Church History

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"Ask and you shall receive"

Oh, that you would bless me indeed and enlarge my territory and that your hand would be with me, and that you would keep me from evil, that I may not cause pain.
The prayer of Jabez (I Chronicles 4:10)

This section deals with the secular history of those people, nations, organizations and empires that appear in the prophecies from Daniel's time to the end of time. As such, it does not deal with the prophecies, but merely the facts and relations around those key people and kingdoms that will give a background on the prophecies examined in another section.

History from Creation to the Exodus
Several chronologies have been proposed in order to estimate how many years have gone by since creation. To a large extent, most chronologies agree to the exact year up to the time of the Exodus, thereafter discrepancies amounting to a maximum of 300+ years creep into the chronology because the history of families was not as well catalogued. This is in part due to the break up of the continuity of the lineages because of Israel's captivity by a series of nations. Indeed, it is at this point that we see God giving visions of the domination of his people by these nations that is the focus of this study.

World Empires in Prophecy
It is important to note that when the prophecies speak about empires, it is only concerned with empires that challenge God's people by their power. Although Egypt and Assyria captured the people of God, the symbolic prophecies begin with the invasion of Babylon.
  Empires in Prophecy Other Civilizations
Babylon The first Empire was the head of gold. Zhou dynasty in China. They and the rest of the world were tribal
Medo-Persia The second Empire (Medes and then Persians under Cyrus the Great) was the chest of silver.
Greece The third Empire under Alexander the Great was the belly and thighs of brass.Qin Dynasty. Vikings invade Russia
Rome (Pagan) Under the caesars - The fourth empire was the legs of Iron. They killed the MessiahHan Dynasty. Maya, Nazca and Hopewell civilizations begin
Rome (papal) One phase of the Roman Empire with domination of the state by the church for 1260 years. Sui, Tang, Xia and Jin dynasties. Sassanians, Umayaads, Abbasida. Gupta in India. Maya and Pueblo
Europe The fifth power was the divided European nations which will exist until the end of time. They will not be united as one nation.
France The sixth power was short lived during the French Revolution, but its secular ideas would last till the end and challenge faith in God.British, French, Spanish, Portuguese empires
See a Map
United States The final power will be a worldwide movement at the end, dominated by the United States of America, the churches and Europe.Modern nations
Kingdom of God The last empire will be the kingdom of God - The stone that shatters the image.

Head of Gold - Babylon Chest of Silver - Medo Persia Belly and Thighs of Brass - Greece Legs of Iron - Rome Feet of Iron and Clay - Europe Stone Cut out of a Mountain - Christ's Second Coming

History of the Church
The history of the church included many significant events:

  1. State Persecution. Ten organized Roman persecutions ended with the conversion of Constantine and the rise of the Christian church to political power.
  2. Popularity. Conversion of Emperor Constantine results in the end of persecution.
  3. Rise to Political power. The church conquers the pagan world.
  4. Apostasy. Eventually, the church would disobey God and cause a great apostasy.
  5. Church Persecution. Christians, pagans, heathens, Jews and Muslims.
  6. Schisms and Breakups. The church separates over issues of control, doctrine and politics. The most notable was the Reformation.
  7. Ecumenism. The church attempts to unite its separated brethren
  8. Global Political Power. The church again seeks to influence governments and politics and to be taken as a legitimate, political leader in the affairs of governments and nations.

The Conversion of Emperor Constantine
The organized Roman persecution of the Christian church ended with the conversion of the Roman Emperor Constantine.
Constantine became the western emperor after the death of his father, and after Diocletian and Maximian retired. During a battle outside rome in 312 A.D. , he had a dream in which he saw the sign of the cross in the sky, with the words In hoc signo vinces which means by this sign conquer. The next day he added this sign to the standards of his army, and won the battle. He entered Rome and became unchallenged as western Emperor.

Although he did not convert immediately, from this time forward he began to favor Christianity by his legislation. He and his mother, Helena, who had also converted to Christianity, spent large sums of money building new churches and visiting the Holy Land. He was baptized close to the end of his life and died on May 22, 337 A.D.

Legislation of Christianity by the State of Rome
Following are some of the legislation that favored Christianity:

  1. Establishment of Christianity as the State Religion
  2. Persecution of the Heathen and Other Religion

History Of Pagan Influences On Christianity
History of Changes
Year History
585 Strict Sunday worship (second Synod of Macon)
593 Purgatory
600 Prayers to saints and Mary
750 Pope speaks for God
788 Worship of images, relics, cross
995 Canonization of dead saints
1050 Mass
1090 Rosary
1190 Indulgences
1215 Transubstantiation
1215 Priest confession
1229 Bible forbidden
1545 Tradition above the Bible
1546 Apocrypha added to the Bible
1870 Papal infallibility
1997? An emerging doctrine. Mary as coredeemer, mediator and advocate
Many practices, including Sunday worship, were derived from pagan religions in an attempt to make the followers convert to Christianity by making the religion seem more like their own. Certain of these practices survive today. John Henry Newman's Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine states that all these are of pagan origin:

"The use of temples, and these dedicated to particular saints, and ornamented on occasions with branches of trees; incense, lamps, and candles; votive offerings on recovery from illness; holy water; asylums; holydays and seasons, use of calendars, processions, blessings on the fields; sacerdotal vestments, the tonsure, the ring in marriage, turning to the East, images at a later date, perhaps the ecclesiastical chant, and the Kyrie Eleison, are all of pagan origin, and sanctified by their adoption into the Church."

When the Lord your God cuts off from before you the nations which you go to dispossess, and you displace them and dwell in their land, take care to yourself that you are not ensnared to follow them ... do not enquire after their gods, saying, 'How did these nations serve their gods? I also will do likewise.' You shall not worship the Lord your God in that way ... Whatever I command you, be careful to observe it; you shall not add to it nor take away from it. (Deuteronomy 12: 29-32)

Do not learn the way of the Gentiles ... For the customs of the people are futile [vain]; for one cuts a tree from the forest, the work of the hands of the workman, with an axe. They decorate it with silver and gold, they fasten it with nails and hammers so that it will not topple (Jeremiah 10: 2-4)

ChangeModern Practice Pagan Origin
SabbathSunday Worship Pagan day of sun worship
Easter Egg
Easter (First Sunday after first full moon of spring) Originated with the Passover but it became merged with Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring: "Eostre", in her honor sacrifices were offered at the vernal equinox or spring. The Babylonians knew her as Ishtar or Astarte. By the 8th century church leaders applied "Eostre" to Christ's resurrection. Later Passover began to be translated as Easter in some Bibles.
State of the Dead
Halloween (October 31) Literally means Holy Evening. The dead were believed to visit their homes on October 31. Old pagan customs were combined with Catholic tradition to create Halloween Autumn festival called, "Sanhain" marked the end of summer It marked the new year for ancient Celtics and Anglo Saxons
All Saints Day (November 1) Prayers offered for all souls in Purgatory. It is preceded by "Holy Evening" or Halloween (October 31) when the pagans believed that the dead visited their homes

Pure Paganism
Christmas (December 25) Adopted in 354 AD by Liberius, Bishop of Rome. December 25 was birthday of Mithra, Iranian "God of Light". It is also the birthday of the sun
Mistletoe The Druids considered it sacred
Christmas tree Scandinavians worshipped trees. When they became Christians, they introduced the practice to Christmas.
Yule log The Norse burned a huge log once year to Thor, god of thunder. When they became Christians they burned it to Christ
Santa Claus The legend of Saint Nicolas, Bishop of Myra in Lycia, 300 A.D.
The belief that he enters a house through the chimney originated with Norse legend who believed the goddess, Hertha appeared in the fireplace and brought good luck to the house.

History Of The Sabbath
The history of the change of the day of worship from Saturday to Sunday began in the church of Rome and Alexandria in the second century. By the fourth century both days were observed and Saturday fell out of favor because it was negatively connected with Jews and because it was made a day of fasting while Sunday was a festive day. Finally the state and the church regulated rest on Sunday.

The Sabbath Before Christ. The Sabbath existed from creation and was reconfirmed at Sinai.

The Sabbath and the Early Church. The Sabbath was kept by the early church for over 200 years until the church of Rome started a new trend in 150 AD.

The Sabbath Changed by Law. By the fifth century there was a social change as both days were observed. This continued until the state legalized Sunday as the day of rest.

The Sabbath Changed by the Church. Ultimately it was the church in league with the state that prompted these changes.

Sabbath Lesson Study. For a study on the authenticity of the Sabbath please go to this study. We examine issues such as what was nailed at the cross and the significance of the Sabbath established at creation.

Martyrs and Persecutions
The history of the church is filled with events of tragedy. From the crucifixion of our Lord, through the persecution by the Roman government to the persecution of fellow Christians for differences in faith - many men, women and children have given their lives for the love of God and the willingness to do what they believe is right no matter what the physical cost in loss of property, job, income, children and even their very lives.

The Death of the Disciples and Apostles of Christ
Name Death Place
Jesus Christ Crucified Jerusalem (31 A.D.)
Andrew Crucified Greece
Bartholomew Tortured and beheaded Armenia
James, son of Alphaeus Stoned to death or crucified Persia
James, son of Zebedee Beheaded Rome
John, son of Zebedee
(The Beloved)
* Exiled for his faith. Died of natural causes Isle of Patmos
Judas (not Iscariot) Crucified in Turkey or Stoned to death in Persia Turkey or Persia
Judas Iscariot Suicide by hanging Jerusalem
Matthew Speared Ethiopia
Peter Crucified upside down Rome
Philip Tortured Turkey
Simon Crucified Britain
Thomas Speared India
Matthias Stoned Jerusalem
Stephen Stoned Jerusalem (34 A.D.)
Paul Beheaded Rome under Nero
Legend states that all the disciples except John were martyred. John was boiled in oil but could not be killed so he was exiled on the Isle of Patmos where he wrote the book of Revelation. Most of this information is from tradition and may be not be correct.

Roman Persecutions - Persecution by the State

  1. The First Persecution, Under Nero, A.D. 67. The first persecution of the Church took place in the year 67, under Nero, the sixth emperor of Rome. He ordered that the city of Rome should be set on fire and while the imperial city was in flames, he went up to the tower of Macaenas, played his harp, sung the song of the burning of Troy. This continued nine days until Nero, discovered that he was criticized and held responsible. Determined to lay the blame upon the Christians, he designed the most cruel punishments. He had some sewed up in skins of wild beasts, and then attacked by dogs until they died; and others dressed in shirts made of wax, and set on fire in his gardens, to provide light for his gardens. Peter and Paul were martyred under this persecution.
  2. The Second Persecution, Under Domitian, A.D. 81. The emperor Domitian, first killed his brother, and then started the second persecution against the Christians. He also killed some of the Roman senators, through malice or to confiscate their property. He then ordered that the Jews be put to death. Among the martyrs was John, who was boiled in oil, and then banished to Patmos. All famine, pestilence, or earthquakes was blamed on the Christians and caused more persecution. Through bribery and rewards, many Christians were put to death with lies. Christians had to renounce their religion to be exempted from punishment.
  3. The Third Persecution, Under Trajan, A.D. 108. This persecution was started by Trajan and then continued by his successor Adrian. Christians were thrown to wild beasts, crucified, crowned with thorns and had spears run through their sides.
  4. The Fourth Persecution, Under Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, A.D. 162. Christians were beheaded, clubbed to death, thrown from precipices, brains crushed, red hot metal plates were placed on the most sensitive parts of their bodies, burnt at the stake, pressed to death with weights, attacked by wild animals, severely beaten until their bines showed. Some were made to walk, with their already wounded feet, over thorns, nails, sharp shells, and other sharp objects upon their points,
  5. The Fifth Persecution, Commencing with Severus, A.D. 192. The progress of Christianity alarmed the pagans and this brought about this round of persecutions. Once again Christians were beheaded, had tar poured on their bodies, burnt alive, gored by wild bulls, forced to run the gauntlet, exposed to wild beasts in the amphitheaters and placed in baths of scalding water.
  6. The Sixth Persecution, Under Maximus, A.D. 235. During this persecution, many Christians were killed without trial, and buried in heaps others were dragged behind wild horses until they were killed.
  7. The Seventh Persecution, Under Decius, A.D. 249. This was caused partly by the hatred he had for his predecessor Philip, who was a Christian, and was partly by his jealousy concerning the amazing increase of Christianity. The heathen temples were being forsaken, and the Christian churches thrived. Unfortunately for the Gospel, many errors had creeped in around this time. Christians were at variance with each other, self-interest and pride divided them into many factions.

    Christians were decapitated, stretched upon a wheel, until the bones were broken, one was even put into a leather bag, together with a number of serpents and scorpions, and then thrown into the sea. Others were stoned to death, stretched on a rack, torn with hooks, burnt alive, starved to death, forced to work in brothels, imprisoned, tortured, hanged all for their faith.
  8. The Eighth Persecution, Under Valerian, A.D. 257. Began under Valerian, in April 257, and continued for three years and six months. The martyrs that fell in this persecution were many, and they suffered various painful tortures. Neither rank, sex, nor age were regarded. One martyr was tied to the tail of a bull who was driven down the steps of a temple. His brains were smashed in the process. Three hundred Christians were burned at once in a pit for not sacrificing to the god Jupiter.
  9. The Ninth Persecution Under Aurelian, A.D. 274. Tortured, beheaded, 666 Christian soldiers were cut to pieced by the sword, some were broiled upon a gridiron. A Christian named Quintin was stretched with pulleys until his joints were dislocated; his body was then torn with wire scourges, and boiling oil and pitch poured on his naked flesh; lighted torches were applied to his sides and armpits; and after he had been thus tortured, he was remanded back to prison, and died of the barbarities he had suffered, October 31, A.D. 287. His body was sunk in the Somme.
  10. The Tenth Persecution, Under Diocletian, A.D. 303 - 313 A.D.. This persecution, which lasted for 10 years, started with the destruction of all Christian churches and books and an order to declare Christians as outlaws. All the Christians were apprehended and imprisoned; and Galerius (the step son of Diocletian) privately ordered the imperial palace to be set on fire, so that the Christians might be blamed. This would give a reason for carrying on the persecution. Many houses were set on fire, and whole Christian families perished in the flames; and others had stones fastened about their necks, tied together were thrown into the sea. Racks, scourges, swords, daggers, crosses, poison, and famine, were used to kill the Christians. A city of Phrygia, consisting entirely of Christians, was burnt, and all the inhabitants perished in the flames. Tired with slaughter, the Romans devised ways to make their lives miserable. Their ears cut off, noses slit, right eyes put out, limbs made useless by dreadful dislocations, and their flesh seared in tender places with red-hot irons. Crushed to death in a mill, dragged through the streets, tortured, strangled, broiled slowly on a gridiron, eyes goughed out with red hot irons, starved to death, The persecutions ended when Constantine became ruler and there were no general persecutions for the next 1000 years until the time of John Wycliffe.

