5.14 ||0% - Flat surface |
| || 866|| 2.6176 || 2.678 (1.674)|| 0 ||24% of current land |
| || 1226|| 2.6176 || 2.826 (1.7665)|| 0|| 24% of surface |
| || 2046|| 2.6176 || 2.966 (1.8535)|| 0|| 40% of surface |
| || 2556|| 2.6176 || 3.0527 (1.908)|| 0|| 50% of surface |
| || 2046|| 4.00 || 3.149 (1.968)|| 0|| 40% of surface |
| || 2046|| 5.137 ||3.300 (2.063)|| 0|| 40% of surface Ararat |
| || 2556|| 5.137 ||3.471 (2.169)|| 0|| 50% of surface Ararat |
| || 4086|| 5.137 || 3.983 (2.489)|| 0|| 80% of surface Ararat |
| Mountains Covered
|| Mountains Not Covered
As the earth dried in the following year, the force of water goughed out huge canyons and reshaped the surface of the earth for over one hundred years after.
» Methodology. I decided to use the volume of spheres. If I take the sphere of the earth and place it inside the sphere in which the water will cover the earth, then the volume of the water (or water + mountain) is the difference between the volumes of the two spheres.
» Limitations (Bald Earth).
I will first make the calculations for a smooth earth without mountains with the water as an aquifer underneath.
I will not account for the flood goughing out the soft earth or the forces pushing up the earth to build taller mountains.
Instead I want to see what would be the size of the mountains that would be covered by the volume of water currently in our oceans.
I will not be concerned about "undiscovered" or "unknown" water below the surface since the answer to all these problems only makes my case stronger.
Either there would be more water to cover taller mountains, or taller mountains appeared after the flood.
I used two different models for my calculations.
- Calculation "A".
I used a worst case scenario for the diameter of the earth.
I assumed the diameter was the earth without mountains and then all mountains rose above.
- Calculation "B". All water and mountains fit within the diameter of the earth.
This is the depth of the ocean water which covers the earth without mountains.
Radius Of Earth + Water. = Cube root [Volume (Earth+Water)/pi * 3/4] = 6379.112 km
Radius of Water. = (Radius Of Earth + Water) - (Radius of Earth) = 6379.112 - 6376.5 = 2.6176 km (1.636 mi) (8638 ft).
This is the minimum height of the water without mountains.
Currently, mountains cover 24% of the land so I will use this as the baseline for what is reasonable.
» Mountains Displace Water.
I was encouraged to calculate the possible height of this water that rose 15 cubits above the top of the mountain.
The problem is that I do not know how tall the highest mountain was or how many mountains there were to displace the water.
So instead I decided to take the current volume of water and determine how high it would go with various amounts of mountains and see if the story is unreasonable.
Any mountain 1.6 miles high will be covered. In addition, the more mountains we add to our bald earth model, the more water will be displaced so that taller mountains can be covered.
I will calculate the volume of a mountain by using the formula for the volume of a pyramid.
If I add the volume of the mountain to the volume of the earth and water I will have the volume of the new sphere which represents the new height of the water + earth + mountain.
Use this to calculate the new height.
There is not enough water to cover the 5,137 meter mountain which we believe is Ararat.
However, there is enough water to cover mountains between 2.6 and 3 km (1.6 and 1.9 miles) including the 15 cubits of water over the top (23-28 feet).
It is possible.
Calculation "B". All structures fit inside the diameter of the earth.
The minimum height of the earth without mountains under the water is 6373.88 km.
This gives only a small advantage unless we use another model of mountain building other than filling the space with mountains which will displace water beyond the diameter of the earth.
The Basin Model.
The earth is squished in on the side in the northern hemisphere. Let us work with this shape.
Let us take a model of the earth with one land mass on top of an aquifer with very low mountains.
Suppose the water covered the southern hemisphere with low hills only 0.10 km and then the majority of the water collected in a basin of mountains in the north or in a narrower northern hemisphere.
- Natural Basin.
The difference in radius between the poles and the equator is 20 km (12.5 miles). This is double the size of the highest mountains!
So our northern hemisphere basin can fit our tall mountains.
» Pear Shape.
The shape of the earth in the north already creates a 9.8 km radius depression.
It is slightly pear-shaped, bulging at the equator and narrower in the northern hemisphere.
The narrow end is in the Arctic and the broad base in the Antarctic.
Most of the land mass and most mountains are in the northern hemisphere.
The south is mostly water, deserts and grass lands and the high mountains are nearly all volcanic.
- Flood Basins.
The mountains exist in the Eurasian and North American Plate Basin.
My theory is that they exist in a basin that has been carved out or eroded by the tremendous force of the flood waters.
These are valleys and low lands and even the sea where the mountains were washed off, pushed up, folded and goughed out as the force of the mud and debris after the flood carved a way out to the sea.
In its wake are fold mountains, valleys and low lands leading out to the sea.
- Canadian Basin. The 8,000,000 km2 Canadian Shield is an area which is north of the Great Plains.
- North American Basin.
The Great plains [3200x800] 1,300,000 km2 is between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains.
The Grand Canyon cuts through the Rockies and is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and a depth of over a mile (6,000 ft / 1,800 m).
Colorado plateau 337,000 km2
The Gulf Coastal Plains empty out in the south to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Coastal plain empties from the Appalachian mountains to the Atlantic ocean.
- South American Basin (km2).
The Andes mountains empty into the Pacific ocean in the west and into the flat lands of the
Amazon river basin (7,050,000 km2) and the Pampas (750,000 km2 lowlands) on the east coast of Uruguay, Argentia and south Brazil.
- European Basin. The European Plains stretch from the Pyrenees to the Urals.
The Scandinavian Shield is a rocky region that has been ground down by the flood debris until granite was exposed.
It stretches from the Kjolen mountains to the European plains.
The Alps drain into the European plain and the Po river valley (46,000 km2), the Venetian plain and the Sesia valley.
The West European Plains (? km2)
Eastern European (Russia). Covering 10% of the land on the earth, the vast Siberian Plain (14,894,000 km2) under the shadow of several major Asian mountains.
The East European Plain (west of Urals) is 4,000,000 km2.
- Asian Basin.
The Himalayan empties to the north into the vast Siberian plains and east into the Wei Valley and in the center into the Tarim Basin (906,500 km2).
In the south it empties into the Indus valley, Mekong delta and Bangladesh.
- Middle East Basin. The mountains in Turkey and the Zagros mountains in Iran empty south into the Mesopotamia Valley and the Nile river valley and the entire Arabian peninsula (3,237,500 km2)
- African Basin. The flat lands include the Sahel (3,053,200 km2), the Congo Basin (3,600,000 km2) and the Sahara desert (9,065,000 km2) and the Kalahari desert plateau (259,000 km2).
The Great Rift Valley is 1470 m deep depression 6,400 km long, extending from the Middle East to Mozambique.
- Australian Basin. The Lake Eyre basin and the vast desert in the central region.
- Polar Basins. Both poles have high volcanic peaks which seem like blow outs at both ends of a balloon that has been punched in the middle.
- Four Corners.
The earth has four points shaped like a pyramid where the surface of the earth bulges slightly.
They are 220 feet higher than they normally would be in the ideal shape and the low areas between are 253 feet lower than expected.
These corners are in Ireland going towards the north pole, and in the oceans near Peru, South Africa half way towards Antarctica, and New Guinea across the equator to Japan!
Let us use these coordinates to form the borders of a deeper basin.
The top triangle would lie within the pear shape and a deeper terrain.
|Flood Data|| Test Case A|| Test Case B|| Test Case C|
|South Hemisphere||Round shaped, low hills, grasslands and 33 - 58 story building|
|a »||Flood Depth (Km)|| 0.10 (330 ft)|| 0.16 (0.1 mi or 528 ft)|| 0.80 (0.5 mi)|
|b »||Volume Of Flood Water (km3)|| 25,546,874.813||40,874,615.285|| 204,352,565.654|
|North Hemisphere||Pear shaped, deep troughs (9.8 km) and mountains (8.85 km) |
|B||Volume Of Flood Water (km3)|| 1,312,453,125.187|| 1,297,125,384.715|| 1,133,647,434.346|
|A||Flood Depth (No Mountains)|| 5.141|| 5.08|| 4.44|
|C(1)||Basin Depth (5.4 km Mountains)|| 0.26 (858 ft)|| 0.32 (1056 ft)|| 0.96 (0.6 mi)|
|C(2)||Basin Depth (6.5 km Mountains)|| 1.36 (4488 ft)|| 1.42 (0.888 mi)|| 2.06 (1.29 mi)|
|C(3)||Basin Depth (8.9 km Mountains)|| 3.76 (2.35 mi)|| 3.82 (2.34 mi)|| 4.46 (2.79 mi)|
Earth (Sphere): 4/3 π r3
| - || Earth || -|
Earth (Hemisphere). Volume = 2/3 π r3
Mountain (Cone): 1/3 π r2h (Pyramid): 1/3 (base area) h
Metric Conversion: 1.6 km = 1 mile
Radius at the Equator: 6376.5 km = 3985 miles**
Radius at the Poles: 6356.75 km = 3949.9 miles
Volume of Earth: 1,086,014,693,963km3 (Calculated)
Volume of Earth: 1,083,210,000,963km3 (USGS)
Volume of Sea Water: 1.338 x 109 km3 = 96.54% of total
Surface Area: (510,066,000 km2)
» Water Area: (361,419,000 km2) 70.9%
» Land Area: (148,647,000 km2) 29.1%
» Mountain Area (On Land): (35,675,280 km2) 24%
Volume of Earth + Ocean Water = 1,087,352,693,963 km3
Volume of Earth - Ocean Water = 1,084,676,693,963 km3
- South: Flood Depth ("a"). Arbitrarily established as the height of the low hills in the south.
The difference in the diameter at the equator and between the poles is 19.5 km (12.34 mi).
This is 9.8 km radius.
It is already enough to cover the highest mountain in the north (8.850 km)
because in our model we have accounted for a coverage of water for a sphere the size of the equator.
» Test Case A. = 0.10 km
- South: Flood Volume ("b"). Calculated as the difference in volume of hemispheres.
1/2 volume of earth - Volume of earth in south (2/3 π (6376.5 - flood depth "a"3))
» Test Case A. (0.5 * 1,086,014,693,963 km3) - (2/3 π 6376.43)
- North: Flood Volume ("B"). Total volume of sea water - calculated southern flood water volume.
» Test Case A. 1,338,000,000 - 25,546,874.813 = 1,312,453,125.187
- North: Flood Depth ("A"). 6376.5 - [cuberoot ( (1/2 volume of earth - north flood volume) /pi * 3/2)]
» Test Case A. 6376.5 - 6371.359 = 5.141 km
- North: Flood Depth With Mountain Height "x" ("C(x)").
Once the height of the water has been established, we create taller mountains by digging troughs. The water height remains the same because the dirt removed will be relocated to other places under the water.
These troughs are the major valleys and flat fields near the mountains which were goughed out by the flood debris.
We showed under what conditions higher mountains than the minimum height established (2600-3000 m) can be covered across the entire surface of the earth.