Papal Persecutions - Persecution by the Church
It is estimated that between 50 - 100 million people died cruel deaths during the reign of the church.

Why does the church persecute? And why such cruelty? I could quote many popes from the past, but you might say that the church has changed. So let me quote from the present, to show why this method of control will always be an option for the church.

• Pope Innocent III's (1198-1216 AD) Deliberatio claimed the right to dispose kings. He ordered the extermination of heretics, the massacre of Albigensians, condemned the Magna Charta, and forbade Bible reading in the common language.
• The Inquisition of heretics established (1229) under Gregory IX. (1227-1241)
• Pope Innocent IV, in his instruction for the guidance of the Inquisition in Tuscany and Lombardy, ordered the civil magistrates to force a confession of guilt from all heretics by torture, and a betrayal of all their accomplices, in the Papal Bull Ad Extirpanda de Medio Populi Christiani Pravitatis Zizania, dated May 15, 1252.
• Pope Clement V (1305-1314) rebukes England's King Edward II for not torturing heretics and orders him to do so.

Papal Persecutions - The Crusades
Pope Meet the Pope
Saint Urban II
He created the "sex tax" (Cullagium) which allowed priests to keep a mistress as long as they paid an annual fee.

The crusades might have killed up to 26,000,000 people as they killed Christians, Jews and Muslims. He was canonized by Leo XIII.
The crusades was a series of expeditions, sanctioned by the pope, against heathens and heretics. They were generally called by the church, headed by Holy Roman Emperors and were used to get back the Holy Land from the Muslims and later to persecute heretics in Europe. Most crusades were against the Turks, Muslims who occupied the Holy Land. Other crusades were against Christians who opposed the papacy, threatened Catholic unity and had their own doctrine.
Except for the first crusade, the campaign against the Muslims was largely a failure.

  1. The First Crusade (November 27, 1095). In 1095 Pope Urban II declared a holy war, a Crusade, against the Muslims to make the Holy Land Christian again. He also ordered all heretics to be tortured and killed. With Urban's call and the Church's support, thousands of towns people found a direction for their frustration and hate, and they raped and murdered their way to Jerusalem.

    The First Holocaust - Jews of the Rhineland. Godfrey of Bouillon, a respected knight, determined not to leave his country for the Holy Land until he had avenged the crucifixion by spilling a Jew's blood with his own hands. Mobs formed intending to march to the Holy Land and kill the enemies of Christ, but before they went to the Holy land they turned against the Jews of the Rhineland, tried to force them to convert to Christianity and eventually killing a total of 12,000 in 1096. In one month alone, between May and June, 10,000 lives were taken.

    The Conquest of the Holy Land. In 1099 they had arrived by boat in Lebanon they captured Jerusalem by July 15, 1099 and killed 20,000 men, women and children in the process.

    In June 1099, the crusaders laid siege to Jerusalem, by July 15 they broke through the Northern Wall slaughtering men, women and children all day and night. 6,000 Jews had fled to the synagogue for refuge - it was torched and they were burned alive. Surviving Muslims fled to the mosque of al Aqsa, 30,000 were killed when the crusaders broke down the door.
    They did not stop until there was no one else around to be killed. They took some of the men and the prettier women captive, and then they headed off to systematically conquer each city in the country. They conquered many towns and built more than 250 full Crusader fortresses over 50 years in Caesarea, Jaffa, Akko, Montfort, Yehi Am, Tiberius, Nimrod, Belvoir. They also conquered Haifa, Beirut, Sidon, Jericho, Bethlehem, Ashkelon, Eilat and Ramleh.
    They also built large shrines at: By 1146, the Muslims, led by a brilliant young general named Saladin, began a successful reconquering of the land in 1146. This led to the Second Crusade.
  2. The Second Crusade (1147-49). A Second Crusade was proclaimed by Pope Eugene III when the news reached Europe in 1146 that a Muslim Saracen named Saladin had begun to reconquer the Holy Land from the Crusaders and that Edessa had fallen to the Turks.

    The mobs, once again turned toward the Jewish quarters to start another blood bath. But fewer than 200 were killed after the Jews paid large bribes to the bishops and noblemen and a Christian, Bernard of Clairvaux, wrote letters to the Christian communities appealing to them not to harm Jews. These efforts avoided another bloodbath.

    The crusade was led by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III, King Louis VII of France. They took Ashkelon, Tiberius and various other coastal towns. However, they lost the war due to the unique military tactics of Saladin and by 1187 they were soundly defeated in a decisive battle just west of the Sea of Kinneret at a place called Hattin.
    The Second Crusade thus ended in total defeat; the Muslims controlled the entire country.

    When the European Christians heard of the defeat of the Crusaders, they once again tried to slaughter the Jews in their frustration, but the intervention of Frederick 1 of Prussia saved them.
  3. The Third Crusade (1189-1192). The Third Crusade was called by Pope Gregory VIII following the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187 and the defeat of Guy of Lusignan, Reginald of Châtillon, and Raymond of Tripoli at Hattin. The leaders were Richard 1 of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
    Frederick died (1190) in Cilicia, and only part of his forces went on to the Holy Land. Richard and Philip, arrived at Acre in 1191. Philip left by July of that year. In 1192 Richard made a three year truce with Saladin and left. The Christians retained Jaffa with a narrow strip of coast with the right of free access to the Holy Sepulcher, but their main objective to capture Jerusalem failed, but Antioch and Tripoli were still in the hands of Christians.
  4. The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204). Pope Innocent III launched the Fourth Crusade but the crusaders never made it to Palestine. Instead it was totally diverted from its original course.
    The Crusaders, led mostly by French and Flemish nobles, attacked Constantinople and drove out the Byzantine Emperor Alexius III and set up the Latin empire of Constantinople. Alexius (later Alexius IV), son of the deposed Byzantine emperor Isaac II and brother-in-law of Philip of Swabia, a sponsor of the crusade, joined the army at Zara and persuaded the leaders to help him depose his uncle, Alexius III. In exchange, he promised large sums of money, aid to the Crusaders in conquering Egypt, and the union of the Roman and the Eastern churches.
    » The Children's Crusade (1212). The Children's Crusade, 1212 was led by a visionary French peasant boy, Stephen of Cloyes. Children embarked at Marseilles, hoping they would succeed in the cause that their elders had betrayed. Most of them perished of hunger and disease or were sold into slavery.
  5. The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221). Soon afterward, Innocent III and his successor Honorius III, began to preach the Fifth Crusade. King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria, John of Brienne, and the papal legate Pelasius were among the leaders of the expedition, which was aimed at Egypt, the center of Muslim strength. Damietta (Dumyat) was taken in 1219 but had to be evacuated again after the defeat (1221) of an expedition against Cairo.
  6. The Sixth Crusade (1228-29). The Sixth Crusade, was undertaken by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II he made a truce with the Muslims, securing the partial surrender of Jerusalem and other holy places and crowned himself king of Jerusalem. The Muslims later reoccupied the city.
    Thibaut IV of Navarre and Champagne, started the war again in 1239 and the struggle was continued by Richard, Earl of Cornwall. They were unable to compose the quarrels between the Knights Hospitalers and Knights Templars. In 1244 the Templars, made a treaty and an alliance with the sultan of Damascus rather than with Egypt. A treaty (1244) with Damascus restored Palestine to the Christians.
  7. The Seventh Crusade (1248-1254). The Seventh Crusade was due to Louis IX of France. It was called after the Egyptian Muslims and their Turkish allies took Jerusalem and utterly defeated the Christians at Gaza. Again, Egypt was the object of attack. Damietta fell again in 1249 but in 1250 Louis was captured on an expedition to Cairo. After his release from captivity, he spent four years improving the fortifications left to the Christians in the Holy Land.
  8. The Eighth Crusade (1270). The fall of Jaffa and Antioch to the Muslims in 1268 caused Louis IX to undertake the Eighth Crusade in 1270, which was cut short by his death in Tunisia.
  9. The Ninth Crusade (1271 - 1272). The Ninth Crusade, was led by Prince Edward (later Edward 1 of England). He landed at Acre but retired after concluding a truce. In 1289, Tripoli fell to the Muslims, and in 1291 the last Christian stronghold in Acre also fell.

Papal Persecutions - Hussites
Map of Protestant Distribution
The Hussites in Bohemia and Moravia were followers of Jan Huss who was burned at the stake in 1415 for heresy. This was a complex religious, political and social struggle that aligned these forces:

After the death of Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia in 1419, the Hussites took up arms to prevent Emperor Sigismund from succeeding to the throne. They were without a king between 1429 and 1436. While this War of Succession was going on, the crusades against the Hussites began. The crusades against the Czech Hussites were mostly a failure until the Council of Basil in 1433. At this time, moderate Hussites recanted their heresy and went back to the Catholic Church. This caused disagreement and the civil war broke out between the Utraquists and the Taborites (lower class).
In Bohemia, a country with a population of four million by the year 1600, 3.2 million of which were Protestants, only the population of 800,000 Catholics were left alive by the time the Hapsburgs and Jesuits were through. 2,400,000 Protestants were cruelly murdered.

Papal Persecutions - Waldensians (1147-1658)
Pope Meet the Popes of this Era
All sinners
Boniface VIII Adultery and homosexual activity
Clement V Loved prostitutes
Paul II Homosexual, who liked bondage and lust. Died of a heart attack while being sodomized
Alexander VI Incest, adultery, illegitimate children, Orgies in the papal palace
The Waldenses or Vaudois were French Protestants in the Piedmont Valley region of southern France and northern Italy. By the middle ages, the church was filled with darkness and superstition. Around the year 1000, some people, notably Berengarius, boldly preached the primitive gospel truths and separated themselves from the Roman church. He was succeeded by Peer Bruis who wrote a book called Antichrist.

By the year 1140, there was a large number in the reformed movement, and their popularity alarmed the pope, prompting him to gather scholars to write against their doctrines and to ask several princes to banish them from their dominions.

By 1147 Peter Waldo of Lyons became a popular preacher among the reformed and they came to be known as Waldensians. Pope Alexander III excommunicated Waldo and his followers and asked the Bishop of Lyons to exterminate them from the face of the earth. So the persecution of the Waldensians began. This was the first time that the system of the Inquisition was used. Any open or anonymous accusation was sufficient evidence of guilt. The Dominician Order was formed from a monk named Dominic who was tasked with debating the Waldensians out of their beliefs. The Dominicans had been principally responsible for being the inquisitors in all future inquisitions.

Property Stolen. No one of any race, gender, wealth or rank was spared from the inquisition. To be rich was automatically a proof of being a heretic. People's property was confiscated. Their heirs were robbed of their inheritance. Some were sent to the Holy land and the Dominicans took possession of their property and pretended not to know them when they returned. Others could not visit their loved ones in jail, give them fresh straw to sleep on or give them a cup of water, nor could any lawyer plead for their cause because they would be prosecuted for favoring a heretic.
Their malice went so deep that even after death, anyone accused of heresy had their bones dug up and publicly burned.

So the church not only used this inquisition to accuse people of heresy, they also used it as an opportunity to rob the rich of their property.

Papal Persecutions - Albigensians
The Albigenses or Carthari were French Protestants in southern France, northern Italy and northern Spain, a people of the reformed religion, who inhabited the country of Albi. The Albigensian heretics were also known as Cathari or Cathars. Pope Alexander III condemned the religion in the Council of Lateran, but their numbers still increased. The Albigenses were members of the reformed church who believed in dualism, they believe God created Christ and the Holy Spirit. They did not believe in purgatory, resurrection, the priesthood, veneration of images, sacraments or the Nicene Trinity.

In 1208, Pope Innocent II asked King Philip II to eradicate the heresy and called the crusade to combat the heresies. In the crusading Bull, the pope promised paradise and the land of the defeated was promised to the victors. So a land rush began. An inquisition was also called against the people - those who did not recant were burned, those who did were forced to wear yellow crosses.

This struggle against the Christians of Southern France lasted 20 years. In one battle alone, an estimated 60,000 were slaughtered by Pope Innocent II in the siege of the city of Beziers, France in 1209.

King Luis VIII again lead the crusade to exterminate the Albigenses in 1226.
Many were beaten, racked, scourged, and burnt to death. At the height of the crusade a hundred were burned at the stake at a time.

Papal Persecutions - Huguenots (1562 -1598)
"Une foi, un loi, un roi," (one faith, one law, one king) was the motto of the French. The French wars of religion was caused by growth of Calvinism, noble factionalism, and weak royal government. From 1550's Calvinist or Huguenot numbers increased, fostered by missionary activities in Geneva. Noble factions of Bourbons, Guise, and Montmorency were split by religion as well as by family interests. Civil wars were encouraged by Philip II's support of Catholic Guise faction and by Elizabeth I's aid to Huguenots (French Protestants). The wars of religion started with the Massacre at Vassy in 1592 when servants of the Duc de Guise fired on the unarmed Huguenot and set the church on fire.
The most notable incidents of these wars were the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre and the slaughter of the Protestants under Louis XIV. Pope Pius V decreed the extermination of Huguenots and asked all loyal Catholics to help hunt them down.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre of Huguenots in France (August 24, 1572)
Catherine de Medici, the mother of the King of France arranged a fake wedding between her daughter, Margot de Valois, and Henri de Navarre who was a Protestant leader. The marriage was publicly conducted on August 17 and was attended by the Cardinal of Bourbon.
Four days later with a prearranged signal at midnight the homes of Protestants were entered. Admiral de Coligny, the chief military leader of the Huguenots, was stabbed by an assassin, in the chest with a sword in his own bedroom. Then they threw him out of a window into the street, cut off his head and sent it to the pope. Then they cut off his arms and private members, dragged him through the streets for three days, and hung him by the heels outside the city.