However, under special circumstances, a depth of 0.10 km in the south leaves enough water to cover most peaks in the north (5140 m).
The higher peaks are obtained by digging larger basins through the force of the receding flood waters emptying out into the oceans through the vast plains.
Just in case you believe these basin depths are unreasonable look at the Great Rift Valley (1.4 km) and the Grand Canyon.
The Grand Canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and over a mile deep (6,000 feet / 1.80 km) (Wiki).
It even shows evidence of layers of soil above what is now miles of open space being washed away.
All mountain peaks except the Himalayas would be covered (6.94 km) with basins of this depth.
|Mountain Ranges||Test Case A|
|Continent||Country||Mountain||Major Valley ||Type ||Height [m]|
|North America||Alaska||McKinley (Denali)|| Brooks Range ||Volcanic || 6,194 || |
|Canada||Mount Logan (Yukon)||Canadian Shield ||Fault-Block ||5956 || |
|USA||Mt. Whitney (Sierra Nevada)|| The Great Plains |
|Fault-Block ||4421 || |
|USA||Elbert (Rocky Mountains) ||Fold ||4401 |
|USA||Mount Rainer (Cascades) ||Volcanic ||4394 |
|USA||Navajo Mtn, Utah ||Dome ||3166 |
|USA ||Black hills, SD (Harney Peak) ||Dome ||2208 |
|USA||Mt. Mitchell (Appalachian) ||Fold ||2037|
|USA||Adirondack, NY (Mt. Marcy) ||Dome ||1629 |
|USA||Catskills, NY (Slide Mt.) ||Plateau ||1274 |
|Mexico||Pico de Orizaba || Yucatan||Volcanic ||5636 || |
|Europe, Western||France|| Mont Blanc (Alps) || European Plains|
|Fold || 4,870 || |
|Norway||Kjolen ||Fold ||2469 || |
|Germany ||Harz ||Fault-Block ||1142 || |
|Russia|| Elbrus (Caucasus) Georgia ||Volcanic || 5,633 || |
|Russia ||Narodnya (Ural) ||Fold ||1895 || |
|Asia ||Tibet/Nepal ||Everest (Himalayan) || Siberian Plain||Fold || 8,850 || |
|Japan||Mount Fuji ||Pacific Ocean||Volcanic ||3776 || |
|Middle East||Turkey||Ararat|| Arabian Peninsula ||Volcanic ||5137 || |
|Iran||Zagros ||Fold ||4548 || |
|Africa|| Tanzania|| Kilimanjaro ||Congo Basin |
Great Rift Valley
|Volcanic || 5,895 || |
|Oceania||Hawaii||Mauna Loa || Pacific Ocean||Volcanic ||4,170 |
|Hawaii||Mauna Kea ||Volcanic ||4205|
|Borneo||Mount Kinabalu ||Volcanic ||4095|
|New Guinea||Jaya Peak ||Volcanic || 5,030|
|New Zealand||Mount Cook ||Plateau ||3754|
|Australia||Australia ||Kosciusko ||Lake Eyre Basin||Fold || 2,230 |
|South America||Argentina|| Aconcagua (Andes) || Amazon Basin|
|Fold ||6,960 |
|Ecuador ||Cotopaxi ||Volcanic ||5897|
|Antarctica ||All||Vinson Massif ||West Antarctic Ice Shelf||Volcanic || 5,139 |
Northern Mountains: Covered
In Basins (8.9 km)
South Mountains (0.10 km)
Evidence For The Flood
Evidence of the flood can be seen in the structure of the soil near these mountains.
When viewed from this perspective, the earth can be seen as one giant flood basin with the bottleneck regions where the debris flowed the longest showing more scarring.
These petroleum rich basins can be found near every major mountain.
The force of the rushing water might have been precipitated by the dams bursting into the sea
and the collapse of the land in the south formed the great seas and drained the water from the north, goughing a path between the continents through the mid Atlantic ridge and the pacific.
- Fossilization. It only occurs with rapid burial causing lack of oxygen. It creates organic molds or fossilized material.
- Bent And Wrinkled Rock. Layers of wrinkled rocks show that the layers were soft before they were pushed by forces into the shape and pattern they have in the solid form.
- No Erosion. There is no erosion or blending between rock layers that are supposed to be millions of years apart.
- Polystrata Fossils. Organic material like trees and bones should disintegrate when exposed to the air and thousands of years of weathering. The pesence of trees penetrating many layers of these rocks proves that the layers existed in a soft form before the tree rotted.
- Coal. Buried forests mostly located in the USA, Europe and Siberia probably covered after the dams of mud burst.
- Oil. Buried forests that may have been outside the major dams which were covered later by turbidity currents after the organic material settled.
- Shale and Tar Sands. These are the initial spill ways of the basins, showing violent mixing of mud and trees.
Dirt (sedimentary rock) constantly mixed with organic material that yields oil and combustible gas.
Oil shale countries are Sweden, Estonia, Canada, China, Turkey, Morocco, Israel, Jordan Syria, Australia , Thailand, Russia,
USA (Ut, CO, WY, TN, KY) and Brazil.
- Breach And Spillways.
Iceland is full of the evidence of the great upheavals and scouring of rocks which shows that it was a point of breach where flood waters poured out of the dam.
The great basins and shields were the spillways that led to breaches into the sea.
Mountains Of Evidence
The volume of the earth + water as high as Mount Everest = 1,090,542,840,622 km3
Volume of water needed to cover Everest = 7,332,839,659 km3 (7.3 x 109km3)
So there is not enough water to cover Everest if we believe that the total water on earth is 1.4 x 109km3
Although I believe most mountains achieved their height after the flood due to uplifting and volcanic activity under the soft earth, nevertheless I created a model based on the existing conditions in the north.
But this model proposed that the post-flood volcanic and tectonic activity created the volcanic mountains in the southern hemisphere.
There are about four different types of mountains on the land. All can be formed by the tectonic or impact activity pushing through the soft earth.
Two of them show signs of being formed very quickly and it is these two that form the highest mountains in both hemispheres.
- Fold Mountains. These were formed after the flood when layers of mud were deposited. Tectonic activity pushed the soft earth up into the folds and layers that are characteristic of these mountains.
|Mountain Sizes |
|Mountain||Peak (m)||Size (LxW)||Base (Km2)|
|Urals|| 1895|| 2500 x 150||375,000 |
|Caucasus|| 5633|| 1100 x 160|| 176000|
|Alps|| 4167||1200 x || 192,000 |
|Pyrenees|| 3404 ||491 x 38? || 18,658|
|Atlas|| 4167||2500 x || - |
|Himalaya|| 8850||2400 x 150-400 || 960,000|
|Andes|| 6960|| 7000 x 500 || 3,500,000|
|Cascades|| 4392|| 1000 x 129 || 129,000|
|Appalacian|| 2037||2400 x || 1,908,865|
|Rocky|| 4401||4830 x 110-480 || 2,318,400|
|Sierras|| 4421|| 640 x 110 || 70,400|
|Total Area|| 9,648,323|
- Volcanic Mountains. These are formed from lava and volcanic products piling up. They tend to be in the southern hemisphere.
» Paricutin Cinder Cone Volcano. Between 20 February 1943 and 1952 a cornfield in Mexico erupted creating a volcanic cone 411 m (1350 feet) high.
The cone was 100 feet (30.5 m) by the first day and 450 feet (137 m) in two weeks, reaching 75% of its height in one year.
When the eruptions finally ceased in 1952 the cone had risen to 1,350 feet (411 m).
Lava flows had reached six miles and buried the villages of Paricutin and Parangaricutiro.
Suppose a hard shell covered the magma beneath. If the shell cracked and water poured in quickly then steam under pressure would be generated forcing open these magma chambers.
Then imagine a softened earth with the pressurized magma underneath having mimimum resistance. If they grew at the rate of 300m per year then the Himalayas could be formed in 30 years.
Over the next 9 years Paricutin grew at the average rate of 45m per year. At this rate the Himalayas would have been built in 200 years.
These rapidly growing volcanic mountains explain why layers of dead creatures from the flood are found on top of mountains (e.g. Himalayas, Everest, Andes, Alps, Rockies (Burgess Shale), Manzano ...).
So a slower growth rate over 1000 years of earth hardening would not be unreasonable.
- Dome Mountains. These are formed by magma and volcanic activity.
- Fault Block Mountains.
They are formed at a weak spot where plates meet.
So other mountains were simply thrust up (uplifted) by the subterranean forces.
Olive Tree Evidence.
After 5 months of drying the dove finally returned an olive branch.
What does this fact tell us?
The root system is capable of regenerating the tree even if the above ground structure is destroyed.
So they can sprout back to life after the flood.
Olive trees tend to grow in warmer climates at lower elevations with long, hot and dry summers and cool winters.
| ||69107 ||-68.66||-55.92|
|29035 ||Mount Everest|
|Dead Tree ||10||-12.22|
|Fatal Temp ||15||-9.44|
|Dead Branch ||17||-8.33|
| ||10000 ||23.3||-4.83|
|8638 ||Water Line|
|Sea Level |
Sustained cold below 15 degrees can be fatal.
Branches die back at 17°F and the tree is killed back to the ground at 10°F.
This limits the location of the olive tree to a height below 12000 feet (3658 m).
Although we have no idea about the configuration of the pre-flood ecology or the hardiness of the plants, if we assume that it is relatively the same as it is today then the tree grew at the most at around 10,560 feet (2 mi or 3218 m).
This is circumstantial evidence that the tallest mountains may have been about 2 miles which is close to the depth to which the total estimated amount of water can cover the earth with rogue waves.
So we maintain that the mountains were not as high before the flood.
The waters we have could still cover very high mountains in support of this story.
Notice that the total volume of the major mountains is only about 7% of the total land area while the estimate is that 24% of the surface is covered with mountains.
The remaining amount must be the smaller mountains and elevations.
The size of the major mountains indicate the volume displaced in our theoretical basin.
Reasons For The Flood
Through the visions of a prophet, Seventh Day Adventists believe that the people before the flood had technology that was far superior to ours.
The reason for the flood was because they had become too wicked and powerful through their knowledge.
So God destroyed them and wiped out all traces of their technology.
One heinous crime was their biological experiments.
They were beginning to amalgamate man and animals.
Large buildings like the pyramid testify to ancient building technology and other buildings show advanced astrological knowledge.
Independent verification of other ancient technology comes through Hindu writings.
Sanskrit text, such as the Mahabharata, show evidence of great technological knowledge among the ancients.
Much of this can be dismissed as the fertile imagination of an early futuristic novelist.
But the description of the results of a nuclear blast are too realistic to dismiss.
Ancient Military Technology.
» Flying Machines.
The Puspaka car that resembles the Sun and belongs to my brother was brought by the powerful Ravan; that aerial and excellent car going everywhere at will.... that car resembling a bright cloud in the sky.
".. and the King [Rama] got in, and the excellent car at the command of the Raghira, rose up into the higher atmosphere."
» War Planes.
"Gurkha flying in his swift and powerful Vimana hurled against the three cities of the Vrishis and Andhakas a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe.
» Ancient Nuclear Weapons.
" ... (the weapon was) a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as the thousand suns rose in all its splendor. An iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas. The corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable.