For many days they killed as many Protestants as they could, starting with the upper class. In the first 3 days 10,000 were killed and their bodies thrown into the river. The bloodbath spread from Paris to other parts of the country and in a week over 100,000 Protestants were killed across the kingdom. Some priests, holding up a crucifix in one hand, and a dagger in the other, ran to the chiefs of the murderers, and strongly exhorted them to spare neither relatives nor friends

Many who gave great sums of money for their ransom were immediately slain; and several towns, which were under the king's promise of protection and safety, were cut off as soon as they delivered themselves up, on those promises, to his generals or captains.

Rome Celebrates the Massacre
Saint Bartholomew's day massacre medal
Gregory XIII Great Pontiff Year 1
Huguenots Slaughtered 1572

In France, the king also commanded the day to be kept with every demonstration of joy, believing that the whole race of Huguenots was now extinct.

The Edict of Nantes (1598)
The Edict of Nantes was made by Henry the Great of France in 1598. It gave the same civil and religious liberty rights to the Protestants that it gave other citizens. Pope Clement VIII called it a "cursed thing". It was in opposition to the Council of Trent which issued over 100 anathemas against the Protestants. Henry IV was a Protestant who converted to Catholicism because the Catholics would not tolerate a Protestant king. He was assassinated by being stabbed in the chest.

Dragonnades (1681)
In 1681, after Louis XIV failed to eliminate the Huguenots, he forced them to allow soldiers to stay in their homes. The soldiers orders were to force them to give up their faith. Day and night these soldiers tortured, beat and terrorized the Protestants. Tens of thousands "converted" in weeks.

Slaughter of French Huguenots under King Louis XIV (1685)
The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
October 18, 1685
  • The demolition of all Protestant Temples in France
  • The ban of the Protestant religion
  • The ban on private worship under penalty of confiscation of body and property
  • The banishment of all Protestant pastors from France within fifteen days
  • The closing of all Protestant schools
  • The prohibition of parents to instruct their children in the Protestant faith
  • Children baptized by the parish priest
  • Children brought up in the Roman Catholic religion
  • The confiscation of the property and goods of all Protestant refugees who failed to return to France within four months
  • The penalty of the galleys for life to all men, and of imprisonment for life to all women, detected in the act of attempting to escape from France.
  • The law even punished those who escaped.
    Louis XIV would not revoke the edict. However, he had confessed to his Jesuit priest, Pere La Chaise, about an affair with his daughter-in-law. The priest used this fact as a weapon to blackmail him into exterminating the Protestants. Cusack writes in "The Black Pope" on page 403:

    It cost me many threats and promises, before I could bring it thus far, our King being a long time very unwilling. But at last I got him on the hip, for he had lain with his daughter-in-law, for which I would by no means give him absolution, till he had given me an instrument under his own hand and seal, to sacrifice all the heretics in one day. Now, as soon as I had my desired commission, I appointed the day when this should be done; and in the meantime made ready some thousands of letters to be sent into all parts of France in one post night.

    On page 149 of "The Two Babylons" by Hislop it also quotes the priest:

    Many a time since, when I have had him at confession, I have shook hell about his ears, and made him sigh, fear and tremble, before I would give him absolution. Nay, more than that, I have made him beg for it on his knees before I would consent to absolve him. By this I saw that he had still an inclination to me, and was willing to be under my government; so I set the baseness of the action before him by telling the whole story, and how wicked it was, and that it could not be forgiven till he had done some good action to balance that, and expiate the crime. Whereupon he at last asked me what he must do. I told him that he must root out all heretics from his kingdom. This was the "good action" to be cast into the scale of St. Michael the Archangel, to "balance" his crime. The king, wicked as he was - sore against his will - consented; the "good action" was cast in, the "heretics" were extirpated; and the king was absolved.

    This slaughter began with the revocation of the Edict of Nantes October 18, 1685 by Louis XIV although it was the Protestants who helped him to ascend the throne following years of bloody civil wars. He even confirmed the Edict of Nantes with his own edict of Nismes.

    The Edict Against the Vaudois
    January 31, 1686
  • The Vaudois shall henceforth and for ever cease and discontinue all the exercises of their religion.
  • They are forbidden to have religious meetings, under pain of death, and penalty of confiscation of all their goods.
  • All their ancient privileges are abolished.
  • All the churches, prayer-houses, and other edifices consecrated to their worship shall be razed to the ground.
  • All the pastors and schoolmasters of the Valleys are required either to embrace Romanism or to quit the country within fifteen days, under pain of death and confiscation of goods.
  • All the children born, or to be born, of Protestant parents, shall be compulsorily trained up as Roman Catholics. Every such child yet unborn shall, within a week after its birth, be brought to the cure of its parish, and admitted of the Roman Catholic Church, under pain, on the part of the mother, of being publicly whipped with rods, and on the part of the father of laboring five years in the galleys.
  • The Vaudois pastors shall abjure the doctrine they have hitherto publicly preached; shall receive a salary, greater by one-third than that which they previously enjoyed; and one-half thereof shall go in reversion to their widows.
  • All Protestant foreigners settled in Piedmont are ordered either to become Roman Catholics, or to quit the country within fifteen days.
  • By a special act of his great and paternal clemency, the sovereign will permit persons to sell, in this interval, the property they may have acquired in Piedmont, provided the sale be made to Roman Catholic purchasers.
  • History of Protestantism. by James A. Wylie
    Before that date, the Protestants slowly lost their rights. Protestants were prevented from suing Catholics in any court. Soon an order was made to inquire into all activities of the Protestants over the past 20 years. As a result, many innocent victims were placed in prison, some were banished and others were sent to the galleys as slaves. Eventually, Protestants were expelled from all offices, trades, privileges, and employment; depriving them of the means of financial support. Children were taken to be raised by Catholics, private worship was outlawed, they could not help their own poor or sick and a priest had to be present at all divine services. All ports of entry were guarded so that these people could not escape, only 150,000 did.
    When the edict was pronounced the king stated that he would not longer tolerate Huguenots in the kingdom and the Protestants were immediately surrounded. This action took place quickly because the Catholics were appointed as rulers over the Protestants and they knew of the edict before it was publicly announced so they were able to trap their victims.

    They demolished their churches and homes and ordered their ministers to leave the kingdom within 24 hours. They then proceeded to delay them until the 24 hours had expired so that they could be condemned for life in the galleys.
    With a cry of "Die or be Catholic", the Protestants were ordered to convert to Catholicism by choice or by force.

    The Protestants replied, that they were ready to sacrifice their lives and estates to the king, but their consciences being God's they could not so dispose of them.

    They suffered constant torture. They were hung by the hair or feet and smoked with hay, or burned until they died or converted. They were stuck with pins from head to foot, cut with knives all over their bodies, dragged by the nose, women were raped in front of their husbands or fathers. The galley slaves suffered the worst long term deliberate suffering and torture and punishment of all. Many ministers were given this punishment. They were given thin cotton clothes to wear in the cold seas. Beaten, overworked, underfed, sleepless. Many eventually died of exposure.
    One source reports that 500,000 died.

    The Persecution of the Vaudois (1686).
    Next, Louis XIV forced the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus, to murder the Waldenses (Vaudois) in the Piedmont Valleys. He sent an ambassador to tell the duke that he should deal with the Vaudois in the same way that he was dealing with the Huguenot. The Duke was unwilling to do this because they were such loyal subjects who had recently helped him in battle. He had just sent them a letter of gratitude.
    Louis made this request three times before he threatened to send an army of 14,000 men to do the job. So, on January 31, 1686 the edict was pronounced. It had the same terms as the Edict of Nantes and it removed all their rights. And it lead to their slaughter.

    The Inquisitions
    The word inquisition means "to inquire into". By the middle ages when the church heretics came to be regarded as enemies of the state and persecution of the heretics was still mostly unorganized. The inquisition was an attempt to organize and bring order and legality to the process. By this time the state and the church were unified and people felt that heresy threatened the order of society. So heresy was both a crime against church and civil law.

    The church sought out those accused of the crime and first tried to instruct them in the Catholic doctrine. If the person insisted in their belief, then they were handed over to the state for punishment - usually burning at the stake. By the end of all three official inquisitions over 68,000,000 Protestants, Pagans and heretics were murdered.

    The Reformation: Martin Luther
    In 1517, Johann Tetzel appeared in Germany selling a special indulgence issued by the Pope. This was the straw that broke the camel's back.
    The Protestant religious revolution was initiated in Germany by Luther in 1517, when he published his 95 theses challenging the theory and practice of selling indulgences. He advocated that religion rests on individual faith based on the guidance contained in the Bible. The reformation ended the supremacy of the Pope and gave birth to the Protestant churches.

    The reformation eventually led to the Renaissance (or the rebirth of learning) and culminated in the French Revolution. The French revolution ended the political power of the pope and started the era of secular, modern history.

    Pressure was brought on Luther by both the church and state.
    Ordered to recant and to submit to church authority, he defied the church by publicly burning a copy of the canon law and the papal bull which ordered his excommunication.
    In 1521, Charles V, Holy Roman emperor, and the German princes assembled at the Diet of Worms and ordered Luther to recant. He refused and was declared an outlaw. For almost a year he remained in hiding, writing pamphlets expounding his principles and translating the New Testament into German. Although his writings were prohibited by imperial edict, they were openly sold and were powerful instruments in turning the great German cities into centers of Lutheranism.

    The spirit of reformation started in many countries and were headed by many who were later martyred.
    National Movements and Leaders
    Year Reformer Country Church Comments
    1324-1384 John Wycliffe England Lollards Preached against the doctrine of transubstantiation and the auricular confession, and translated the Bible into English. Forty one years after his natural death, his body was dug up and burned as a heretic and the ashes were thrown into the Swift river.
    1415-1416 Huss Europe Waldenses They criticized the Roman view of the sacraments, rejected prayers to the saints, indulgences, purgatory, worldly pomp for the church, prayers for the dead. He was burned at the stake in 1415 and their ashes thrown into the Rhine river.
    1517 Luther Germany Lutheran 95 Theses
    1518 Zwingli Switzerland Reformed Denounced the sale of indulgences. Religious relics were burned, removed icons, ceremonial processions and adoration of saints were abolished, priests and monks were released from their vows of celibacy, and the Mass was replaced by a simpler communion service. Executed in 1529 and his body burned and scattered.
    1525 Zwingli Switzerland Anabaptists
    Characterized generally by believers' baptism, refusal of infant baptism, an emphasis on piety and good works, an aversion to the state-run churches
    1536 Calvin Geneva Reformed :.
    1559 Calvin France Huguenots A belief in justification by individual faith alone; he also denied the doctrine of transubstantiation.
    1560 John Knox Scotland Reformed, Presbyterian Calvinism
    1534 King Henry VIII England Anglican The king wanted the church to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragón because no male heirs were produced. But the church would not.

    Anabaptist sects include Mennonites, Amish, Brethren and Hutterites.
    Puritanism and congregationalism: Baptists

    The Counter-Reformation
    The church reacted to the reformation and Protestantism by forming many organizations and organized persecutions. The Inquisition officially started in 1231. The vast majority of the murders of 50-100 million Christians occurred during the Inquisitions and especially during the period after the Reformation movement of 1517.

    Several religious orders were formed to crush the Reformation by force, lies and by scholarly rebuttal. With their scholarly knowledge and with their legal powers as inquisitors, they went on to exterminate hundreds of millions of Christians.

    The Jesuit Extreme Oath of Induction
    This is supposed to be the Jesuit Extreme Oath of Induction as recorded in the Congressional Record of the U.S.A. (House Bill 1523, February 15, 1913, pages 3215-3216):

    I ______, now in the presence of Almighty God, the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Blessed Michael the Archangel, the Blessed St. John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles, Peter and Paul, and all the Saints, sacred hosts of Heaven, and to you, my ghostly Father, the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, founded by St. Ignatius Loyola, in the Pontification of Paul the Third, and continued to the present, do by the womb of the virgin, the matrix of God, and the rod of Jesus Christ, declare and swear that his holiness, the Pope, is Christ's Vice-regent, and is the true and only head of the Catholic or Universal Church throughout the earth; and that by the virtue of the keys of binding and loosing, given to his Holiness by my Savior, Jesus Christ, he has power to depose heretical kings, princes, states, commonwealths and governments, all being illegal without his sacred confirmation, and that they may be safely destroyed.

    I do further promise and declare, that I will have no opinion or will of my own, or any mental reservation whatever, even as a corpse or cadaver but unhesitatingly obey each and every command that I may receive from my superiors in the Militia of the Pope and Jesus Christ.

    ...I do further promise and declare, that I will, when opportunity presents, make and wage relentless war, secretly or openly, against all heretics, Protestants and Liberals, as I am directed to do to extirpate and exterminate them from the face of the whole earth, and that I will spare neither sex, age nor condition, and that I will hang, waste, boil, flay, strangle and bury alive these infamous heretics; rip up the stomachs and wombs of their women and crush their infants heads against the wall, in order to annihilate forever their execrable race.

    That when the same cannot be done openly, I will secretly use the poison cup, the strangulation cord, the steel of the poniard, or the leaden bullet, regardless of the honor, rank, dignity or authority of the person or persons whatsoever may be their condition in life, either public or private, as I at any time may be directed so to do by any agent of the Pope or superior of the Brotherhood of the Holy Faith of the Society of Jesus.

    Summary of the Methods and Tactics of Persecution
    Since the church technically has no army, it uses the faithful and the armies of the nations it controls. Soldiers are recruited by many tactics.