» Radioactive Contamination.
The hair and nails fell out, pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white ... after a few hours all foodstuffs were infected .... to escape from this fire, the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment ..."
Evidence of what might be a nuclear blast are in skeletons excavated in the ancient Rishi City of Mohenjodaro.
They were as radioactive as those in Hiroshima.
In another city, clay pots melted under intense heat and were changed to glass.
» Modern Science in the Bible.
Since writing this article, God has shown me a model of the Periodic Table and a model for particle physics in the Old Testament.
He obviously obscured this knowledge with Moses because He would use it in the end of time to shut the mouths of scoffers, but suppose the people before the flood knew all this science?
I am convinced that Satan did not know about the science models in the scriptures, but perhaps the ancients knew enough science to build all this technology like we do without believing that God had it encoded in scripture.
Destruction Of The World
Our destruction is scheduled. Or there is a limit to the reign of evil that God will allow.
The ancients thought that time was cyclic and advanced through four or five stages.
As history unfolded the world progressively became worse until it was destroyed in the last cycle and then reborn.
God used this concept of time in Nebuchadnezzar's dream of a metal image (Daniel 2).
But God corrected this view of time by showing him that time is linear.
The world would not experience endless cycles of decay, destruction and rebirth.
At the end of the decay, God shatters the cyclic kingdom and establishes a linear, golden kingdom that would last forever.
|The Ages of the World and the Cycles of Time|
|# ||Hebrew ||Zoroaster ||Nebuchadnezzar ||Hinduism ||Persian ||Greek ||Roman ||Aztec|
|Curses ||Two Visions ||The Metal Image ||Ages (Yugas) ||Metals ||Four Ages ||Seven Ages ||Hesoid ||Ovid ||The Five Suns|
|1 ||Fear ||Gold ||Gold ||Gold ||Satya yuga ||Gold ||Gold ||Gold ||Gold ||Gold ||Jaguar|
|2 ||Famine ||Silver ||Silver ||Silver ||Treta yuga ||Silver ||Silver||Silver ||Silver ||Silver ||Wind|
|3 ||Wild Beast ||Brass ||Steel||Brass or Bronze||Dvapara yuga ||Copper ||Steel ||Brass ||Bronze ||Bronze ||Rain of fire|
|4 ||War, disease ||Copper ||Mixed Iron ||Iron ||Kali yuga ||Dark or Iron Age ||Mixed Iron ||Copper ||Heroes ||Iron ||Water|
|5 ||Sanctuary |
|Tin ||Mixed Iron and clay
||Destruction ||Tin ||Iron ||Earthquake|
|6 ||Steel ||Steel |
|7 ||Iron ||Iron |
Time is linear in the Bible.
However, I found evidence of one possible source of the notion of cyclic time in the covenant made with the Hebrews.
God promised that He would give them five series of warnings for their disobedience. On the fifth time, He would cause their sanctuary to be destroyed and their population to be exiled. (Leviticus 26). Then He would rescue them.
This covenant also existed with Adam and Eve and must have been known by our common ancestors after the flood.
So, the Bible supports the concept of cyclic punishments and renewal but not unending cyclic time.
This concept of the blessings and curses fits the beliefs of the ancients that as evil got worse God would punish until He destroyed at the end.
So God did teach cyclic punishment which occurred in the context of linear time. But he did not teach cyclic time with the reincarnation and a new creation of biological life and the new creation of God.
At the end of His last punishment, He will resurrect life and we would have perfection forever.
The bible hints that this process will last 7,000 years.
|Gold ||Silver ||Bronze ||Iron ||Clay|| ...
||Gold||Silver ||Bronze ||Iron ||Clay
After the period of clay and destruction there is a period of exile before the new creation.
Noah was exiled for one year in the ark as the earth dried.
Satan is exiled for one thousand years (one day) when the sea of people dries up.
Judaism: Six Thousand Years.
In the tractate Avodah Zarah, page 9A and the Tanna Debey Eliyahu,
the Talmud teaches that the world will last six thousand years.
It is divided into three ages that last about two thousand years.
It will end with the Day of the Lord.
In Christianity, this Day of the Lord lasts one thousand years. So the world lasts for one great week which is 3.5 "ages".
In which, the Messiah did come at the beginning of the last two thousand years but He is not recognized by the Jews.
|Void (No Instruction)
||Period of the Torah
|| Messianic Age
||Day of the Lord
Buddism: 4500 Years.
The days of Dharma (Buddhist law) are divided into three periods in which the law is progressively weakened.
In the last phase, when Buddhism fades, Buddha will reappear to turn the wheel of the law.
Maitreya Bodhisattva is the buddha who saves the world of the future and saves all beings who have lost their way.
At that time, the Dragon Blossom flower will bloom, and Maitreya Bodhisattva will convene a gathering three times to preach the teachings and save the world.
This is referred to as the Three Gatherings of the Dragon Blossom.
Some sources list 5,670,000,000 years instead of 4,500 years. The difference may be human years versus long ages as seen in Hinduism.
||End of Time
|Turn of the Wheel of the Law
||Buddha (Maitreya Bodhisattva) reappears
Zoroastrian: Twelve Thousand Years.
This is time with the progressive degeneration described as a series of metals.
||Battle for Mastery
|| Celestial Light
» The Four Divisions of Time.
Time lasts for 12,000 years before the endless perfection of eternity.
But it was divided into four sets of three thousand years which were characterized by the domination of one force.
In the first three thousand years there was nothing. Then the kingdom of light ruled and after that the kingdom of darkness.
In the fourth division, the years 9000-12000, when the battle of mastery of good and evil is waged between Ahuramazda and Ahirman, the time was divided into ages of a succession of metals.
It started with the golden empire and ended with iron.
Critics claim that Judaism and Christianity stole the idea of the Messiah from Zoroaster.
In this article we conclusively prove that this was not the case.
» Two Visions. Zoroaster actually had two visions about the final period that began in his time in 630 B.C.
In the first vision he saw a great tree with four branches which symbolized the four ages of his millennium.
They were gold, silver, iron and mixed iron.
In the second vision he saw a tree with seven branches, signifying "the seven periods which will come".
They are gold, silver, brass, copper, tin, steel and iron.
The golden age occurred in his time in the year 9001, at the end of the Ahriman period when darkness left.
» Three Saviors.
Three saviors, who were direct descendants of Zoroaster, would be born of a virgin in the world at the beginning of each of the last three millennium
using a body created for him by the archangels in the year 3000.
They would lead the people back to the true religion.
They are Hushedar in 371 A.D.
Aushedar-Mah in 1371.
Soshans (Saoshyant) in 2310. So far, the first two have failed to appear.
The Bahais believe that the last savior is Baha'u'llah who returned in 1844 because of this prophecy of Zoroaster.
When a thousand two hundred and some years have passed from the inception of the religion of the Arabian and the overthrow of the kingdom of Iran and the degradation of the followers of My religion, a descendant of the Iranian kings will be raised up as a Prophet.
The sign of the end of the tenth millennium was the coming of "myriads of demons with disheveled hair, the race of wrath".
These were identified as the Christians.
Roman: Four Ages.
The Golden Age is the time of bliss and total happiness when Innocence, virtue, and truth prevailed. There was no need for labour, for the earth brought forth spontaneously all that was necessary for man's subsistence.
The Golden Age was followed by another, not quite so prosperous, called the Silver Age.
It probably started after Pandora opened the box.
It was the time when the year was first divided into seasons, and men were obliged to toil for their daily bread.
Yet, in spite of these few hardships, the people were happy, far happier than their descendants during the Age of Brass, which speedily followed, when strife became customary, and differences were settled by blows.
But by far the worst of all was the Iron Age, when men's passions knew no bounds, and they even dared refuse all homage to the immortal gods. War was waged incessantly. The earth was saturated with blood.
The rights of hospitality were openly violated and murder, rape, and theft were committed on all sides.
One type of linear time in the bible is prophetic time.
The prophecies that involve time often gives such time as a formula that has a direct relationship to real human time.
According to prophecy, a day of prophetic time is equal to one year or 360 days of real time.
In fact, God says that one thousand ages is like one evening. So an entire day must be two thousand years.
This is an even longer scale of time.
So, since we know that the passage of time in God's realm is long in comparison to ours, then perhaps the prophetic time that is given is actually the eternal time as the people in Heaven now experience it.
God Himself experiences time on a much longer cycle. So that 7000 years is three and a half days for Him.
In prophecy, evil gets three and a half periods of time to operate.
|Experiencing Time |
|God ||2000 Years |
|Heaven ||One Year |
|Earth ||One Day |
| ||Silver||New Creation ||...
|| ||Silver||New Creation ||...
|Gold ||Cyclic Time ||Bronze
||Gold ||Cyclic Time ||Bronze
| ||Clay|| ||Iron||
|| ||Clay|| ||Iron||
Creation disintegrates and is destroyed and physically recreated on a regular schedule.
There is one civilization in which this structure of time is important.
It may have influenced others.
The Persians may have been influenced by the Hindus. The Greeks and Romans may have been influenced by both as they conquered the region.
Hindu: 8,640,000,000 Years.
This is the best example of both cyclic time and the disintegration through the ages.
This process is repeated one thousand times every four million years.
The universe exists for one day and night in god's time, or over eight billion years of normal time. Then this cycle is also repeated.
Some scientists accept this aspect of Hindu belief not because they believe in the gods or the cosmogony, but
the Hindu cycle of time agrees with the billions of years needed for evolution.
One Brahma Day
One Brahma Night Cycle
1000 Maha Yugas
||Sristi, the emergence from Brahma begins
||He breaks open the egg and creates time, heavens, earth, underworld, gods, demons, plants, animals and man
One Maha Yuga Cycle
|Satya Yuga (Gold Age)
||1,728,000 years of perfection
||Treta Yuga (Silver Age)
||1,296,000 years of lying and violence come into the world
|Dvapara Yuga (Copper)
||864,000 years of wars, disease, passion and hatred
|Kali Yuga (Iron Age)
||432,000 years. Lazy, quarrelsome, deceitful and greedy
|Kalki destroys the unrighteous and restarts the golden Age 1000 times
1000 Maha Yugas
||100 Years of Fire and heat destroy the heaven, earth and underworld
||Shiva causes the sun to burn hotter. Fire and heat dries the earth and kills all life. The heavens, earth and underworld burn up.
|100 Years of Flood cover the universe and creates the dark abyss of water
||Shiva exhales storm clouds. The storm hides the sun and the world is darkened. It rains for 100 years and everything is buried in a flood. Only Vishnu and the sea exists. All gods are dead. All three worlds are covered.
||The seeds of life are preserved
||A large gold egg appears and floats on the sea
|100 Years of Wind stops the rain clouds
||Vishnu exhales a drying wind to drive away the storm clouds. Then he sleeps.
|4,319,999,700 Years of rest
||Vishnu sleeps while the egg floats on the sea.
||Pralaya, the reabsorbtion into Brahma is complete.
||A lotus flower emerges from Vishnu's navel in the form of Brahma. The Lotus is the foundation of the three worlds.
| In a third cycle, Brahma lives for 36,000 Brahma days. Then all worlds dissolve for another 36,000 days before life starts again
If you ignore the long periods of time you see the same elements of the story of the people before the flood.
Creation, sin and gradual disintegration into lawlessness.
Then there is a flood caused by an asteroid (fire and heat), wind to dry the earth and a new beginning. The egg is the ark full of life that was floating on the sea.
The End Of The World
The end of the world comes when the pillar of the cosmogony changes.
The tree dies, the egg shatters, the pillars that hold the world collapse, the strings that suspend the earth break, god wakes up from his sleep and stops dreaming about us, or god goes to sleep and stops thinking about us.
- Norse. The serpent eats the root of the tree of life which supports the universe.
- Yoruba. The serpent that protects the cosmic egg eats himself.
The rainbow serpent Danh lives in the sky and the serpent Aido Hwedo lives in the sea.
It supports the weight of the earth by supporting the egg.
Red monkeys bring iron for Aido Hwedo to eat. When the iron runs out Aido Hwedo will begin to eat his own tail and the world will collapse.
- Mayan. The Mayans had a "long count" cyclic calendar that counted the number of days since creation, August 12 or 14, 3114 BC.
The thirteenth baktun of the Great Cycle occurs on December 21 or 23, 2012 and simply continues another great cycle.
A baktun is 400 years and this date is actually 5200 years since their date for creation.
The significance of the thirteenth baktun is based on the belief that historical events followed in a particular pattern and the cycle was repeated after every thirteen baktuns.
Total collapse, judgment of God, epidemics, plague and famine are the pattern of events for the thirteenth baktun.
» The Fifth Dimension.
Five cycles of thirteen baktuns is 26,000 years.
So some see a catostrophic event in this turning over of time.
Astrologists compare this to the fifth dimension which they believe starts a new era.
So at sunrise on December 21, 2012, the earth will cross the equator and align itself with the center of the galaxy for the first time in 26,000 years.
They believed that this would create a cosmic cross which the Mayan's considered to be the tree of life.
This will open a channel for universal energy to flow through the earth, cleansing it and all who dwell upon it, rising all to a higher level of vibrations.
- Hindu. In one of the many explanations of life, we are just a dream of the god who sleeps.
When Brahman wakes up the world will disappear.
In another explanation Shiva is the destroyer of evil who will recreate the new world.
Apocalypse for the Hindu is the natural, periodic ending of the world in the fourth age, the Kali Age.
Vishnu will appear as Kalki on a white horse. He destroys the present world and takes humanity to a different, higher plane 1000 times.
This is the sequence of events of the last cycle.
At the end of 1,000 Maha Yugas (one day of the life of the world), the great god Vishnu will adopt the form of Shiva-Rudra and will destroy all life on earth. He will then usher in one night in the life of the world, a period lasting another 1,000 Maha yugas.
» The Destruction.
First Shiva-Rudra will enter the sun's rays and intensify them for 100 years. This will generate great heat which will evaporate all water on the face of the earth. All three worlds will be affected, heaven, earth, and the Underworld. The great drought and scorching fire will create a wasteland. Famine will stalk the universe. By the time the 100 year period ends, no living creature will remain in the three worlds and they will burn up.
» The Waters of the Abyss are Created.
When the fires have consumed all life on the three worlds, Shiva-Rudra will exhale dreadful storm clouds. This will be accompanied by terrifying thunder and lightning. These clouds will move across the face of the earth, obscuring the sun and cloaking the world in darkness. Day and night, for 100 years, a deluge of rain will pour forth until everything in the world has been buried beneath the deep waters of a devastating flood. Besides the desolate sea, only Vishnu will continue to exist, for the fire and flood will have destroyed all of the other gods along with the rest of all life.
»Vishnu Preserves Life.
»The Golden Egg.
Just as the great flood begins to bury all life, a large golden egg will appear. This egg will contain the seeds of all forms of life that existed in the world before the flood. As the world drowns, the egg will float safety upon the waters of the boundless ocean.
When the ocean completely covers all three worlds, Vishnu will exhale a drying wind. For 100 years this wind will blow across the world, dispersing the storm clouds. For the remainder of the night of 1,000 Maha Yugas, Vishnu and the world will sleep.
»The Lotus (God Emerges).
At the end of the long night of 1,000 Maha Yugas, Vishnu will awaken. A marvelous lotus flower will emerge from his navel, and Vishnu will emerge from the lotus flower in his creative form of Brahma, creator of life on earth. The lotus will become the foundation of the three worlds.
|The Egg, Lotus and Mind|
» The Creation of the World.
Once he has emerged from the blossom, Brahma will rest upon it. Brahma will break open the egg to initiate the process of rebirth. This will usher in the next day in the life of the world, a new period of 1,000 Maha Yugas.
Hindus believe that the image of all three worlds, complete with gods, demons, and human beings, exists within Brahma.
First Brahma, the creator, will bring forth water, fire, air, wind, sky, and earth, with mountains and trees upon the earth. Then he will create the forms of time, as a way of organizing the universe.
Then, Brahma will concentrate upon creating gods, demons, and human beings. First he will bring the demons from his buttocks. He will then cast off his body, creating the darkness we call night which belongs to the demons.
Taking a second body, Brahma will bring forth the gods from his face. He will cast off this body as well, creating the lightness we call day, which belongs to the gods.
From successive bodies, Brahma's powers of concentration will bring forth human beings and Rakshasas (demon and man eating ogre), snakes and birds. Then Brahma will bring forth goats from his mouth, sheep from his chest, cows from his stomach, antelope, buffalo, camels, donkeys, elephants, and other animals from his arms and legs, horses from his feet, and plant life from the hair on his body.
So Vishnu exists eternally in his three forms. First he is Brahma, the grandfather and creator of the world. Then he is Vishnu, the preserver of life on earth. Finally he is Shiva-Rudra, the destroyer of life on earth.
The Final Battle
But before the final destruction and new creation, many religions include a final battle between the forces of good and evil.
Megiddo: The Final Battle Of Jewish Eschatology.
Our understanding of the final battle between good and evil comes from two sources, the bible and the war scrolls found among the Dead Sea scrolls.
Battle Of The Kittim.
There is a war between the sons of light (members of the Yahad) and the sons of darkness (the Kittim) that lasts about forty years.
This time includes the Sabbath years when they should rest from war.
The sons of light are Levi, Judah, Benjamin and those exiled in the wilderness.
The forces of darkness are the army of Belial who are led by the Kittim.
The war eliminates all people who are not the legitimate sons of Israel and those who are violators of the covenant.
There are three stages of the war.
- Sons of Shem. The Kittim of Asshur join forces with Edom, Moab, Ammon, Amalekites, Philistia and the violators of the covenant.
- Sons of Ham. The Kittim of Egypt join the forces of darkness.
- Sons of Japheth (Kings of the North). They join the forces of darkness.
|Sons of Shem||Sons of |
|Sons of |
|Mesopotamia ||Lud ||Sons of Aram ||Arpachshad ||Assyria, Persia ||Elam ||Ishmael, Keturah |
|Year 1 ||2 ||3 ||Year 4-5 ||Year 6-7 ||8 ||9||10-19 ||20-29 |
|Babylon and Assyria ||Assyria and Persia ||Arabia ||Egypt ||Europe |
There were seven engagements in the final battle. The forces of good won three and the forces of evil won three.
But good won the final battle and annihilated evil forever.
- First Attack. The mighty ones of God attack the camp of the Kittim at the sound of the trumpets. The mysteries of God kill the wicked and test the mighty ones who are appointed for battle.
- Second Attack. Another group of holy ones join in the battle as the high priest encourages them to continue in the crucible. Belial, himself comes to help the Kittim.
- Third Attack. The forces of Belial are defeated when they are attacked by the infantry.
- Fourth to Sixth Attacks. These records are lost.
- Seventh Attack. Victory. The sons of Japheth, the Kittim and Assyria fall and the Kittim are crushed forever.
Battle Of Hamon-Gog.
Ezekiel records a battle between the forces of evil led by Gog, the king of the north, from the land of Magog. They surround Jerusalem and are annhilated by God.
He may have been describing the last stage of the same war written in the Dead Sea scrolls.
Revelation uses Ezekiel's version to describe the final phase of the battle after the millennium.
Armageddon: The Final Battle Of Christianity.
The Bible actually teaches that there is a cosmic war that started before the creation of the earth.
Satan and a group of angels lost and then they tempted Adam and Eve to sin. They were confined to the earth with the human race.
The battle continues as Satan tries to tempt people to sin and abandon God.
Ultimately, he will be killed in the final battle of Armageddon described in Revelation 20-22. Then he, his evil angels and all the resurrected wicked will
surround the New Jerusalem and try to take the city of God by force.
God wins easily when He destroys all the wicked people and wicked angels with hell fire, and recreates the heavens and the earth.
A more detailed description of this version is given in our lessons, since this is the version we support.
||Judgment ||Armageddon |
Gog and Magog
||Satan is Incarcerated on the earth ||Guilty || Final War |
This final end will be preceded by several signs which have been occurring since about 1750 at the French Revolution.
- Knowledge Increases. Spiritual and scientific knowledge increases.
- Signs in the Heavens. The sun is darkened and the moon turns to blood. The stars fall.
- Signs on the earth. The sea and waves roaring. Earthquakes and disasters.
- Immorality. Immorality and injustice increases. People forget God and do not acknowledge Him as the creator.
The wicked prepare for Armageddon when they try to kill the righteous during the incredible chaos at the end of time.
Christ stops the war in its planning stages at the Second Coming and kills all the wicked.
After the millennium, Christ returns to earth and the wicked are resurrected to defend themselves in the final judgment.
Together with Satan, they get to execute the battle of Armageddon, but God kills them with hell fire.
Then the new earth is created.
Armageddon: Evangelical Version.
(World War III)
|- ||Plagues ||Second
|1000 Years of Peace ||Resurrection ||Judgment
|Time of Trouble (Seven Years)
||Guilty ||Hell |
There are a few notable differences between what I believe are the correct sequence of events and a popular evangelical version.
Some of this is probably based on their belief that hell is now a physical place that is somewhere under the earth or on another planet.
|Structure of Earth and Hell|
|3||Heaven||House of God|
|2 ||Outer space|
|1 ||The sky above|
|1 ||Earth ||Land ||sea |
|2 || Sheol (the grave)|
|3 ||Hell |
|Read the correct view about hell.|
I believe that Hell and hell fire is an event that will exist on earth in the future after the Millennium.
The wicked will be destroyed and Hell will no longer exist. So there is currently no eternally burning hell and all the dead, good and evil, are unconscious and waiting in their graves for their resurrection.
- Secret Rapture. Christ takes the righteously secretly so that they can escape the time of trouble. Variations in the belief place the secret rapture at many points during this tribulation (before, during and after).
- Millennium of Peace. The millennium is spent on earth during the reign of Jesus Christ, where people have a second chance as they are taught by Christ and the Jews.
- Jews. A separate destiny and plan for them.
Armageddon: Catholic Version.
|Signs||The Great Warning
||The Great |
||The Great Chastisement ||Second
|1000 Years |
||3 Days of |
|Comet Wormwood ||Famine, Plague
(World War III)
|3 Days of Darkness ||Ball of Redemption
||500 Years ||Hell |
||Time of Trouble
The sources of this version used a combination of approved visions and visions that have not yet been approved.