    Recruiting an Army

    Methods of Persecution
    The persecuted are tormented by various methods:

    Methods Of Torture
    Even the Muslims have come to refer to this as Christian barbarism. One cruel fact about these evil acts were the fact they found ways to prolong the torture so that the victim would be conscious for as long as possible. Here are some of the methods:

    The judas cradle
    Top to Bottom Judas Cradle, Iron Maiden
    Cat's Paw, Heretic's Fork, Pear
    The Judas Cradle
    The victim is hoisted up and lowered onto the point of the pyramid in such a way that his weight rests on the point positioned in the anus, in the vagina, under the scrotum or under the coccyx (the last two or three vertebrae). The executioner, according to the pleasure of the interrogators, could vary the pressure from zero to that of total body weight. The victim can be rocked, or made to fall repeatedly onto the point.

    This method is still used by few governments in Latin America and elsewhere, some with improvements like electrified waist rings.
    According to the prophecies of Daniel and Revelation, this persecuting power will last for 1260 years and it shall "wear out the saints of the Most High" while he "speaks boastful words" and "sits in the temple of God, showing himself as god".

    I know that persecutions will occur again. So while we all believe that this could never happen again, I urge you to think. Would Christ have done any of the atrocities listed above?

    Meet Some Martyrs For Christ
    Guiness "Romanism and the Reformation" pages 258-260
    You shrink from it, do you? I accept it. Conscience constrains me. History compels me. The past, the awful past rises before me. I see the Great Apostasy, I see the desolation of Christendom, I see the smoking ruins, I see the reign of monsters; I see those vicegods, that Gregory VII., that Innocent III., that Boniface VIII, that Alexander VI, that Gregory XIII, that Pius IX;

    I see their long succession, I hear their insufferable blasphemies, I see their abominable lives, I see them worshipped by blind generations, bestowing hollow benedictions, bartering lying indulgences, creating paganized Christianity; I see their liveried slaves, their slaven priests, their celibate confessors; I see the infamous confessional, the ruined women, the murdered innocents; I hear the lying absolutions, the dying groans; I hear the cries of the victims; I hear the anathemas, the curses, the thunders of the interdicts;

    I see the racks, the dungeons, the stakes; I see that inhuman Inquisition, those fires of Smithfield, those butcheries of St. Bartholomew, that Spanish Armada, those unspeakable dragonades, that endless train of wars, that dreadful multitude of massacres.

    I see it all, in the name of the ruin that it has wrought in the church and in the world, in the name of the truth it has denied, the temple it has defiled, the God it has blasphemed, the souls it has destroyed; in the name of the millions it has deluded, the millions it has slaughtered, the millions it has damned; with holy confessors, with noble reformers, with innumerable martyrs, with the saints of ages, I denounce it as the masterpiece of Satan, as the body and soul and essence of Antichrist.
    I am often amazed at these stories. How the persecuted met death and slow torture singing and praising God until the very end. It is estimated that there were over 200 million of these brave men, women and children punished for being heretics. For having a belief in God that was different. For selling the Bible. Let us pay tribute to some of them.

    Estimates of the Number of Martyrs
    The estimates seem to range from fifty million to over one hundred million killed and this does not seem to include the Catholics killed, or the Protestant persecutions of other minorities. Therefore, the total killed during the organized campaign to enforce religion on the population could be over 200,000,000.

    In addition, the total number who were banished, tortured or imprisoned could be a magnitude of ten times the number killed. So the total cost in misery cannot be estimated.
    In the case of the slaughter of the Huguenots under King Louis XIV, the ministers were trapped so that they were forced into a life of torture as galley slaves. Therefore, death might have been better. So the number tortured is just as important as the number killed.

    Persecuted Campaign Year Total Deaths High Estimate
    Total Estimates LowHigh
    Crusades (Holy land) 1095-1272 7,000,000 20,000,000 Wollschläger
    Crusades (Spain) and the conquest of Spain 1095-1272 5,000,000 5,000,000 Middleton
    Crusades (Albigenses) 1208 900,000 1,000,000 Wollschläger
    Saracen slaughter - 7,000,000 7,000,000 Middleton
    Inquisition 1518- a50,000,000 a68,000,000 Brownlee
    Witches 1400-1800 9,000,000 20,000,000 Voltaire
    Saxons and Scandinavians - 2,000,000 2,000,000 M. D. Aletheia
    Thirty years war 1618-1648 7,500,000 11,500,000 Rummel c
    Conquistadores and colonial period - b15,000,000 49,500,000 Rummel c
    New world after the colonial period - 8,763,000 8,763,000 Rummel c
    Other religious wars - - - -
    Other forced conversions - - - -
    Total 112,163,000 192,763,000 -
    Individual Estimates
    Heretics All Crusades 1095- d26,000,000 d Calculated
    Muslims Crusades 1095-1272 7,000,000 Middleton
    Jews Crusades 1095 12,000 -
    Albigensians Crusades (Total) 1208-1249 1,000,000 Ellerbe
    Albigensians Crusades (Beziers) 1208- 60,000 -
    Saracens Saracen slaughters in Spain - 7,000,000 Aletheia
    Heretics All Inquisitions 1231-1834 68,000,000 -
    Protestants Inquisition 1231-1834 50,000,000 Brownlee
    Jews Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834 32,000 A History of the Jews
    Waldenses Inquisition 1540-1570 900,000 Halley's Bible Handbook
    Huguenots Huguenot wars 1562-1598 200,000 -
    Huguenots St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1572 100,000 Fox's Book of Martyrs
    Jews Blamed for the Black Death 1348 14,000 Davies
    Netherlands Dutch revolt 1566-1609 100,000 Gibbon
    Hussites Wars: Bohemia and Moravia 1600- 2,400,000 -
    Thirty years war Make Germany Catholic 1618-1648 7,500,000 Dunn, Wedgwood
    Huguenots Edict of Nantes revoked 1685500,000 -
    Irish Irish massacres 1651 200,000 Sorokin
    Irish Irish uprising 1790 50,000 Dan Smith
    Colonna family Massacre at Palestrina 130? 6,000 -
    Lollards Burning followers of Wycliffe 1401- - -
    French Vaudois Ordered by Innocent VIII 1487- - -
    Fires of Smithfield Bloody Mary of England 1553-1558 283 Burnet
    Moors All - 3,000,000 Brownlee
    Jews All - 1,500,000 Brownlee
    Modern Events
    Jews Nazi Germany 1943 6,000,000 -
    Serbs Croatian dictator Ante Pavelic 1943 e544,000 -
    Protestants Colombia 1949-1953 60,000 Raywood Frazier
    Christians Soviet Union Communists 1921-1980 20,000,000 Barrett
    Christians, animist Arab Muslims in the Sudan 1983-2001 2,000,000 Newsroom
    Black Muslims Arab Muslims in the Sudan 1983-2004 1,000,000 -
    Rwanda Tutsi Hutu majority. 100 days 1994 800,000 Frontline
    Muslims Serbs, Srebrenica maccacre 1995 7,000 News reports
    Muslims Sudan Occurring 400,000 News reports
    1. The number 68,000,000 might include 50,000,000 Protestants and 15,000,000 native Americans. If so the final total should be reduced by 15,000,000. It is unclear if this includes the millions of witches or the Jews of the Spanish Inquisition.
    2. 15,000,000 attributed to only 40 years under the conquistadores in Mexico, South America, Cuba and Santo Domingo only. 49.5 million includes all the colonial period
    3. Some of Rummel's values were his best guesses.
    4. 26,000,000 counted by adding individual groups. However, larger numbers are quoted for the "crusades" but it appears that the word might include both the crusade and the inquisition. In the total counts above I did not use those numbers. I chose the individual counts for the major victims.
    5. 544,000 includes 487,000 Serbs, 30,000 Jews and 27,000 Gypsies.
    I also calculated the expected population using very conservative growth rates and I found that by the time of the middle ages, the population was hundreds of millions less than it should be. Instead of an estimated population of 2.6 billion there was only 745 million. After accounting for deaths by plague and war there were still about two hundred million missing people.

    In looking at other massacres and modern events it becomes very obvious that without the deadly power of a government, the massive extinction of life does not occur. But when the two forces are combined to favor one group over another, it results in genocide.

    Population Calculations3. At first a number of 50 million seems to be excessive. But if you consider the number of years of persecution and the population, the estimates appear to be very low.

    Catholic Sources. Catholic historian Vergerius admits that during the Pontificate of Pope Paul IV (1555-1559)

    " the Inquisition alone, by tortures, starvation, or the fire, murdered more than 150,000 Protestants."

    Note The Catholic church does not agree with these numbers. In some writings that I have found, the charge is made that these death totals are based on Protestant revisionist history. They claim that there was not enough people to kill and the plagues were to blame for most deaths. They estimate that the total deaths due to the inquisition were closer to 3,000 or 4,000. - The Myth of the Spanish Inquisition - 1994 BBC / A&E production

    Significant Developments in These Times

    Modern Persecutions by the Church
    The church is marketing Protestant evangelism as evil for families and disruptive of the common good. Whenever the church has the opportunity it tries to stamp out all traces of Protestants. When it is in the majority it openly and unashamedly persecutes viciously. Let other nations be warned.

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union, religion entered these countries again. The church quickly moved to regain the property it lost as a result of the takeover of communism but it encouraged the new lawmakers to deny Protestant churches this same right by keeping their property. In addition, Protestant churches were forced to register. After a while, the rules were tightened to allow only people who had a presence for over twenty years. This excluded any new religions and old groups who had not been in the Soviet Union before communism.

    Mexico is over 90% Catholic and the Roman Catholic intends to make it 100%. While in the majority it makes no pretence about ecumenism and 'separated brethren'. They are generally hostile toward evangelicals and encourage violence to discourage Protestant evangelism. In the 1980s a Seventh-Day Adventist minister had his arms chopped off by a Catholic mob urged on by the priest. The church looks on evangelicals as trouble makers who are destroying families. A large Pentecostal denomination was notified in March of 1991 that all churches not registered with the government would be closed within three months. In one Pentecostal group, over 30 churches were closed due to threats of violence by radically-minded Catholics. Two evangelicals were also stoned to death by Catholics.

    The Roman Catholic hierarchy is pressuring Nicaragua's public schools to use text books which promote Catholicism and which blame racial tension and other societal problems on Protestants. The textbooks are produced by the Catholic archdiocese of Managua. A textbook for fourth grade of secondary schools has the picture of Pope John Paul II on the cover and warns Protestants not to criticize Catholic devotion to the Virgin Mary: According to the textbook, 'To scorn Mary is an absurdity, something only the devil can incite'.

    Be careful, Protestant brothers. You're playing with fire. If you want to increase your numbers by misleading unprepared Catholics, don't mess with Mary, the Mother of Jesus and our mother. It's something serious for which you'll pay heavily. (Ecumenical News International, April 28, 1997).

    Between 1949 and 1953, there was intense persecution of those who were not Catholics in Colombia. There is evidence of at least 60,000 deaths. Pope Pius XII awarded the President of Columbia with one of the highest awards from the Church, and praised Columbia for its example of the Catholic faith.

    The response to this is that other churches are not founded by God and should be wiped out with fire. The defense of Roman Catholics to this presentation is as follows:

    "Communists destroy churches because they are God's enemies; Catholic's destroy churches because they are God's friends ... Against such men - founded churches ... Catholics in Latin America should arise and wipe them out with fire." John J. Oberlander, in The Voice of Freedom, 1954, page 20.

    Summary of the Popes and their Activities
    The Catholic Church claims a line of succession from the Apostle Peter (designated the first pope) down to the current pope. I will just list the popes that had significant historical events during their rule.
    Number Pope Year Significant Event
    45 Leo I, the Great 440-461 Suppressed Manichaeanism, a Christian sect
    59 Vigilius 537-555 The Church gained full political control
    64 Gregory I, the Great 590-604 Ban on literacy, sold relics
    97 Saint Leo III 795-816 Council of Aix-la-Chapelle (836) claimed that after his rule, convents became brothels and monasteries became filled with homosexuals
    114 Stephen VII 896-897 Exhumed the corpse of the previous pope and tried it for perjury and for coveting the papacy.
    131 John XII 955-963 Rape, vandalism and theft. Convicted of incest, adultery and murder in 962 by Otto I. Made the Lateran a brothel
    146 Benedict IX 1032-1048 "A disgrace to the Chair of St Peter", according to the Catholic Encyclopedia. Murder, bestiality, bisexual, homosexual orgies, witchcraft and Satanism.
    153 Saint Leo IX 1049-1054 The separation of the Greek church
    158 Saint Gregory VII 1073-1085 Celibacy in the clergy. Right to depose emperors.
    160 § Blessed Urban II 1088-1099 The First Crusade. Canonised in 1881. 12,000 Jews murdered in the Rhineland
    161 Paschal II 1099-1118 Continues the crusades of Urban II
    168 § Blessed Eugene III1145-1153 The Second Crusade
    171 Alexander III 1159-1181 Waldensian persecution
    174 Gregory VIII 1187 The Third Crusade - issues bull
    175 Clement III 1187-1191 The Third Crusade
    177 Innocent III 1198-1216 The Fourth Crusade.
    1212 - The Children's Crusade
    178 Honorius III 1216-1227 The Fifth Crusade
    179 Gregory IX 1227-1241 The Sixth Crusade.
    1231 - Papal Inquisition
    181 Innocent IV 1243-1254 The Seventh Crusade with Louis IX of France.
    First to officially sanction torture in the Inquisition.
    184 Clement IV 1265-1268 The Eighth Crusade
    185 § Blessed Gregory IX1271-1276 The Ninth Crusade
    193 Celestine V 1294 He was known as a good man
    194 Boniface VIII 1294-1303 Palestrina Massacre . Evil, immoral, thief, murderer, rape, simony, fornicator, adulterer. Organised pilgrimages to St Peter, for the full pardoning of sins - after paying a tribute.
    196 Clement V 1305-1314 Rebukes England's King Edward II for not torturing heretics and orders him to do so
    199 Clement VI 1342-1352 350 separate massacres of Jews by Christians during three years of the Black Death after 1348
    207 Martin V 1417-1431 Orders extermination of the Hussites (1429)
    213 Sextus IV 1471-1484 The Spanish Inquisition
    214 Innocent VIII 1484-1492 Waldensians, French Vaudois (1487) and witches persecutions
    215 Alexander VI 1492-1503 Hosted orgies, incest, adultery, prostitution
    217 Julius II 1503-1513 Created the system of indulgences
    218 Leo X 1513-1521 The Reformation
    The Diet of Worms, ordered the sale of indulgences
    221 Paul III 1534-1549 Established the Holy Office (Roman Inquisition)
    224 Paul IV 1555-1559 The Roman Inquisition especially in Italy, Netherlands and the orient. Forced Jews to wear yellow hats. In 1557, he created the "Index of Forbidden Books"
    226 Pius V 1566-1572 Orders the extermination of Huguenots and asks all loyal Catholics to help hunt them down
    227 Gregory XIII 1572-1585 1572 Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    236 Urban VIII 1623-1644 The Thirty Years War. Forced Galileo to recant his scientific theories.
    241 § Blessed Innocent XI 1676-1689 The revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Huguenot and Waldenses persecuted.
    251 Pius VI 1775-1799 Taken prisoner by General Berthier of France
    256 Pius IX 1846-1878 Papal infallibility, the dogma of the Immaculate Conception
    261 Pius XII 1939-1958 Hitler's Pope. Remained silent about the murder of Jews and Serbs
    265 John Paul II, the Great 1978-2005 Brought the church back from its prophetic wounds. (Karol Wojtyla of Poland)
    266 Benedict XVI 2005- Will he be the last Pope? (Joseph Ratzinger of Germany)
    § The title "Blessed" means that they are on the path to becoming a saint

    Papal Bulls and Encyclicals. Here are a few of the most famous laws issued by the popes.
    Infamous Bulls or Laws Passed
    Law Year Pope Contents
    Christmas 340 Julius I Made December 25 the official Christmas day - the birth of the Persian savior Mithra
    Heresy 3?? Damasus I Defined heresy as not obeying the doctrines of the church
    Cullagium 10?? Urban II Allowed a priest to keep a mistress as long as he paid an annual fee
    Deliberato 1??? Innocent III Claimed the right to depose kings, condemned the magna charta, forbids Bible reading in the common language. He ordered the extermination of heretics and the massacre of Albigensians
    Ad extirpanda 1252 Innocent IV Ad extirpanda means "to be exterminated" ordered all secular rulers to arrest and execute non-Catholic Christians. Ordered the civil magistrates to force a confession of guilt from all heretics by torture
    Unam Sanctum 1302 Boniface VIII Salvation required submission to the pope. He was one of the most immoral popes.
    "We, moreover, proclaim, declare and pronounce that it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human being to be subject to the Roman Pontiff."
    Vox in excelsis 1312 Clement V Found no reason for the condemnation of the order of the Knights Templars. He declared them innocent. They were still persecuted.
    Cum inter nonnullos 132? John XXII It was heresy to suggest Jesus and his apostles owned no property
    Spanish Inquisition 1479 Sixtus IV Allowed the Spanish Inquisition
    Summis desiderantes affectibus 1484 Innocent VIII Allowed the persecution of witches
    Cum nimis absurdum 155? Paul IV Created the first Jewish ghetto in Rome. He suspected them of helping Protestants and forced them to sell their property and wear yellow hats. He restricted their commercial activity to selling second hand clothes, thus guaranteeing their poverty.
    Sacratissimo uti culmine ???? John XXII If you are wearing the Carmelite scapular at death, Mary will personally escort you to heaven the first Saturday after you die.
    "I, the Mother of grace, shall descend on the Saturday after their death and whomsoever I shall find in Purgatory, I shall free, so that I may lead them to the holy mountain of life everlasting."
    Dies Dominii 1998 John Paul II Encyclical written May 31. "Christians will naturally strive to ensure that civil legislation respects their duty to keep Sunday holy."

    The Office of the Papacy
    Here is an example of how the popes view themselves:
    Innocent III, who ordered the murder or millions, described himself as
    "set between God and man, lower than God but higher than man, who judges all and is judged by no one. . ." He declared that, "the priesthood was as superior to the kingship as the soul to the body," and he informed the nobles of Tuscany that, "just as the moon derives its light from the sun ... so too the royal power derives the splendor of its dignity from the pontifical authority."

    The pope is of so great dignity and so exalted that he is not a mere man, but as it were god, and the vicar of God ...
    The pope is crowned with a triple crown, as king of heaven and earth and the lower regions ...
    The pope is of so great authority and power that he can modify, explain or interpret even divine laws ...
    The pope can modify divine law, since his power is not of man but of God, and he acts as vicegerent of God upon earth with most ample power of binding and loosing sheep
    The pope is as it were god on earth, sole sovereign of the faithful of Christ, chief of kings, having plenitude of power, to whom has been entrusted by the omnipotent God direction not only of earthly but also of the heavenly kingdom ...

    Just in case you think that the church has changed and that was a relic from the past - here is the current world view as seen by the present pope. It is described in a 700 page book called The Keys of this Blood by Malachi Martin (1990) All groups are categorized and accessed by their globalist ideals and their threat to the pope as the new geopolitical world leader.

    Globalist Group Sub Group Religious group Comments
    Provincial Globalists Those who want to hold on to their unique beliefs and way of life. Most believe in the rights of others to choose their own destiny.
    Angelists Islam Believes that with their acceptance of Christ and Mary they will one day turn to Christianity
    Minimalists Baptists, Evangelicals, Seventh-Day Adventist, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons and Christian Scientists Expect to be a minimum of the world's population until the last day. Also expects them to be in opposition with him.
    Eastern Christians Eastern Orthodox, Greek Orthodox and Christian minorities in the Middle East Caught in historical crevasses from which there is no retreat, no advance, no escape (page 287)
    Non-Christian Animism, Shintoism, Hindusim, Buddhism Holds a fascination for primitive things
    Separatists Japanese, Chinese, Jews Very separatist with no formal organization or desire to convert the world to their beliefs
    Piggy - Back Globalists Those who will accept any beliefs or systems that appear to be popular
    Mega-Religionists Baha'i, Unitarian Universalist, Temple of Understanding (TU), Organization of United Religions (OUR) and many others Believe that all religions must quickly fuse into one great ethical world religion - the brotherhood of man. This would eventually lead to a world government, world police force, world leader, world language and a world currency.
    Humanists Humanists Man is the only important figure in the cosmos
    New Agers Integrated into many religions Human evolution will build a new world. There is no reality beyond this world and we are continually increasing in perfection.
    Genuine Globalists Those who truly have the power and the finances to form global systems. But they lack the spiritual authority.
    Internationalists Nations Political bureaucrats
    Transnationalists International Companies Business and financial leaders with true international management. e.g. Media and software companies

    The Millennial End Game
    This is their view of the world as taken from the book The Keys of this Blood by Malachi Martin (1990 Simon and Schuster).

    The newest game in the city of Man is the building of a geopolitical structure. Everyone who is anyone in terms of sociopolitical and economic power is engaging in it, some deliberately, some willy-nilly; and ultimately it is conceded that all nations, great and small, will be involved. It is the millennial end game.

    In the 1980's the pope saw only three viable contenders for this global leadership position. The Soviet Union, the Western Democratic Alliance headed by the United States of America and the Catholic Church.

    He intends to be the victor in this competition for world dominance.

    Leader of the World by Divine Right.

    No one, individual or corporate body, has formally conceded him the right to act and speak as religious authority and moral monitor of the society of nations. He has assumed this mantle, and no one of consequence really disputes his assumption of it. (Page 492)

    Only such a man as the holy father and only his official representatives, have the Heavenly Father's mind and love for all mankind; for only they serve all mankind as one family, and have the capacity to tend it as one family. (Page 131).

    ... in those sectors of human life where he claims to have a unique and absolute mandate from heaven. In all phases of education, in all aspects of moral behavior, and in all questions about ultimate truths undergirding the life and death of every human being, this man claims for his papal persona the right, the privilege, the duty and the due authority to stand as judge. (Page 345)

    Prepared to assume leadership.

    What captures the unwavering attention of the secular leaders of the world in this remarkable network of the Roman Catholic Church is precisely the fact that it places at the personal disposal of the pope a supranatural, supracontinental, supratrade-bloc structure that is so built and oriented that if tomorrow or next week, by a sudden miracle, a one - world government were established, the Church would not have to undergo any essential structural change in order to retain its dominant position and to further its global aims. (Page 142-143)

    Roman Catholicism - the Only Solution.

    At his vaguest ... he insists that just as no system of politics is viable unless it is based on the spirituality of genuine religious belief in God and in Christ, so no religious belief is viable unless it is deeply involved in political systems.
    At his most specific, however, he insists that men have no reliable hope of creating a viable geopolitical system unless it is on the basis of Roman Catholic Christianity. (Page 492)

    Civil Rights (No one has the right to be wrong). Democratic principles cannot take precedence over divine revelation (Page 287).
    Speaking about the beliefs of the minimalist group he says:

    In their eyes, their regard and respect for democratic principles impose upon them the obligation - the religious as well as the civil and political obligation - to defend every person's right to be wrong. Every person must have the right not only to believe in Hell of the damned and Heaven of the Saved, every person must literally be assured the right to choose Hell or Heaven.
    That obligation carried to the extreme not only sets the Minimalists apart from John Paul; it sets them against him as well. It sets them apart from the holy father because democratic principles cannot take precedence over divine revelation. No one can be forced to believe in heaven or hell or to choose one over the other. Nevertheless, it is axiomatic for John Paul that no one has the right - democratic or otherwise - to a moral wrong; and no religion based on divine revelation has a moral right to teach such a moral wrong or abide by it. (Page 287)

    I agree, no one has the absolute right to kill, steal or do other terrible crimes against each other. But the church broadly defines "moral rights" as any belief of which they do not approve. This includes your freedom to believe as you interpret it from the Bible.

    You do have the absolute right to believe and worship God as you understand. This right was given to Adam and Eve. Using these rights, they sinned and God did not forcibly stop them.

    His Protestant Opponents .

    They all arose within the context of rebellion against the authority and privileged teaching power of the Roman Church (Page 286).

    On the Offensive .

    From his vantage point at the hub of the Vatican - the world's greatest listening post - Pope John Paul is so acutely aware of the daily moves and the long range plans of each major globalist group, that it is as though each of these groups maintained a 'Situation Room' ...[and] the pope himself can enter these imaginary situation rooms. (Page 282)

    Heresy and Civil Rights
    Using the definition of heresy as stated in canon law 751, and considering the wide scope of the pope's stated authority in canon law 1401, 1404 and number 1405. He has the right to judge even heads of state.

    The laws are not limited to those of the faith. They apply to all.

    As the guardian of the souls of men, with the keys to heaven, hell and purgatory he has the right and the duty to make sure that no one corrupts another with heresy and that you are not mislead by false teachings. To root out these false beliefs (which will condemn you to eternal punishment and torment) the notion of chastisement through persecution and torture is insignificant - compared to the condemnation you will meet in the end.

    So, torture at the flames is kinder. Therefore, the following attitude becomes clearer and more frightening:

    The church may by divine right confiscate the property of heretics, imprison their persons and condemn them to the flames ... In our age the right to inflict the severest penalties, even death, belongs to the church ... There is no graver offense than heresy ... therefore it must be rooted out. Public Ecclesiastical Law, Volume 2, page 142.
    Pope Pius IX., in his Encyclical Letter of August 15, 1854, said: ‘The absurd and erroneous doctrines or ravings in defense of liberty of conscience, are a most pestilential error—a pest, of all others, most to be dreaded in a State.' The same pope, in his Encyclical Letter of December 8, 1864, anathematized ‘those who assert the liberty of conscience and of religious worship,' also ‘all such as maintain that the church may not employ force.

    These are not past attitudes of the church. Aware of the public relations problems, it is now tolerant of beliefs until it can gain control.

    According to Bishop O'Connor: "Religious liberty is merely endured until the opposite can be carried into effect without peril to the Catholic world."

    The archbishop of St. Louis once said: ‘Heresy and unbelief are crimes; and in Christian countries, as in Italy and Spain, for instance, where all the people are Catholics, and where the Catholic religion is an essential part of the law of the land, they are punished as other crimes."

    "Every cardinal, archbishop, and bishop in the Catholic Church takes an oath of allegiance to the pope, in which occur the following words: "Heretics, schismatics, and rebels to our said lord the pope, or his aforesaid successors, I will to my utmost persecute and oppose." " Ibid., 564, 565.

    The Right to Punish Heretics. A Catholic textbook (Public Ecclesiastical Law, Volume 2, page 142) states

    The church may by divine right confiscate the property of heretics, imprison their persons and condemn them to the flames ...
    In our age the right to inflict the severest penalties, even death, belongs to the church... There is no graver offense that heresy ... therefore it must be rooted out.

    Marketing the Papacy
    Pope John Paul II has been very active in marketing himself and his church around the world. With a series of unprecedented visions, meeting with all kind of religious leaders as brothers, reassuring us that there are 'many paths to God' - he is in the process of legitimizing his role as world spiritual leader and increasing his sphere of influence and contacts.

    During his visits, every effort is made to attract the young. T-Shirts with Mary, the use of popular rock groups such as NSync and Britney Spears are all part of the glitz and hype used to attract the world.

    At a Catholic University in Washington D.C. there is a pope museum dedicated to him. On the internet site that serves this institution, John Paul and his church are declared as 'defenders of human rights'.

    This strategy to change the image of the Roman Catholic Church has touched every major mass marketing outlet and has used every technique possible. Most are aimed at children. This is a long term strategy, that has been proven to change a generation in about 10 or 15 years. When combined with education, the time will be less.

    NoteIt makes you wonder, who owns the networks and the press? One way of controlling propaganda is to own the press.