I also used the officially unapproved visions because it was obvious from reading a book called "The Keys of this Blood" that the pope was taking his eschatological views from visions that are still churning their way through the approval process.
So I looked at the teachings of those visionaries also.
|The False Second Coming|
Satan will impersonate Christ in a false Second Coming.
If the sign of the sun imploding occurs at the fourth plague or before, then they could interpret the false Second Coming as the coming of Mary.
The church would follow his instructions, believing that this is their last chance.
|Antichrist (A False Christ). This is a human who pretends to be Christ or to represent Christ.
|False Second Coming. This is when Satan impersonates the coming of Christ.
It is the ultimate appearing of the Antichrist.
They have arranged a sequence of events that seem to complement their basic beliefs.
The information shows a rapture before the tribulation and a millennium reign of peace on earth after the battle of Armageddon which
involves the Middle East, North Africa, Russian and Chinese forces against the United States and the Christians.
That is the same basic order of events as the Evangelical Christians, but the details are quite different.
- Signs. These will get worse when the sins of humans outweigh the efforts of devout Catholics to do penance, prayers, the rosary and other acts.
- Sins. Murder, homosexuality, abortion and the rise in drugs, sorcery, witchcraft, astrology, and Satan worship. The Masonic and Illuminati forces promote these sins.
- The Negligence of Bishops. Neglect church attendance, sacraments and church laws.
- The Revolt of Women. This is the second fall among the modern Eves.
- The Great Apostasy. Heresy inside and outside the Catholic church.
Except for a little flock or a little remnant which remain faithful to the pope and to Mary. A heretic pope becomes the Antichrist.
The Jews choose the Antichrist as their Messiah. His name will be Maitreya.
The Antichrist Pope.
My child, they converse of the secret that I gave at Fatima. It is a simple explanation. It could not be fully revealed because of the drastic nature of My message. How I warned and warned that Satan would enter into the highest realms of the Hierarchy in Rome. The Third Secret, My child, is that Satan would enter into My Son's Church.
Veronica Leuken. May 13, 1978
- Christian Signs. Crosses appear in the sky and hosts (communion bread) fly from churches to heaven.
- The Great Warning.
It begins when the sun has explosions that causes a great flash of light.
This is the sign of the coming of the virgin Mary.
The comet named Wormwood strikes the earth and devastates the western hemisphere, causing nuclear bombs to explode. The thick cloud of dust causes a severe cold.
Famine and plague follows the great cold when a horde of insects and animals invade.
Natural disasters cripple the United States and some countries in Africa and the Middle East start the first phase of the world war
(Jerusalem, Egypt, Arabia, French Morocco, and Africa).
- The Mantle of the Virgin Mary. The Virgin Mary comes as the morning star to cover the earth with her mantle. This is a thick, white cloud. The earth will stop rotating and all machines will stop working.
Everything is held in place for three days. During this time everyone will come to acknowledge God, confess their sins and accept the punishment given at that moment. Everyone will know if they are going to heaven or hell.
Everyone will recognize that the Catholic faith is the only true faith.
- The Comet Wormwood. This is the comet that will hit the earth while it is covered by this cloud. This affects the western hemisphere, especially the United States and causes great disasters.
- World War 3 (First Phase). Communist forces take advantage of the chaos to start the final world war.
The pope is forced to leave Rome as the war comes to Europe.
The Antichrist takes over and moves the seat of the papacy to Jerusalem. A global economic collapse occurs and food rationing results.
People are given a microchip as a way of managing the food rationing.
Evil spirits will possess people.
Enoch and Elias will come and fight the Antichrist and convert the Jews to Christianity.
The rest of the world is evangelized by 12 apostles and 72 disciples.
|The Mark Of The Cross|
Here we see people relying on a physical sign instead of the word of God to show them what is true.
Truth is not a blind trust heaped on a person with a particular mark or appearance.
Truth relies on adherence to a standard that is agreed upon. The Bible Only!
- The Great Miracle. A great sign will appear in the sky for all the world to see.
Some sources say there will be a cross in the sky.
A permanent sign will be given at Catholic shrines
starting at the pine groves in Garabandal. It will be visible to all and can be filmed and televised.
The faithful will be marked in their foreheads with the sign of the cross.
If people ignore the sign, the chastisement will occur.
"Man has only one means now to avert the planned Chastisement and Warning. The Warning and the Chastisement will follow soon upon each other if man continues on his present course. He must now humble himself before the world. He must do much penance, sacrifices, and make atonement for the many offenses against his God. Only in this manner will I, as a Mediatrix between man and God, be able to hold back the destruction which is fast heading towards earth."
September 28, 1973. Veronica Lueken
- The Rapture. Many people will go to God to wait for the Second Coming and to escape the Great Chastisement.
- The Great Chastisement.
- World War 3 (Final Phase).
The final phase of the war occurs with Russia and China fighting the Christians.
Missiles hit a German factory that produces nuclear warheads and thousands of nuclear warheads explode simultaneously.
This explosion causes the planet to move off its axis and its orbit.
Three Days of Darkness.
This occurs because the dust from the nuclear bombs blocks the sunlight and
because the earth is not aligned with the sun and the moon. 75% of the people will die. Only the righteous will survive.
During this time people can be protected if they do certain things.
- Blessed Candles. Light the blessed candles and sprinkle holy water around your house. They will be the only source of light and they will only work in the homes of believers.
- Rosary. Pray the rosary.
- Crucifix . Kneel, prostrate yourself and pray constantly before a crucifix.
- Mary. Call on Mary to obtain the mercy of God. These times have been given to her under the title of the sorrowful and immaculate heart of Mary. No harm will come to those who seek her protection.
- Saints. Invoke the intercession of saints and the angels.
- The Ball of Redemption. This is a great comet that is sent to hit the earth and move it back in alignment with the sun and the moon. Billions more are killed.
- Millennium of Peace. It starts with the Second Coming. Mary and Jesus reign on earth as queen and king. Everyone is Catholic.
- Final Judgment. Satan and his demons will be freed for the final judgment.
This will last 400-500 years. The dead are resurrected and the wicked are separated from the righteous.
- New World. The world is destroyed and recreated.
Ragnarok: The Final Battle Of Norse Mythology.
Just like the legend of Yggdrasil, the battle of Ragnarok is a very well developed legend.
With one exception, it is also very similar to the Christian understanding of the end.
As with all distortions, Satan gives himself an equal status with God. And in this legend, the evil army defeats the good.
But in a strange twist, the good prevails in the new creation.
||Signs ||Second Coming ||Trumpet ||Millennium
||Resurrection ||Armageddon||Hell Fire ||New
||Signs ||Giants come ||Cock Crow calls the dead, gods, giants
|Niflheim||Helheim ||Muspelheim (Flame Land)||Asgard |
Norse. Ragnarok (Gotterdammerung).
Ragnarok, or the destruction of the powers, is the cataclysmic end of the cosmos.
Sun becomes black, moon as blood and the stars fall.
» Signs of the End. Ragnarok will be preceded by Fimbulvetr, the winter of winters. Three such winters will follow each other with no summers in between.
Conflicts and feuds will break out, even between families, and all morality will disappear. This is the beginning of the end.
The wolf, Skoll, will finally devour the sun, and his brother, Hati, will eat the moon, plunging the earth in darkness.
The stars will vanish from the sky.
The trumpet of the archangel wakes the righteous dead. The wicked are raised after 1000 years.
» The Trumpet wakes the Dead. The cock Fjalar will crow to the giants and the golden cock Gullinkambi will crow to the gods. A third cock will raise the dead.
Earthquakes will shudder the earth, and every bond and fetter will burst, freeing the terrible wolf Fenrir.
The sea will rear up because Jormungand, the Midgard Serpent, is twisting and writhing in fury, making his way toward the land. With every breath, Jormungand will stain the soil and the sky with his poison.
The waves caused by the serpent's emerging will set free the ship Naglfar, and with the giant Hymir as their commander, the giants will sail towards the battlefield.
» Second Resurrection.
From the realm of the dead a second ship will set sail, and this ship carries the inhabitants of the hell, with Loki as their helmsman. The fire giants, led by the giant Surt, will leave Muspelheim in the south to join against the gods.
The wicked gather on the plain around the city. They surround the city in preparation for war.
» Gather for War.
Surt, carrying a sword that blazes like the sun itself, will scorch the earth.
Meanwhile, Heimdall will sound his horn, calling Odin's sons and heroes to the battlefield. From all the corners of the world, gods, giants, dwarves, demons and elves will ride towards the huge plain of Vigrid ("battle shaker"), were the last battle will be fought.
» The Battle.
Odin will head straight for Fenrir, and Thor will attack Jormungand. Thor will be victorious, but shortly after he dies from the serpent's poison. Surt will seek out Freyr, who will succumb to the giant. The one-handed Tyr will fight the monstrous hound Garm and they will kill each other. Loki and Heimdall, age-old enemies, will meet for a final time, and neither will survive their encounter.
The fight between Odin and Fenrir will rage for a long time, but finally Fenrir will seize Odin, and swallow him.
Vidar will at once leap towards the wolf, and kill him with his bare hands.
Fire from God destroys the wicked and the earth.
A new heaven and earth are created.
Christ, the dying God, will rule.
» The Destruction.
Then Surt will fling fire in every direction. The nine worlds will burn, and friends and foes alike will perish. The earth will sink into the sea.
» The New Creation.
After the destruction, a new idyllic world will arise from the sea and this new earth is filled with abundant supplies. Some of the gods will survive, others will be reborn.
Wickedness and misery will no longer exist and gods and men will live happily together. The descendants of Lif and Liftrasir will inhabit this earth.
Balder, the dying god will rule.
The Attack Of Shambhala.
The prophecy of ShambPutucusiala states that each of its kings will rule for 100 years. There will be 32 in all, and as their reigns pass, conditions in the outside world will deteriorate.
Men will become more warlike and pursue power for its own sake, and an ideology of materialism will spread over the Earth.
|The New Jerusalem|
|At the second resurrection the holy city of God will descend to the earth.
The wicked will try to seize it after they have been condemned in the judgment.
» The City Revealed.
When the Barbarians who follow this ideology are united under an evil king and think there is nothing left to conquer, the mists will lift to reveal the icy mountains of Shambhala.
» The Final War.
The Barbarians will attack Shambhala with a huge army equipped with terrible weapons.
» The Final Destruction.
Then the last king of Shambhala, Rudra Cakrin, will lead a mighty host against the invaders. In a last great battle, the evil king and his followers will be destroyed.
The Greek legend is about a war that has already happened. The Olympian gods fought the Titans for rulership of the earth. The Bible also teaches that there was a great war in heaven in which Satan was exiled to the earth.
Armageddon is simply the final, decisive battle in this great war.
Legends told of a great and powerful dragon named Typhon. The last of the Titans, Typhon was the son of the earth and the underworld. Typhon's hundred, horrible heads touched the stars, venom dripped from his evil eyes, and lava poured from his gaping mouths. He was a vicious and implacable foe of the Olympian gods who came out of Asia Minor on a blood lust rampage. Hissing like a hundred snakes and roaring like a hundred lions, he tore up whole mountains and threw them at the gods. Along this path, he took storm and destruction with him, wading through the sea as if it were a shallow creek and destroying entire civilizations as he went. It was at the base of Mount Olympus that the battle between Typhon and Zeus began. Evidence of this battle can be seen today, the scarred battle grounds forming the river beds now in Syria. It was in the shallows off the Italian coast that the great Typhon was defeated. As Typhon tore up huge Mount Aetna to hurl at the gods, Zeus struck it with a hundred well-aimed thunderbolts and the mountain fell back, pinning Typhon underneath. There the monster lies to this very day, belching fire, lava and smoke through the top of the mountain.
Ancient Persian: The Final Battle Of Zoroastrianism.
This religion emerged in Persia and its prophecies may still be familiar to the Islamic nations because they are most similar to the Muslim prophecies.
As you read this prophecy and the Islamic version, consider what the average religious Iranian, Iraqi and Muslim must be thinking as America makes war in the Middle East and threatens the nations mentioned in their prophecies.
In these cultures, belief in religion is the norm, and America is identified as the "Great Satan".
Who is the "moderate voice" to whom America thinks that it can appeal? What are the odds that any secular person in this regions is not contemplating their prophecies?
In the final days there would be a battle between good and evil in Iran.
Evil would be vanquished and the world would be purified by a bath of molten metal. AhuraMazda (God) would then judge the world, resurrecting the dead and His Kingdom would be established on earth.
The last days is an era of scientific progress, persecution, disease and death will disappear.
But there will be universal immorality and apostasy. People will treat god with contempt.
All men will become deceivers and greedy. Affection will depart from the world and families will be against each other.
Nature will show terrible signs.
The sun and the moon will show signs. There will be frightful storms and earthquakes, wars and rumors of wars which kills many soldiers.
| Knowledge increases. Immorality. Sun and moon darkened. Stars fall.
But Mitro will be victorious and will at last destroy the idol temples and restore the good religion of Ahuramazda.
And then Hushedar (Messiah) will come and many will convert to the religion.
|Armageddon Phase 1|
| Forces gather in the Middle East near the Euphrates.
» War in Iran.
But, Aharman (Satan) will be able to mobilize a vast army which will march upon Iran, the holy nation, where the great and final Armageddon will be fought. The slaughter is to be so great that the rivers of blood will reach the girths of the horses. Soshans (Messiah) smites the hordes of unbelievers and demons, and ushers in the kingdom of righteousness.
The great fiend AziDahak is released and rules for a year and a half with fearful devastation.
He slays one third of mankind, and destroys one third of all cattle, sheep, and other creatures.
He smites the water, fire, and vegetation.
Only the righteous are resurrected and given immortality.
All the wicked are dead they are with Satan on the desolate earth. 1000 years elapses.
» Resurrection and Judgment.
After this, comes the resurrection, the final judgment, and the renovation of the world, in which complete triumph is to be achieved by Soshans and Ahuramazda for the benefit of the faithful.
During the fifty-seven years of the Soshans, all the dead are to be resurrected, righteous and wicked alike; each is roused on the spot where he died; earth and sea surrender their dead, who assume their former bodies. All are gathered before the great judgment seat of the Soshans in the assembly known as Sadvastaran.
The wicked are separated from the righteous, and cast into the depths of hell, where they are punished.
» The Cleansing Fire.
Then comes the great fire in which the world burns in a fantastic holocaust. The earth becomes a river of molten metal and all men, righteous or wicked, must walk through this liquid fire.
To the righteous it will be like a pleasant bath of warm milk, but to the wicked it will be indescribable torture.
But this purifies them and they become saintly.
So, in the end all men are redeemed.
|Armageddon Phase 2|
| Satan and the wicked surround the Holy City and are destroyed in a fire that destroys the earth.
The Soshans will prepare a meal which will make men immortal. Each adult will get a body of forty years, and all children one of fifteen.
Each man will receive his own wife and children, but there will be no more births in the heavenly kingdom.
» The Final Destruction.
But Aharman and his first lieutenant, Azi-Dahak, though defeated, are still present in the world.
Auharmazda and Saoshyant now attack them, and the seven archangels assail the seven archfiends and all these creatures of darkness take refuge in the pit of hell where they and Aharman, the great serpent, are burned "in the melted metal, and the stench and pollution which were in hell are burned and hell becomes quite pure."
Aharman and all his minions are annihilated at last and those like them can never exist again.
|The New Earth|
|God creates the new earth and we live there forever
» The New World.
Auharmazda now "brings the land of hell back for the enlargement of the world; the renovation of the universe arises at his will, and the world is immortal for ever and everlasting".
The earth at last becomes an iceless, slopeless plain; even the mountain whose summit is the support of the Kinvad Bridge, "they keep down, and it will not exist". Out of the final holocaust, arises a new earth, a renovated universe; in this, all evil is at last destroyed, and all men become blessed saints.
Al-Malhamah Al-Kubrah. The Battle Of Qa'im (Qaim): The Final Battle Of Islam.
The word "al-Qaim" means "firm" or "steadfast."
Al Qa'im is a town in the Anbar province a mile from the Syrian border along the Euphrates River about two hundred miles northwest of Baghdad.
Al Qa'im (the one to arise) is also the name of Muhammad al Mahdi. He is the twelfth and last Imam of the Twelver Shi'a.
On the day of Judgment the following will occur so that the infidels are eliminated and the new way of life can proceed.
||1000 Years (Muslim Millennium)
||Evil Rules Again
|| 7 Years
» Imam Mahdi.
The Shi'a believe that the Imam Mahdi has been concealed for hundreds of years.
He disappeared at the age of five from his home at Samarrah, Iraq, after leading his father's funeral prayer on the 8th Rabi ul-Awwal 260 Hijri (872 or 874 A.D.).
The Imam has been withdrawn by God from the eyes of people and his life has been miraculously prolonged. He was last seen in Samarra in the cellar of his father's house (or in a cave). In 947 he was seen once at a well in Jamkaran, Iran.
He will be revealed at the end of time.
When he appears the day of judgment will begin.
His capital will be in Damascus, Syria but he will appear in Afghanistan and Baghdad to lead armies in the Great war.
|Osama Bin Laden|
|We can now see why the fighters are drawn to Afghanistan and Baghdad.
They are waiting for the Imam and creating armies for him. Some might even be wondering if Osama is the one or a messenger.
The Sunni believe that the Mahdi is a new person and the successor to Mohammad.
The Shi'a believe that the Mahdi is also from Mohammad but through a different line of succession. For the Twelvers he is the 12th imam. For the Seveners, he is the 7th imam. He is now several hundred years old and is in hiding until it is time to appear.
» The Day of Judgment.
On the day of judgment the Kaaba will be transported from Mecca (Makkah) to Jerusalem.
The Kabba is the black cube around which Muslims make a procession during the Haaj.
» Signs. A black wind, a great earthquake, locusts, war (red death), plague (white death), famine and drought. The Muslims will be at the peak of their military power.
Christians will convert to Islam.
|The Coming of Isa (Jesus)|
Since the coming of Isa is integral to the coming of the Mahdi, Muslims seem be be taking an interest in Christian eschatology because they have no real information about Jesus.
» Peace Treaty. The Muslims will make a peace treaty with the Christians and fight together successfully. The Christians will break the treaty.
Many Christians will convert to Islam but others will start a war against the Muslims.
» The Dajjal (The Lying Christ or Antichrist).
He is a Jew who claims to be Jesus Christ, travelling on a giant mule, who will rule on earth for forty days. But it will seem like one year, one month, one week and 37 days. He is short, fat, red faced, bow legged, curly haired and has one eye. He will have the word "Kafir" or unbeliever in the middle of his forehead.
Only the Muslim believer will be able to see this word.
He will perform miracles. He will even appear to raise the dead by having devils assume the form of the dead.
He will visit every place on earth except Mecca, Medina and Damascus (Sham) which are guarded by angels.
His followers are Europeans, Americans, Jews, women and Christians. The Great Satan.
The Muslim Jesus (Isa) will slay the Dajjal and establish Islam.
It is strange that Jews, Muslims and Christians and even Buddhists are on a path towards a future where the coming of the Antichrist can be exploited by Satan to allow them
to look to violence at the command of the supernatural as a duty because they will be wiping out the wicked.
When the Antichrist appears it will be easy for Him to pit ancient enemies against each other because their identification of him is not based on righteousness and peace but on their side being invincible and correct in their theology.
If the Second Coming is not about the resurrection of the dead and the taking away of all the righteous to heaven then it is a Satanic hoax.
War and destruction will not be performed by humans but by the angelic forces coming to rescue the righteous.
There will be no debate, no Bible study lessons, no peace conferences, no armed righteous human beings taking up the sword or gun, no more appeals to abandon evil, no repeals of laws, no more teaching, no supernatural beings appealing to the world via television or loud speaker.
There will be no Sunday morning debates by experts and politicians and religious leaders.
If these dynamics exist during a supernatural landing of aliens or angels or extraterrestial forces then it is the Antichrist.
If you find yourself in this situation do not be afraid of them, simply turn to knowledge about Jesus Christ because the Second Coming is within your life time, possibly less than one year.
The real Second Coming is a simple rescue operation where the righteous will be visibly snatched away as the wicked watch in terror and regret before God destroys them from above by Himself.
|The Siege of Jerusalem|
|The nations will surround Israel (Jerusalem). (Zechariah 12)
» The Great War (Al-Malhamah Al-Kubrah).
For seven years Mahdi will lead Muslims in victory over the Antichrist before the return of Isa (Jesus).
Mahdi will gather a great army in Afghanistan (Khurâsân) to fight the infidel Christians and march on Jerusalem and create a universal Islamic religion.
For the Shi'a it starts with a call from the sky at the beginning of the Day of Judgment.
The faithful people will assemble from Syria, Iraq, Yemen and many Arab nations. An army will come from Afghanistan wearing black headbands and carrying black banners.
Muhammad told the Muslims that when they see the black flags they must join that army of men in a relentless march toward Jerusalem.
Some accounts say green flags. This is because Muhammad is said to have carried a black flag (al Uqaab) in battle and a green flag at other times.
|The Silent Army|
One wonders about the motivation of the armies we are arming and training in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Afghan men are so eager to be trained, the USA army cannot fill other supporting positions.
Why are they training? How will they react when they see their sign?
The world will not come to an end until a man from my family
(Ahlulbayt) and of my name shall be master of the world. When
you see a green ensign coming from the direction of Khorasan [Afghanistan],
then join them, for the Imam of God will be with the standards
who will be called Al-Mahdi.
960,000 Christians (eighty groups of 12,000) will gather to fight the Muslims between Damascus and Medina.
The Muslims will win on the fourth day of battle. One third will flee, one third will be martyred but the rest will be victorious.
Then Mahdi will invade Istanbul with 70,000 people.
See a map.
Meanwhile the Antichrist will lead 70,000 people to fight Mahdi in Damascus.
» The Coming Of Isa (Jesus).
Suddenly Isa will descend from the skies with his hands on the shoulders of two angels.