    Education - a Battleground
    Catholic Policy. There is currently a law before the political houses of the United States to provide funding for religious education. The Republican marketing and advertising campaign has been targeting African Americans by showing the benefits to poor families. I laugh at this, because the truly good private schools are unaffordable. My sister claims to spend $20,000 per year on her 5 year old! So even school voucher assistance cannot help poor families to afford the good schools. In less expensive private schools, the education is no better than a well funded public school. What is better (in some schools) is the religious atmosphere and training and the sense of security.

    So, who wants this law?

    In an incident with an open microphone, president Bush was meeting with a group of Roman Catholic bishops, priests and nuns and he was heard saying the following according to an Associated Press story dated January 31, 2001:

    Its a battle. It's a problem politically. There are a lot of Republicans who don't like vouchers. They come from wealthy suburban districts who are scared to death of irritating the public school movement and their schools are good.

    There is serious, serious heat on Capitol Hill, and its not only from Democrats. The Republicans won't yell, but they'll whisper it. The Democrats will yell it.

    So, who wants this law? It is apparently not the politicians. It is not the rich Republicans. The marketing campaigns are trying to convince the poor that they need it (even though they truly cannot afford the out of pocket expenses). It is apparently the church who wants it.
    But look at education in Nicaragua. As soon as it was safe, school books started having pictures of the pope on it, and they started openly threatening Protestants and they are teaching only Catholicism.

    The church will not stop until it gets public funds to teach Catholic beliefs and Catholic beliefs taught in every school. Catholic Canon Law on Education (793, 794, 797, 798, 799) teaches that:

    1. Civil society must provide a Catholic education to children, and parents must have the right to choose Catholic education at public expense.
    2. The church has the duty and the right of making sure that a Catholic education is provided for everyone
    3. The church has the divine mission of educating all to come to a Christian life - a Catholic Christian life.

    As I hear the political arguments and the television advertisements, I realize that they both are quoting Catholic Canon law.
    Religious training belongs at home. Religion should be a choice. But the church already believes that you have no right to be wrong, therefore, you should not have a choice.

    Humanist Philosophy on Education. The classroom must and will become the area of combat between ... the rotting corpse of Christianity ... and the new faith of humanism. Humanist Magazine (January - February 1983).

    Paganism in the Classroom. Paganism has taken a seat in the classroom. It comes in with books like Harry Potter and under veiled humanist philosophy. Because it is not overtly religious it can exist. Well none of it belongs in the schools either.

    The Catholic Church and the Bible

    Scriptural Authority
    The Bible was once banned in the church. Even now its use and interpretation by ordinary people is not encouraged. In the thirteenth century, the Council of Toulouse ruled:

    We prohibit laymen possessing copies of the Old and New Testament ... We forbid them most severely to have the above books in the popular venacular. . . . The lords of the districts shall carefully seek out the heretics in dwellings, hovels, and forests, and even their underground retreats shall be entirely wiped out. Concil. Tolosanum, Pope Gregory IX, Anno. Chr. 1229

    The Council of Tarragona, A.D. 1234, ruled that:

    No one may possess the books of the Old and New Testaments in the Romance language, and if anyone possesses them he must turn them over to the local bishop within eight days after promulgation of this decree, so that they may be burned lest, be he a cleric or a layman, he is suspected until he is cleared of all suspicion. D. Lortsh, Histoire de la Bible en France, 1910, page 14

    The church accepts all the following as authoritative for defining church doctrine:

    Sacred Tradition and sacred Scripture, then, are bound closely together, and communicate one with the other. For both of them , flowing out from the same divine well-spring, move towards the same goal. Sacred Scripture is the speech of God as it is put down in writing under the breath of the Holy Spirit. And Tradition transmits in its entirety the Word of God which has been entrusted to the apostles by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit. It transmits it to the successors of the apostles [the pope and bishops of the Roman Catholic Church] so that, enlightened by the Spirit of truth, they may faithfully preserve, expound and spread it abroad by their preaching. Thus it comes about that the Church does not draw her certainty about all revealed truths from the holy Scriptures alone. Hence, both Scripture and Tradition must be accepted and honored with equal feelings of devotion and reverence...

    But the task of giving an authentic interpretation of the Word of God, whether in its written form or in the form of Tradition, has been entrusted to the living teaching office of the Church alone. Its authority in this matter is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ. Yet this Magesterium is not superior to the Word of God, but is its servant. It teaches only what has been handed on to it. At the divine command and with the help of the Holy Spirit, it listens to this devotedly, guards it with dedication and expounds it faithfully. All that it proposes for belief as being divinely revealed is drawn from this single deposit of faith.

    It is clear, therefore, that, in the supremely wise arrangement of God, sacred Tradition, sacred Scripture and the Magesterium of the Church are so connected and associated that one of them cannot stand without the others. Working together, each in its own way under the action of the one Holy Spirit, they all contribute effectively to the salvation of souls" (Vatican Council II , Pages 755-756). (Emphasis ours.)

    But when Christians separated from us affirm the divine authority of the sacred books, they think differently from us -- different ones in different ways -- about the relationship between the scriptures and the Church. For the Church according to Catholic belief, its authentic teaching office has a special place in expounding and preaching the written Word of God (Vatican Council II, page 468).

    Scriptures are not sufficient

    "We must, therefore, conclude that the Scriptures alone cannot be a sufficient guide and rule of faith...because they are not of themselves clear and intelligible even in matters of the highest importance..." (The Faith of Our Fathers, page 73). (2)

    Catholic Church is God's Official Interpreter

    How can you get the true meaning of the Bible? You can get it only from God's official interpreter, the Catholic Church. 'This, then, you must understand first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is made by private interpretation' (2 Peter 1:20). (A Catechism for Adults, page 10). (2)
    "The simple fact is that the Bible, like all dead letters, calls for a living interpreter." (The Faith of Millions, page 155). (2)

    Scriptures are not Safe to find the will of God

    "The very nature of the Bible ought to prove to any thinking man the impossibility of its being the one safe method to find out what the Savior taught." (Question Box, page 67). (2)

    Scriptures are Dead

    "... A dead and speechless book." (Question Box, page 67). (2)

    Scriptures Forbidden to common people

    "In early times the Bible was read freely by the lay people ... New dangers came in during the Middle Ages...To meet those evils, the Council of Toulouse (1229) and Terragona (1234) forbade the laity to read the vernacular translations of the Bible. Pius IV required bishops to refuse lay persons leave to read even Catholic versions of Scripture unless their confessors or parish priests judged that such reading was likely to prove beneficial." (Catholic Dictionary, page 82).
    "Of all the advice that we can offer your holiness we must open your eyes well and use all possible force in the matter, namely to permit the reading of the gospel as little as possible in all the countries under your jurisdiction. Let the very little part of the gospel suffice which is usually read in mass, and let no one be permitted to read more. So long as people will be content with the small amount, your interest will prosper; but as soon as the people want to read more, your interest will fail.

    The Bible is a book, which more than any other, has raised against us the tumults and tempests by which we have almost perished. In fact, if one compares the teaching of the Bible with what takes place in our churches, he will soon find discord, and will realize that our teachings are often different from the Bible, and oftener still, contrary to it.
    From a speech given by the Cardinals to Pope Pius III National Library in Paris, Folio Number 1068, Volume 2, pages. 650-651

    The Eucharist and the Sacrifice of the Mass
    The mass started in 394 A.D. It is defined as an unbloody sacrifice of Christ. The bread and wine are the actual, literal (not symbolic) presence of God - therefore this bread must be worshipped as God.

    There should be no doubt in anyone's mind that all the faithful ought to show to this most holy sacrament the worship which is due to the true God, as has always been the custom of the Catholic Church. Nor is it to be adored by any the less because it was instituted by Christ to be eaten (Vatican Council II, page 104).
    If any one shall deny that the body and blood together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and therefore entire Christ, are truly, really, and substantially contained in the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist; and shall say that He is only in it as a sign, or in a figure, or virtually -- let him be accursed (Canon 1, Council of Trent).
    If any one shall say that the substance of the bread and wine remains in the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist, together with the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, and shall deny that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the blood, the outward forms of the bread and wine still remaining, which conversion the Catholic Church most aptly calls transubstantiation -- let him be accursed (Canon 2, Council of Trent).
    If any man shall say that Christ, the only begotten Son of God, is not to be adored in the holy sacrament of the Eucharist, even with the open worship of latria, and therefore not to be venerated with any peculiar festal celebrity, nor to be solemnly carried about in processions according to the praiseworthy, and universal rites and customs of the holy Church, and that he is not to be publicly set before the people to be adored, and that his adorers are idolaters -- let him be accursed (Canon 6, Council of Trent).
    The Wealth Of The Church
    The property of heretics was given to the church. Consequently, the rich were a big target for the church. Bribery and threat of the charge of heresy were greatly misused. Power was on sale. It was the custom of the inquisitors to divide the property of the condemned among themselves. Therefore, these sinful, unholy judges destined for the fires of hell had no incentives to release the prisoners.

    The prophecy in Daniel 11 states that "he will divide the land for gain". The Inquisition has been called the biggest land grab in history.
    It is big business to sell indulgences, to announce jubilees or pilgrimages to Rome. Any works of penance that encourages giving money. A promise of indulgences to the general population was enough to make any civil leader obey the popes. The church has raised massive armies with their guaranteed promises of heaven and the wealth of the heretics in this life.
    In the book called "Tax of the Sacred Roman Chancery", this is a list of the amount to be paid for a particular sin. These were established in 1316 by Pope John XXII. Leo X published it in 1514.
    The Prices of Sins in the Church of Rome
    Sin * Price
    Abortion $1.50
    Murdering a layman $1.75
    Perjury, forgery, Lying $2.00
    Murdering a family member $2.50
    Burning a neighbor's house $2.75
    Violence on a priest $2.75
    Total absolution $12.00
    * Prices may be in nineteenth century dollars

    Salvation by Works

    If anyone shall say that the ungodly man is justified by faith only so as to understand that nothing else is required that may cooperate to obtain the grace of justification, and that it is in no wise necessary for him to be prepared and disposed by the motion of his own will ... let him be accursed (Canon 9, Council of Trent).
    If anyone shall say that justifying faith is nothing else than confidence in the divine mercy pardoning sins for Christ's sake, or that it is that confidence alone by which we are justified ... let him be accursed (Canon 12).

    The belief that Christ's sacrifice paid only for the guilt of sin and not for the penalty of sin has created several doctrines all based on works or acts of the worshipper. Because man must pay for his sins all people (except a special few) must go to purgatory. To get out of purgatory earlier than your sins allow, can be accomplished by the living before they die and on your behalf by the living through the following means.

    1. Indulgences. A decrease in the number of days spent in purgatory. This can be done by saying the rosary a prescribed number of times daily or by doing other acts as announced by the pope. It could also be received at a price.
    2. Penance. Good deeds, money.
    3. Supererogation. Excess supply of good works by some souls can be applied to others.

    The pope holds the triple crown and the keys because he can unlock the gates of purgatory by granting indulgences. Protestants have called indulgences a license to sin. This is technically not true because the Catholic church does want the faithful to be faithful. But in reality, people can treat them as get out of purgatory free cards. When the pope granted all crusaders immediate passage to heaven (bypassing purgatory). the murdering hordes went stealing, raping, torturing and murdering at will.


    John Tetzel said, "Indulgences are the most precious and sublime of God's gifts. This cross [pointing to the red cross] has as much efficacy as the cross of Jesus Christ. Draw near and I will give you letters duly sealed, by which even the sins you shall hereafter desire to commit shall be all forgiven you. I would not exchange my privileges for those of St. Peter in heaven, for I have saved more souls with my indulgences than he with his sermons. There is no sin so great that the indulgence cannot remit it, and even if any one should (which is doubtless impossible) ravish the Holy Virgin Mother of God, let him pay-let him only pay largely, and it shall be forgiven him. Even repentance is not indispensable. But more than all this: indulgences save not the living alone, they also save the dead. Ye priests, ye nobles, ye tradesmen, ye wives, ye maidens, and ye young men, hearken to your departed parents and friends, who cry to you from the bottomless abyss, ‘We are enduring horrible torment! a small alms would deliver us; you can give it, and you will not.' . . . The very moment that the money chinks against the bottom of the chest, the soul escapes from purgatory and flies free to heaven." History of the Reformation, by D'AUBIGNE, page 68.

    Since all humans (except Mary) go directly to Purgatory to suffer punishment for the penalty of sin, the church teaches several methods by which one can shorten their stay in purgatory. One of these are indulgences. These may be purchased with money or through acts of penitence, acts of charity, or other pious means. The concept of indulgences is based on the idea that one's good works merit God's grace. Since Christ's sacrifice was insufficient for the full payment of the penalty of sin, acts of piety and gifts to the Roman Church may be used as partial payment for one's sins. The efficacy of an indulgence depends upon the merit attributed to it by the church. For example, one may pay to have a mass said for a relative believed to be in purgatory. The mass will then account for a certain number of days deleted from his purgatorial sentence. The use of indulgences spread gradually. It became a very clear element in the history of the Church when the Popes decreed that

    certain works which were suitable for promoting the common good of the Church 'could replace all penitential practices' and that the faithful who were 'genuinely sorry for and had confessed their sins' and done such works were granted 'by almighty God's mercy and ... trusting in his Apostles merits and authority' and 'by virtue of the fullness of the apostolic power' 'not only full and abundant forgiveness, but the most complete forgiveness possible for their sins.

    For 'God's only begotten Son ... has won a treasure for the militant Church ... he has entrusted it to blessed Peter, the key-bearer of heaven, and to his successors who are Christ's vicars on earth, so that they may distribute it to the faithful for their salvation. They may apply it with mercy for reasonable causes to all who have repented for and have confessed their sins. At times they may remit completely, and at other times only partially, the temporal punishment due to sin in a general as well as in special ways (insofar as they judge to be fitting in the sight of the Lord). The merits of the Blessed Mother of God and of the elect ... are known to add further to this treasure' (Vatican Council II, page 70).