The next day he rides to battle on a horse and he will kill the armies of the Antichrist with his breath and with a sword.
Mahdi will pass away and Isa will rule. Isa will return as the Mahdi's executioner to tell the world to follow the religion of Islam because Christianity is a mistake that he regrets starting. Isa will also pass away after forty years. During the forty years time he will marry and have children.
» Gog And Magog (Ya'jooj And Ma'jooj).
Two tribes of vicious beings will break out of prison when their prison wall breaks. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers they see.
Isa, Mahdi and the believers will pray on a mountain and Allah sends disease and worms to wipe them out.
Evil returns only to be judged and destroyed. The wicked are resurrected and Satan is loosed.
» Evil Returns.
Jahjâh, a man from Yemen will begin to rule a religious kingdom.
After a succession of several rulers evil will again appear.
Then a mist will cover the earth, the unrighteous will fall unconscious and the mist will clear after forty days.
» The Long Night.
Then the earth will be dark for about three days and the sun will rise from the west and move to its normal point at noon.
Then it will set in the west. This begins the last 120 years on earth.
» The Mark Of The Beast On The Righteous And The Wicked.
An earthquake will occur in Mecca and a strange animal will appear.
He will mark the foreheads of the righteous with a line so that their faces will shine.
But he will mark the unrighteous on their noses or necks and their faces will become dark.
A breeze will blow across the land and the righteous will die.
The wicked will rule the world and remove all traces of God.
Syria will become very prosperous and many people will begin to go there willingly.
A fire will drive the remaining towards Syria so that all creation will be gathered in Syria.
Prosperity will continue for four years.
» The Trumpet.
Then on Friday 10, Muharram a trumpet will blow and everyone will die.
» The Destruction.
The universe will be destroyed. Then the resurrection will begin.
Shi'a And Sunni Eschatology
The hidden imam is a Shia belief and most of the beliefs described above are believed by the Shi'a.
But it was Al-Qaeda and the Sunni branch of Islam that began this eschatological war.
Their zeal stems from spreading Islam through jihad and protecting their holy countries.
The soviet incursions in Afghanistan might have triggered their pilgrimage to the country to fight the Jihad
in a land that Muhammad mentions as a sign of the end.
The results of their zealous behavior connect with the Shi'a view of the future.
While the Shi'a believe in the Mahdi, the hidden iman is the man from the family of Muhammad,
the Sunni probably believe that there will be a person descended from this family who will begin the jihad and
stir the Muslims to march to Jerusalem.
Sooner or later when these groups decide to cooperate with each other against the Great Satan (United States) and the Little Satan (Israel),
we will have a dire future.
Sunni Muslim Prophecy. This is taught in schools supported by Saudia Arabia.
"the hour of judgment will not come until the Muslims fight the Jews and kill them".
|Armageddon Expectations |
|Prophecy ||Christian (Adventist) ||Muslim ||Current Events |
|USA || Power supporting the final religious power || Great Satan ||USA is the great Satan. Israel is the little Satan |
|Elijah ||A message like his introduces world to Christ || Mahdi || Forerunner of Isa, leader of the army |
|Day of Judgment || 1844 - Phase 1 |
| Sunni Muslim || Comes when Muslims kill Jews and take Jerusalem |
|Muslim || The Kaaba is transported from Mecca to Jerusalem |
|Zoroastrianism ||Iran will be the place where Armageddon is fought |
|Great War ||Armageddon Preparation ||Battle of Qaim || Sunni Jihadists act as if this is the time for battle |
| USA at War in the Holy Land (Daniel 11:40-45)
Armageddon preparation begins in the 6th plague but it is a war fought by God alone after the final judgment.
YHWH destroys Satan and the wicked when they attack the New Jerusalem
|Jerusalem || March to Jerusalem and take it by force. Kill Jews |
| Saudi Arabia |
| Battle Christians between Medina and Damascus. |
Mecca will be attacked and the kaaba destroyed
| Iraq || Gulf War (August 2, 1990 to February 28, 1991) |
| Afghanistan || Afghanistan War (October 7, 2001 to present) |
| Baghdad || Iraq War (March 20, 2003 to December 15, 2011) |
| Yemen || USA drone strikes (2002 - present) |
| Damascus || ISIS/ISIL in Syria. August 2014 - USA responds in Iraq-Syria |
| Turkey || Mahdi will invade Istanbul. Turkey fears allying with USA |
|Peace Treaty || Evangelical Belief || Peace Treaty || Christians break treaty with Muslims |
|Antichrist || Satan Impersonates Christ |
Papacy Usurps Christ
| Djjal || A short, fat, bow-legged, red-faced, one-eyed Jew |
| Jesus Comes || Isa (Jesus) || He comes to renounce Christianity and support Islam. He kills the Antichrist, marries, has kids. He dies after 40 years |
| Peace and Prosperity || Righteous in heaven. But |
desolation-death on earth
|Yemen || A man from Yemen is the first of a succession of righteous rulers until evil returns. 120 years remain on earth |
| Gog, Magog || ...after the millennium ||2 Nations || 2 existing nations that portend tribulation break out of prison |
|Beast From The Earth |
Gives A Mark
| USA rises out of the earth || A real animal || Rises out of the ground |
| Mark of the beast on the wicked's head and hand || Righteous and wicked marked by a strange animal |
|Probation Closes ||7 Last Plagues (1 Year) |
Nobody switches sides
|Western Sun || The sun rises from the west. Believing now is useless. The last 120 years begins |
| 1000 Yrs in heaven (SDA) |
1000 Yrs on earth taught by Jesus and Jews
|Shia || Mahdi disappeared over 1000 years ago (824 AD). He brings universal peace |
|Day of Judgment || Final Judgement Phase |
Gog and Magog
| Muslim || 2 tribes if vicious humans, now imprisoned, escape and terrorize earth |
|Armageddon || God destroys wicked || Muslim || Allah's forces led by Mahdi and Isa destroy all the wicked and establish Islam as the universal religion |
| Trumpet || Resurrection ||Blows 2 Times ||(1) Everyone faints. Fear, terror. and death (2) Resurrection |
» The Arab Spring
The Muslims gathered into the places where they knew war would be conducted according to their prophecies and their terrorist activities pushed the world to respond in those places in the sequence predicted.
It seems like the United States was baited into conducting war in the places that fulfilled their prophecies or the accumulation of terrorists in these areas forced a natural response.
Turkey borders the most volatile regions in 2014 - Syria and northern Iraq. So a hesitation to join an international coalition against ISIL may be due a prophecy of invasion in addition to a serious refugee crisis.
The problem is that the jihad fighters have started the war before the sign of the day of judgment or the appearance of their Mahdi in the Shia belief.
However since the Sunni believe that the day of judgment will not come until they kill the Jews, then this Sunni led global insurgency makes sense.
Islam is nothing but a mishmash of Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity. However they manage to take key figures and events and reinterpret them with Zoroastrian beliefs often dismissing the teachings of the Judeo-Christian texts.
So their prophecies are essentially Zoroastrianism with the names of people changed.
On the other hand Christianity takes the entire Jewish books without changes and adds the history of Jesus Christ and His disciples as part of the sacred history about the coming of the expected Jewish Messiah whom they believe is Jesus Christ.
So Islam has a different set of beliefs about orgins that is not the same as Genesis. They also believe that Ishmael is the chosen son, not Isaac.
Like Jews and Christians, Muslims believe that God is coming to wipe out all religions and establish "theirs".
The Christian prophecies say that a Christian theocracy will force the world to establish their religion in the most brutal events that have ever been seen on earth! A form of Christian leadership more brutal that Al-Qaeda or ISIL or the "flavor-of-the-month" jihad militia will exist soon.
We may see the emergence of this theocracy as Christians convince themselves that they need to put aside differences and confront the brutal threat of Islam. The world may accept this as legitimate since it has been unsuccessful in marginalizing religion in a
"scientific" and "logical" world.
» No Isa (Jesus)
One consequence of these wars is that Muslims are now interested in what Christians have to say about the second Coming, not because they are interested in conversion but because the coming of Jesus is linked to the coming of the Mahdi.
They believe Isa comes is 7 years after the Mahdi so they are very vulnerable to date setting in this climate because it has been over 13 years since a succession of candidate Madhis (wicked terrorist leaders) has appeared whose brutality does not spare Muslims - yet there is no Isa.
After studying several end time prophetic expectations it is very interesting that everyone has a high probability that they will be deceived.
This is because at critical points, their decisions are not based on absolutes of right and wrong.
It is based on identifying a point in time and the opposing forces and then reacting based on a prophetic script.
|Middle East Prophecies|
The prophecies of two major Middle East religions are being fulfilled.
Islam and Zoroastrianism both believe that the Christians are the Antichrist and that they will start a war in the
Holy Land with the cooperation of the Jews.
In this war, the holy nations of Iran, Afghanistan, Syria and Baghdad will be attacked.
Everyone will march to Jerusalem for a final show down.
The prophecies complement each other to the extent that actual events will confirm everybody's belief.
And differences in belief will still confirm everyone's position and drive their behavior towards a critical point of no return.
No one seems to care about acting on the basis of right or wrong behavior.
They act based on right or wrong sides of a prophetic fulfillment.
They should learn from Abraham and Moses and other prophets, when the behavior of God seemed to challenge the moral principles set by God, they questioned God.
In some cases, they begged to die rather than continue.
Muslims think that they cannot be deceived because they can identify the Antichrist. He will look like a one eyed monster who will be unable to travel to Mecca and Medina.
They have identified the Christians as the forces of the Antichrist and their prophecies confirm their hatred of Israel and propels them towards the destruction of Israel.
They also believe that God will correct the inaccuracies in every belief. He will change laws.
They believe that Mary will warn us, and everyone will get a personal affirmation that Catholicism is the only true faith.
Evangelicals seem to have no concept of deception because they believe that they will be taken away before the trouble starts.
But they have identified the Antichrist as a dictator like Hitler who will attempt to rule the whole world.
In this system militant Muslims are used by the forces of Antichrist and the church must protect the Jews or they will be fighting against God.
Their biggest mistake is seeing one nation as a righteous nation called by God. This blind faith makes them turn a blind eye to immoral behavior perpetrated by their side.
The problem is that at one point they believed that you could tell the time and the enemy because the nations of Russia and China will start a war in the Middle East and then fight against Israel.
The United States had no role. Unfortunately, their eschatology has turned upside down because of the events in the Middle East.
It is the United States that has gone to war in the Middle East and it is the United States that is attempting to impose its political system on the rest of the world.
Even changing to a policy of preemptive war.
Now there is a reshuffling of prophetic roles to fulfill their version of prophecy.
They now claim that the United States is acting as the sword of God to bring Christianity and freedom to the world.
They are probably hoping that Russia and China will attack later.
Unfortunately, China probably sees world domination in their immediate future if they remain uninvolved and develop their economic capability while they allow their rivals to exhaust their resources.
So China is watching the fire burn across the river so that they can fish in troubled waters later.
The Muslim belief and the belief of many evangelical Christians will make them natural enemies.