    [The Roman Catholic Church] 'teaches and commands that the usage of indulgences -- a usage most beneficial to Christians and approved by the authority of the Sacred Councils -- should be kept in the Church; and it condemns with anathema those who say that indulgences are useless or that the Church does not have the power to grant them. (Vatican Council II, page 71)

    The Roman Catholic Church says it alone can grant this essential blessing for full salvation, and then condemns to hell those who disagree.

    For God's only-begotten Son ... has won a treasure for the militant Church ... he has entrusted it to blessed Peter, the key-bearer of heaven, and to his successors who are Christ's vicars on earth, so that they may distribute it to the faithful for their salvation. They may apply it with mercy for reasonable causes to all who have repented for and have confessed their sins. At times they may remit completely, and at other times only partially, the temporal punishment due to sin in a general as well as in special ways (insofar as they judge to be fitting in the sight of the Lord). The merits of the Blessed Mother of God and of the elect ... are known to add further to this treasure (Vatican Council II, page 70).

    Vatican II established 20 complex rules concerning when and how any indulgence may be obtained, and condemned "with anathema those who say that indulgences are useless or that the Church does not have the power to grant them ... [for] the task of winning salvation.

    The doctrine of purgatory clearly demonstrates that even when the guilt of sin has been taken away, punishment for it or the consequences of it may remain to be expiated or cleansed. They often are. In fact, in purgatory the souls of those 'who died in the charity of God and truly repentant, but who had not made satisfaction with adequate penance for their sins and omissions' are cleansed after death with punishment designed to purge away their debt" (Vatican Council II, page 64).

    On the subject of salvation and the expiation of sin, Vatican Council II stated:

    Therefore, the Church announces the good tidings of salvation to those who do not believe, so that all men may know the one true God and Jesus Christ whom he has sent and may be converted from their ways, doing penance (Vatican Council II, page 6).

    The full taking away and, as it is called, reparation of sins requires two things.

    1. Friendship with God must be restored. Amends must be made for offending his wisdom and goodness. This is done by a sincere conversion of mind.
    2. All the personal and social values, as well as those that are universal, which sin has lessened or destroyed must be fully made good. This is done in two ways. The first is by freely making reparation, which involves punishment. The second is by accepting the punishments God's just and most holy wisdom has appointed. From this the holiness and splendor of his glory shine out through the world. ...

    The Rosary
    The Mysteries
    There are three types of Mysteries which center around the lives of Jesus and Mary.
    The Joyful Mysteries
    • The Annunciation. When Gabriel announced the birth of Christ.
    • The Visitation. When Mary visited her cousin Elizabeth.
    • The Birth. The Birth of Jesus Christ
    • The Presentation. Simeon saw the infant in the temple.
    • The Finding in the Temple. The story of Jesus Christ in the temple as a young boy.
    The Sorrowful Mysteries
    • The Agony in the Garden. Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane.
    • The Scourging at the Pillar. Jesus was beaten.
    • The Crowning of Thorns. Jesus was crowned with a crown of thorns.
    • Carrying the Cross. Jesus carried the cross on the road to Golgotha.
    • The Crucifixion. Jesus was crucified between two thieves.
    The Glorious Mysteries
    • The Resurrection. Jesus rose from the dead.
    • The Ascension. Jesus was taken to heaven.
    • The Holy Ghost at Pentecost. The descent of the Holy Spirit.
    • The Assumption of Mary. The belief that Mary rose bodily to Heaven.
    • The Coronation of Mary, Queen of heaven and Earth. The belief that Mary was crowned as queen.
    Rosary The devotion to Mary centers around daily prayers recited with a rosary. The string of beads helps to keep track of the prayers and acts required.
    The Prayers. 5 decades of the rosary include 1 Creed, 2 Our Father, 153 Hail Marys, 16 Glory be to the Father, (or 1 Glory be and 15 Fatima Decade Prayers), and 1 Hail Holy Queen.

    So there are 154 prayers said to Mary and 18 to God, but if you use the Fatima Decade prayers instead of the Glory be prayer then you have 2 prayers to God and 169 to Mary.

    1. The Crucifix. While holding the crucifix make the Sign of the Cross and then recite the Apostles Creed.
    2. The First 5 Beads
    3. The Decade (one large and ten small). Recall the first Rosary mystery and recite the Our Father on the next large bead. For each of the fifteen Mysteries do the following as you reflect on the mystery:
    4. When the fifth mystery is completed, the Rosary is Customarily concluded with the Hail, Holy Queen.

    Relics, Idolatry and Image Worship
    To understand the charge of idolatry, one should understand that the Catholic sees several levels of honor or worship. So it would be fair to say that standing side by side, God would receive more honor than an idol. However, the practice of honoring images and the dead in any degree, while giving the impression that God is unapproachable (except through Mary and the saints) does create an environment where the appearance of idolatry has merit.
    Images, Scapulars, Amulets, Cloths and String
    Length of Indulgences
    Action * Days
    Kissing a scapular 500
    Venerate the image of divine mercy on divine mercy Sunday (first Sunday after Easter). Eternal life
    Wearing the carmelite scapular at death Will not go to hell
    * Number of days reduced in Purgatory
    Gregory 1 introduced the idea of selling relics to those who could afford it. Some people made a profit by being paid for authenticating relics.
    • A cross made from 'filings' from chains worn by St Peter which could unloose you from your sins forever.
    • Keys of St. Peter made from 'filings' from chains worn by St Peter which could unloose you from your sins forever.
    • Fragments of 'the true cross'
    • Bones and body parts.
    • Skull of Saint Lawrence who was roasted to death August 10, 258
    • Tears shed by Jesus, that are still wet
    • Barbs from the Crown of Thorns
    • Mary's undergarments
    • Hair
    • Clay left over after God made Adam
    • A branch from Moses' burning bush
    • A feather from the wings of the Angel Gabriel.
    • A sack full of Peter's toe nails
    • Six to fifteen sacred foreskins were snipped from Jesus at his circumcision.
    • Christ's navel, tears and fingernails.
    • Two skulls of Peter
    • Six or seven thigh bones of the Virgin Mary.

    Whether or not we play with word meanings, the truth of the matter is, that in practice, the lower adoration or honor given to dead saints or plastic statues, such as bowing, kissing the feet or praying in front of these objects and to these dead people appears to be indistinguishable from the heathen adoration of his idol.

    The councils of Trent and Nicaea II state the following:

    [The holy Synod commands] that images of Christ, the Virgin Mother of God, and other saints are to be held and kept especially in churches, that due honor and reverence (debitum honorem et venerationem) are to be paid to them, not that any divinity or power is thought to be in them for the sake of which they may be worshipped, or that anything can be asked of them, or that any trust may be put in images, as was done by the heathen who put their trust in their idols [Ps. cxxxiv, 15 sqq.], but because the honor shown to them is referred to the prototypes which they represent, so that by kissing, uncovering to, kneeling before images we adore Christ and honor the saints whose likeness they bear (Denzinger, number. 986).

    The following is the official Catholic position on the veneration of images.

    Although the first point claims to forbid idolatry, the next two allow the practice.

    Guess what? If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck and talks like a duck - it is a duck. Quack quack!

    Pope John Paul II, in a October 1996 message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, stated that the theory of evolution is more than a hypothesis and that it must be taken seriously by Christians (Vatican Information Service, October, 23 1996).

    The Imperfect Catholic Priest
    The crime of blasphemy was made against anyone who claimed the following attributes of God:

    1. Equality with God
    2. The right to forgive sins

    The Catholic Priest pages 78 - 79 says the following:

    Seek where you will, through heaven and earth, and you will find but one created being who can forgive the sinner ...
    That extraordinary being is the priest, the Catholic Priest.

    According to Catholic doctrine, God has to abide by the decision of the priest in matters of granting or withholding forgiveness! In the book Dignity and Duties of the Priest Volume 12, page 2, it states:

    God Himself is obliged to abide by the judgment of His priest, and either not to pardon or to pardon, according as they refuse to give absolution...
    The sentence of the priest precedes, and God subscribes to it.

    It is blasphemy to assign to oneself the power of God, and it is bold to claim that God should subject himself to imperfect men.

    The ridiculous nature of these statements is only magnified by the current (2002) scandal of pedophile priests in Massachusetts, and the response of their leaders.
    A recent news report states that since the 1980s over 1000 priests have been charged with these crimes - this is only those that have been discovered. Statistics show that most are not.

    This carnival of priests and their leaders knew about many of these long-term abusers they also promoted and moved them from one congregation to another. John Geoghan was convicted of molesting 86 boys. In one case, a pedophile priest was placed in a home for troubled boys! Imagine that!. One priest, Paul Shandley, openly advocated sex with children and was a member of a group whose sole mission was to preserve their "right" to have sex with minors. Shandley molested boys as young a 6 years old. When he was arrested, he was making plans to flee to Thailand.
    You may ask, why Thailand? Because it is a country that openly supports child kidnapping and prostitution. While you might go to a Caribbean Island on vacation, paedophiles flock to Thailand.

    In a recent meeting between the Vatican and a group of United States Cardinals, the church could not and would not state that it has no tolerance for peodophiles.

    And this, according to the Catholic Church, is the human whom God must obey!!

    Infallible?. Pope Boniface was so evil that Clement V had Boniface's body dug up and burnt as a heretic. He joked just before he died that

    ... had much chance of going to Heaven as a roasted chicken

    Loss of Power
    The church once had such power over the European nations, that it could force the leaders of nations to carry out its will by force. The loss of power occurred in several stages:

    1. The Reformation
    2. The French Revolution (1789 - 1799)
    3. Italian unification (1870) - the popes lost the right to rule politically over the papal states.

    The Great Religious Revival of the 1840's
    A series of religious revivals called the Great Awakening swept over the American colonies beginning in the 1720's. It resulted in missionary work among Native Americans and in the founding of new educational institutions.
    In the 1720s, Theodorus Frelinghuysen and Gilbert Tennent started in New Jersey. In 1734 Jonathan Edwards started a movement in New England. During 1739-1741, the movement was spread by a tour of George Whitefield. It reached the South in 1748-1759 with the preaching of Samuel Davies.

    By the early 1800's independent of one another, men and women throughout the world began to study the prophecies of Daniel again. At that time the Church had ruled for about 1260 years from 538 A.D. to 1798 A.D. when the pope was imprisoned. At the end of this period, the prophecies of Daniel became the focus of biblical scholarship and personal devotion. Many people, independently studying, came to the same conclusion - Jesus was coming soon.

    Popular Belief
    The popular belief at the time was that the earth was the sanctuary and that this was the millennium of peace and prosperity. Most Christians believed that there would be a thousand years of peace before Jesus returned and many put off salvation and the things of God.

    Scholars from many Religions and all over the World
    In the early 1800s, Manuel de Lacunza, a Catholic priest in South America wrote under the pen name of Juan Josafa Ben-Ezra. As this godly man began to study the prophecies pointing to the time of the end, he came to believe that Jesus was coming very soon.

    Edward Irving of England came to the conclusion that the prophecies of Daniel pointed to the time of the end.

    Johann Bengel, in Germany, almost simultaneously came to the same conclusion and became a preacher of the second coming.

    Dr. Joseph Wolf, a Jew converted to Christianity, believed that Christ was coming in the early 1800s. He read Isaiah 53 which told of Christ's coming as a lamb to the slaughter. He later became a missionary to the world and traveled throughout Asia proclaiming the second coming of Jesus.

    Child Preachers
    In Sweden, Denmark and Norway, the public preaching of the word was outlawed just after 1800.
    What did God do? He inspired child preachers by the hundreds to proclaim the soon coming of Jesus.

    William Miller
    A man in the United States of America named William Miller, studied the prophecies from 1816 to 1831. He was a Baptist who drifted into deism (belief in an impersonal God). He changed his view of God during the war of 1812 in which he saw many miraculous events that protected the United States troops. He studied the Bible for 15 years and began proclaiming that Jesus was coming soon.
    It is significant to note that others around the world independently came to the same conclusion. Joseph Wolf, William Davis of South Carolina and Alexander Campbell.

    He started a movement called the Millerite movement, about 500,000 people attended the meetings. Many of the converts were forced out of their churches. Many believed that the second coming would take place between the spring of 1843 and 1844. After this period passed a man named Samuel Snow discovered that the cleansing of the sanctuary occurred on the 10th day of the 7th month, and they discovered that this was equivalent to October 22, 1844. Miller eventually came to accept the date.

    October 22, 1844 came and went peacefully. Many wept. This was called the Great Disappointment.

    Futurism becomes popular
    Initially, the whole Protestant church believed in the historicist interpretation. It took over 300 years, but futurism in all its current aspects became popular through the works of several Jesuit scholars and later Protestant leaders:

    Astronomical Signs

    May 19, 1780 Dark Day
    The dark day of May 19, 1780 was the most mysterious and as yet still unexplained phenomenon of its kind.
    It was a most unaccountable darkening of the whole visible heavens and atmosphere in New England. R. M. Devens, Our First Century, page 89.
    An eyewitness living in Massachusetts described the event as follows:

    In the morning the sun rose clear, but was soon overcast. The clouds became lowery, and from them, black and ominous, as they soon appeared, lightning flashed, thunder rolled, and a little rain fell. Toward nine o'clock, the clouds became thinner, and assumed a brassy or coppery appearance, and earth, rocks, trees, buildings, water, and persons were changed by this strange, unearthly light. A few minutes later, a heavy black cloud spread over the entire sky except a narrow rim at the horizon, and it was as dark as it usually is at nine o'clock on a summer evening. . . . Fear, anxiety, and awe gradually filled the minds of the people. Women stood at the door, looking out upon the dark landscape; men returned from their labor in the fields; the carpenter left his tools, the blacksmith his forge, the tradesman his counter. Schools were dismissed, and tremblingly the children fled homeward.

    Travelers put up at the nearest farmhouse. 'What is coming?' queried every lip and heart. It seemed as if a hurricane was about to dash across the land, or as if it was the day of the consummation of all things. Candles were used; and hearth fires shone as brightly as on a moonless evening in autumn. . . . Fowls retired to their roosts and went to sleep, cattle gathered at the pasture bars and lowed, frogs peeped, birds sang their evening songs, and bats flew about. But the human knew that night had not come. . . .