Each will be able to see what they want to see as events unfold. A broken peace treaty, the antichrist, and a war in the Middle East and Jerusalem as the prize.
||Most Evangelical Christians
||Fight Christians and Jews
» Jerusalem: The Prize And The Hernia Stone.
In a strange twist of fate, both groups will be fulfilling the real prophecy.
The Muslims believe that they must march towards Jerusalem and take it by force.
The bible teaches that the forces of those who are against God will surround Jerusalem in order to destroy her.
If the Muslims attempt to fulfill their prophetic directive, they will be fulfilling the Jewish prophecies!
The Muslims caused the nations to be gathered in the Holy Land. Eventually, they will surround Jerusalem.
But because their fight is for ideology, not principle, both groups will be fighting against God.
When evangelicals realize that they are in the middle of a time of trouble and they have not been raptured
they will respond by defending their position instead of the word of God.
Israel will do something that will make them angry.
At that point they will find a reason to abandon Israel.
Perhaps they will reshuffle their eschatology and see themselves as the only "true Israel".
Then they will want to take Jerusalem as their God given right.
The Bible teaches that there will be no single righteous nation, but the righteous people will be scattered among many nations.
Every nation will turn against God. They will persecute the righteous in their community and they will try to possess Jerusalem.
Unfortunately, the United States will be the leader.
We are now witnesses to the processes that are leading many groups into the Holy Land. It will end with their need to capture Jerusalem.
The United States policy towards Israel will change. That is the result of the prophecy by Zechariah.
Christ tells His followers that they can be deceived. The Bible teaches that we have the right to question the instructions of any supernatural being if their
teachings contradict the Bible.
Christ also adds that one sure sign of a false Christ is the fact that you have to be told where he is, or you have to go somewhere to hear his teachings.
So defend the principle, not the group, and you will be acting according to the will of God.
» The Deception Of Satan.
When Satan comes, pretending to be God, he will be perfectly beautiful with both eyes. He will perform miracles, he will travel to different places and he will look spectacular.
He will be able to travel to Mecca and Medina.
The only way that you can tell that he is false is the fact that he travels from place to place. He will also try to change or "correct" the laws of God.
When Christ comes there will be no travelling, no miracles, no last pleas. Only resurrection, rapture and destruction of the wicked.
If you have to think about what to do, you are already being deceived.
Eve was deceived because she lost sight of the principles. She forgot the word of God.
|The Muslim Paradise|
"They shall recline on jewelled couches face to face, and there shall wait on them immortal youths with bowls and ewers and a cup of purest wine (that will neither pain their heads nor take away their reason); with fruits of their own choice and flesh of fowls that they relish. And theirs shall be the dark-eyed houris, chaste as hidden pearls: a guerdon for their deeds... We created the houris and made them virgins, loving companions for those on the right hand ..."
Muhammad said, "The smallest reward for the people of paradise is an abode where there are 80,000 servants and 72 wives, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls, aquamarine, and ruby, as wide as the distance from Al-Jabiyyah to Sana'a." [Damascus to Yemen]
» Suicide Bombers.
One product of the zeal of the Muslim believers is the homicide bombers. People who are willing to kill Jews and non-believers in a mass bombing.
Since suicide is forbidden, this act is interpreted as martyrdom in the cause of the jihad or war to advance Islam.
The bomber believes that at the moment his first drop of blood spills that he gains the following as a martyr (shahid).
- A free pass to heaven.
- A crown of pearls on his head.
- All sins are forgiven. He is as pure as the day he was born.
- He is not dead. He is alive, near God forever.
- He gets 72 virgins. Some recruiters promise 70 virgins and 70 wives.
Constructing A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy.
In the current war, we see what can go terribly wrong when devout people believe that they are part of the fulfillment of a prophecy and begin to take irrational steps to
fulfill it. In this process, they justify all types of immoral behavior.
They relabel suicide as martyrdom. They sabotage real indications of progress in a peace negotiation because the facts appear to contradict the prophecy.
Years ago, the Maccabeans committed terrible acts because they believed that they were fulfilling a prophecy of Daniel.
Similarly, the Christian right is on a lunatic mission to refurbish the role of the United States as the sword of God to fulfill the will of God.
The truth is, that if the righteous recognize that they are in the middle of a prophecy, they should behave more righteously because the
prophecy will be fulfilled without their help. Do the right thing, even of the right thing goes contrary to the fulfillment of prophecy.
We are not called to fulfill prophecy. We are called to reflect the righteousness of God.
As it turns out, because the Muslims and the Christian right believe that they are fulfilling prophecy they
actually are fulfilling the prophecy by their actions. The problem is that they are not fighting on the side that they think is righteous!
If the events were not so tragic it would be comedic. And the real tragedy is that no matter how right or wrong their theology or their prophetic interpretation, they
would be fighting on the right side if they would only live the principles of Jesus Christ instead of trying to be actors and directors in a tragic prophetic play.
|Hamas And The Palestinian Elections|
The United States seemed to have forced a Palestinian election, but the outcome was not what they expected.
Their enemies won by a landslide.
Several months later, the losing side refuses to leave their positions. The Americans have cut off funds to compound the misery
and hope that the people will blame the winning party.
The United States is undermining a legitimate, fair and free democratic election because they hate the results.
This can be seen as a dishonorable political act that is equivalent to breaking a treaty.
On July 20, 2005 the news reported that the father of the Egyptian 911 hijacker, Muhammad Atta praised the recent bombings in London and called for more.
He also claimed that this is a part of the fifty year war.
» The Fifty Year War.
He could be referring to the prophecy. The fifty years probably includes the seven year reign of Mahdi, the forty year reign of Isa and the few years leading up to the beginning of these periods. Here are the signs that drive them.
» The Signs.
The December 26, 2004 Asian earthquake and the December 26, 2003 Iranian earthquake, the locusts in Africa and the Middle East in 2004 which caused famine. The drought and the war on terror and the success of the Islamic insurgency and September 11 could be seen as part of the signs.
All we need is a plague to sweep the region. The diseases occurring in Iraq and Afghanistan because of the lack of clean water and adequate services could be interpreted as the beginning of this sign.
A black wind could be any of the terrible dust storms that plague the area (Haboob).
On July 14, 2005 a storm carried a cloud of sand, the size of the United States, on a ten day journey from the Sahara across the Atlantic to the United States.
This may qualify as a black wind for those looking for a fulfillment. Significantly, it was carried from an Islamic region to the land of their enemy.
» The Peace Treaty.
If they are looking for a peace treaty it would be the negotiations between Israel, the Palestinians and the United States.
Because the prophecy says that the non-Muslims will break the treaty we find the terrorists doing everything to sabotage the process so that Israel will retaliate.
Then they can blame Israel.
For example, as Israel forcibly removed its settlers from Gaza in preparation for the hand over, the Palestinians attacked Israel.
Why? They want to claim that Israel did not leave peacefully or in good faith because of a treaty.
They want to claim that they drove Israel out under gunfire to claim a military victory instead of a diplomatic victory. In the process of Israel defending themselves, they could claim that Israel "broke the treaty".
This makes sense only to people who want to interpret their times as part of significant events in a prophecy.
They break a treaty or make it impossible to be kept and then blame the other side.
Peace is not in their vocabulary. The Al-Qaeda training manual says the following.
Islamic governments have never and will never be established through peaceful solutions and
cooperative councils. They are established as they always have been by pen and gun, by word and bullet, by tongue and teeth.
» The Outcome.
The more they continue in this lunatic behavior, the more they are fulfilling the real prophecy by creating the conditions it describes.
When the United States really starts thinking in terms of a religious war then they will get smart about not reacting to a bait that drags them into a prophetic fulfillment that benefits their enemies.
Because, after a while, even the peaceful but devout Muslim will begin to think in terms of their prophecies and this will erode support for the United States.
My only advice is to take actions that will negate these prophecies. But it seems that such actions are too late. And I am fearful that the training and equipment that we are providing to Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia will
be turned against us very soon. Why? Because they are faithful and zealous and current events appear to be fulfilling their prophecy.
For this reason we cannot go to war in Iran or Syria or even threaten to do so.
The very threat will speed up the prophetic time table in their minds. Muslim men and women everywhere will say, "what if".
And they will start to prepare for war with the great Satan.
Unfortunately, the United States will turn to failed Christian prophecies as a bona fide military and strategic plan and fulfill its destiny in the process.
Democrats and liberals are calling for a withdrawal because we are attracting more terror. I think it is too late for that.
The extremists (Muslim and Christian) will not let us leave until their prophecy is fulfilled.
» Iran Waits for the Mahdi.
I caught the tail end of a report on "The Newshour", December 9, 2005 which seems to confirm what I suspect must be happening in the Muslim World.
Ahamadinejad, the new president, has told his nation that they must wait for the coming of the Mahdi. He has also said that the Mahdi will appear in two years.
Muslims expect that this will come with violence.
For those in the west who keep waiting for the secular Iranians who want everything western, this prophecy and expectation trumps their hopes.
The reason why he calls for Israel to be "wiped off the map" is because he believes that it will happen in his time when the vast
Muslim army joins the Mahdi to fight Israel and the United States.
Ahamadinejad believes that a light surrounded him when he made a speech to the United Nations General Assembly that was seen by others.
"He said when you began with the words 'in the name of God,' I saw that you became surrounded by a light until the end [of the speech]," Ahmadinejad appears to say in the video. "I felt it myself, too. I felt that all of a sudden the atmosphere changed there, and for 27-28 minutes all the leaders did not blink."
Ahmadinejad adds that he is not exaggerating.
"I am not exaggerating when I say they did not blink; it's not an exaggeration, because I was looking," he says. "They were astonished as if a hand held them there and made them sit. It had opened their eyes and ears for the message of the Islamic Republic."
Several important leaders believe that they are called by God and are acting on behalf of God to bring in the age of God.
The president of North Korea believes that he should be worshipped as God.
The American president believes that God called him for these times and some Christians on the right believe that he is the one who will
bring Christianity to the rest of the world.
Now we have the president of Iran believing that he is called by God. Some claim that he believes that he is the Mahdi.
With that we have an answer to their stubborn determination to continue on a certain path despite all rational reasons not to do so.
That is the essence of their "faith". They believe that God will win in the end and they must be faithful.
The reason why they will succeed is because they are surrounded by people who believe the same and who have the power to force the world into one direction.
Whether or not one eschatology is more correct than another, it is astounding that however we got to this point,
many faiths are looking for the same signs at the same time. Even if it is for different reasons and outcomes.
God did not leave Himself without a witness.
Even at the birth of Christ, the whole region was looking with expectation and hope.
And, while the Jews missed the birth of their Messiah, it was three pagan scholars who were looking at their signs and recognized the time
and came searching for the new king of the Jews.
Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem saying,
"Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the east and have come to worship Him."
(Matthew 2: 1-2)
They had access to all these traditions in which God preserved enough truth to stir a generation in every nation at the right time.
The same is happening now.
I enjoyed this research and creating this page and the graphics. I hope you enjoyed it too.
Study to show yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth.
2 Timothy 2: 15
||Time: 500 minutes
Print: 91 pages
Copyright . First Created June 2005.
Updated August 2012
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (January 2008)
All images were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.
The people in the table of nations and some animals were modeled after clip art images.
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