    Dr. Nathanael Whittaker, pastor of the Tabernacle church in Salem, held religious services in the meeting-house, and preached a sermon in which he maintained that the darkness was supernatural. Congregations came together in many other places. The texts for the extemporaneous sermons were invariably those that seemed to indicate that the darkness was consonant with Scriptural prophecy. . . . The darkness was most dense shortly after eleven o'clock." The Essex Antiquarian, April, 1899, Volume 3, Number 4, Pages 53, 54. In most parts of the country it was so great in the daytime, that the people could not tell the hour by either watch or clock, nor dine, nor manage their domestic business, without the light of candles. . . .

    The extent of this darkness was extraordinary. It was observed as far east as Falmouth. To the westward it reached to the farthest part of Connecticut, and to Albany. To the southward, it was observed along the seacoasts; and to the north as far as the American settlements extend."--William Gordon, History of the Rise, Progress, and Establishment of the Independence of the U.S.A., Volume 3, page 57. The intense darkness of the day was succeeded, an hour or two before evening, by a partially clear sky, and the sun appeared, though it was still obscured by the black, heavy mist.

    After sundown, the clouds came again overhead, and it grew dark very fast. Nor was the darkness of the night less uncommon and terrifying than that of the day; notwithstanding there was almost a full moon, no object was discernible but by the help of some artificial light, which, when seen from the neighboring houses and other places at a distance, appeared through a kind of Egyptian darkness which seemed almost impervious to the rays. Isaiah Thomas, Massachusetts Spy; or, American Oracle of Liberty, Volume 10, Number 472 (May 25, 1780).

    Said an eyewitness of the scene:

    I could not help conceiving at the time, that if every luminous body in the universe had been shrouded in impenetrable shades, or struck out of existence, the darkness could not have been more complete. Letter by Dr. Samuel Tenney, of Exeter, New Hampshire, December, 1785 (in Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 1792, 1st series, Volume 1, page. 97). Though at nine o'clock that night the moon rose to the full, it had not the least effect to dispel the deathlike shadows. After midnight the darkness disappeared, and the moon, when first visible, had the appearance of blood.

    May 19, 1780, stands in history as "The Dark Day." Since the time of Moses no period of darkness of equal density, extent, and duration, has ever been recorded. The description of this event, as given by eyewitnesses, echoes the prophet Joel, twenty-five hundred years previous to their fulfillment:
    The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of the Lord come. (Joel 2:31)

    1833 Leonid Meteor Shower
    The great meteor storm of 1833 is said to have kick-started the modern study of meteors . At the storm's peak, between 2 a.m. and dawn on November 12 and 13, roughly 100,000 meteors per hour rained from the night sky. There was a constant succession of fireballs, resembling rockets, radiating in all directions from a point in the heavens. It led scientists to research past storms and may have been responsible for a wave of religious revivals, started by viewers convinced they had experienced the precursor to Armageddon.

    Signs on Earth

    The Great Lisbon Earthquake
    November 1, 1755 at 9:40 a.m. a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck Lisbon Portugal, leveling the city. It affected an area of approximately four million square miles and was felt as far away as France and North Africa. Fire swept through the city for the next three days. It is estimated that 60,000 people were killed, 10,000 to 20,000 in Lisbon alone. The resulting tsunamis killed approximately 10,000 in Morocco.

    Most of Lisbon's population of 250,000 were at church for All Saints' Day when the first shock struck at 9:40 am on November 1. It was followed by an even more powerful tremor which sent buildings toppling down on the terrified populace. Huge waves crashed over the quays, drowning thousands and causing widespread damage. Fire rampaged through the ruins of the city for 3 days. The same earthquake and associated tsunamis also caused much destruction and loss of life further afield - approximately 10,000 died in Morocco.

    It extended to the greater part of Europe, Africa, and America. It was felt in Greenland, in the West Indies, in the island of Madeira, in Norway and Sweden, Great Britain and Ireland. It pervaded an extent of not less than four million square miles. In Africa the shock was almost as severe as in Europe. A great part of Algiers was destroyed; and a short distance from Morocco, a village containing eight or ten thousand inhabitants was swallowed up. A vast wave swept over the coast of Spain and Africa engulfing cities and causing great destruction. It was in Spain and Portugal that the shock manifested its extreme violence. At Cadiz the inflowing wave was said to be sixty feet high.

    Mountains, "some of the largest in Portugal, were impetuously shaken, as it were, from their very foundations, and some of them opened at their summits, which were split and rent in a wonderful manner, huge masses of them being thrown down into the adjacent valleys. Flames are related to have issued from these mountains." Sir Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, page 495.

    At Lisbon "a sound of thunder was heard underground, and immediately afterwards a violent shock threw down the greater part of that city. In the course of about six minutes sixty thousand persons perished. The sea first retired, and laid the bar dry; it then rolled in, rising fifty feet or more above its ordinary level."

    "Among other extraordinary events related to have occurred at Lisbon during the catastrophe, was the subsidence of a new quay, built entirely of marble, at an immense expense. A great concourse of people had collected there for safety, as a spot where they might be beyond the reach of falling ruins; but suddenly the quay sank down with all the people on it, and not one of the dead bodies ever floated to the surface." Sir Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, page 495.

    "The shock" of the earthquake "was instantly followed by the fall of every church and convent, almost all the large public buildings, and more than one fourth of the houses. In about two hours after the shock, fires broke out in different quarters, and raged with such violence for the space of nearly three days, that the city was completely desolated. The earthquake happened on a holyday, when the churches and convents were full of people, very few of whom escaped." Encyclopedia Americana, article "Lisbon," note (1831 edition).

    "The terror of the people was beyond description. Nobody wept; it was beyond tears. They ran hither and thither, delirious with horror and astonishment, beating their faces and breasts, crying, 'Misericordia! the world's at an end!' Mothers forgot their children, and ran about loaded with crucifixed images. Unfortunately, many ran to the churches for protection; but in vain was the sacrament exposed; in vain did the poor creatures embrace the altars; images, priests, and people were buried in one common ruin." It has been estimated that ninety thousand persons lost their lives on that fatal day.

    Restoration of Power
    Despite its problems, the church will survive. The restoration of power is a process. In 1798 it lost the power of church over state. So far, the restoration has been political. It cannot openly call for death to heretics and force national leaders to comply. When this level of power and influence is achieved - then its restoration will be complete.

    The Concordat of 1801. Although the French brought about the downfall of the papacy, yet, because the revolution was so out of control, Napoleon thought that restoring relations with the Papacy might bring religious peace to France.

    The Society of Jesus (1814). Pope Pius VII restored the Jesuit movement.

    The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815). with the exception of the land of France, it restored the former states of the church. These papal states were captured during the revolution as the French Directory tried to wipe out the Catholic church in Rome as it did in France.

    The Lateran Treaty (1929). With the capture and imprisonment of Pope Pius IV by general Berthier of France, the papacy saw a loss of property and a decline in influence. By 1871 papal sovereignty was limited to a few buildings in Italy. The papacy objected to the loss of Rome and the Papal States, creating the dilemma called the Roman Question. The 1929 concordat between the Holy See and Italy called the Lateran Treaty created the Vatican City and resolved the question. It also recognized Roman Catholicism as the only state religion of Italy.

    The Vatican City is an independent state with a size of 108.7 acres (44 hectares), in Rome, Italy with a population of about 800. It is the seat of the central government of the Roman Catholic Church and the pope is its absolute ruler. It includes the papal palace, Saint Peter's Church, the Sistine Chapel, museums, the Vatican Library, the Vatican Gardens, and Belvedere Park. The state, issues its own currency and postage stamps, has its own citizenship, flag, diplomatic corps, newspaper (L'Osservatore Romano), railroad station, and broadcasting facility. The Swiss Guard is the pope's personal bodyguard. The Vatican palace has been the residence of the pope since the late fourteenth century, when the papal court was restored from Avignon, France, to Rome. The treaty was signed for the pope by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, and for Italy by Benito Mussolini.

    The Fall of the Soviet Union. In the 1980's Pope John Paul II and President Ronald Reagan secretly cooperated to engineer events leading to the fall of the Soviet Union. This demonstrates the political influence that the church has on world leaders.

    European Unity - An Opportunity. It has been reported that the original idea of European Unity started in the Vatican. Since then, the church has fostered this movement. This strategy may be linked to their belief that there will be a revived Roman empire in the future. But prophecy states that there will not be any revival of the old Roman Empire under one ruler - however, the church will control the separate nations as it did during the dark ages.
    The Sunday Telegraph, London, August 25, 1991 wrote the following:

    If European federalism triumphs, the EC will indeed be an empire. It will lack an emperor; but it will have the Pope. It is difficult not to think that Wojtyla realizes this.

    On January 1, 2002 the European Union took their biggest step in uniting the 12 nations by converting all national currencies to the Euro dollar.

    The United Nations Support of the Pope? Charles Malik, former President of the General Assembly of the United Nations, Lebanese Christian, former Ambassador to the United States, Guest Lecture at Harvard said the following.

    The only hope for the western world lies in an alliance between the Roman Catholic Church, which is the most commonly, influential, controlling, unifying element in Europe, and the Eastern Orthodox church. Rome must unite with Eastern Orthodoxy, because the Eastern Orthodox church controls the western middle east, [the east end of the Mediterranean] and if they don't solidify that control, Islam will march across Europe. Islam is political. The only hope of the western world lies then in a united Europe under the control of the Pope. And then all Protestant Christians around the globe must come into submission to the Pope so we will have a unified Christian world.

    Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the birthplace of the two major religions (Judaism and Christianity), but the Arab people can place their ancestry through Ishmael - the son of Abraham. Therefore the Muslim religion could be counted as a third. The Pope desperately wants to rule over Jerusalem and he is making his case on two fronts - the United Nations and the Palestinians.

    The pope has asked the United Nations to set up Jerusalem as an international city with him as the religious leader. He has also thrown his support with the Palestinian cause since he feels that there is less animosity towards the Christian religion and a greater chance that at the right moment, the Muslims will accept Christianity. Finally, in just numbers alone, there are millions more Muslims than Jews and the pope would instantly have control of a large percentage of the world population. So, mathematically, it makes sense to pursue this alliance.

    The Arab Alliance. To strengthen the Arab Alliance, a pact was signed by Yasser Arafat and Pope John Paul II on February 15, 2000. In this pact, he recognized the Palestinian claims to the city but claims Israel has no rights there.

    This is all part of the Pope's strategy to gain control of Jerusalem and the allegiance of the Arab world. They represent billions of people, while the poor Jews represent an insignificant number. He wants Jerusalem to be declared an International city under United Nations Resolution 181. Neither Jews nor Arabs want this solution but the Arabs are more willing to accept this solution in cooperation with the papacy. The pope is particularly interested in Part III of the resolution, which defines a special international status for the city of Jerusalem.

    America and the Pope
    Ronald Reagan and the Pope. It is a well known fact of history, that Ronald Reagan, in cooperation with the Pope from Poland conspired to remove their adversary - the Soviet Union. The power and influence of the Pope could no longer be taken for granted. As of that moment the healing was complete. Having regained its political status in 1929. The church has now formally regained its reputation as a power broker and a major player in world politics.

    After the tragic events of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent disintegration of influence in the Arab world as a result of the retaliatory war, America may have to make concessions with the Vatican in order to keep the lid on trouble in the Arab world. With their strategic alliance with Yasser Arafat, the Pope has masterfully placed his cards with the emotional issues of the Muslim people. As a consequence, he represents the only power trustworthy in the West to the Muslim. Therefore, the United States will be forced to look to the Vatican even more.

    Other American Leaders. Although most of this cooperation and dealing is behind the scenes, we must look at evidence of cooperation between the President, Supreme Court and Congress to enact church principles and to legitimize the pope as a valuable source to governments. I saw many open indications. Considering the prophecy, it is frightening.

    United States Religious Laws - In 2001, 2 new religious laws with strong Catholic language were proposed:

    1. Faith Based Initiative. Supporting religious charities with public funds. In a speech, President Bush has already stated that some religions are too hateful to get this money.
      By these words, he has demonstrated the classic reason why government should stay out of religion. He has already demonstrated a preference for one religion over another. If the church wants to do good works, let its members sacrifice. That's the Christian way. If the government is inefficient at rescue and relief, let it train better managers.
      This proposal has passed both legislative houses and is now law.
    2. School Voucher. Supporting private, religious education with public funds.

    It will not stop there. There will be more to come.

    Schisms and Breakup and Ecumenism
    The church suffered three major breakups during its history on the basis of politics or faith.

    1. Greek Orthodox (1054). The separation of the eastern or Greek Orthodox Church from the Western or Roman Catholic Church
    2. Protestant (1517). During the reformation when many churches splintered and formed into separate groups.
    3. The Church of England (Anglican or Epispocal) (1529). The Church of England eventually broke away for political reasons. King (Henry VIII) wanted his marriage annulled and the church would not.

    The Greek Orthodox Church
    The alienation and eventual separation of the Eastern (Constantinople) and Western (Roman) church spanned many centuries from the 800s to the 1054. The rift was due to the changes in culture, the claims of the Western leader for supreme rulership and his refusal to be subordinate to any secular ruler. By 1043 the Western church began to intervene in the affairs of the Western churches in Italy and the Eastern leader patriarch, Michael Cerularius, closed down the Roman churches in his own city.

    In 1054, Humbert of Silva Cardinal Candida was sent to Constantinople to address the problems. He ended the visit by excommunicating the leaders of the Byzantine church. This act was later interpreted as an excommunication of the entire church. The Greek church responded by excommunicating the pope and the Roman church. On December 7, 1965, the mutual excommunications were cancelled by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras 1 as part of an ecumenical effort.

    Events such as the sacking of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade confirmed the rift, and efforts to heal it have never been successful.

    The History of Ecumenism
    The ecumenical movement first started as an attempt to unify the Protestant churches of the world and ultimately of all Christians. By the time of Vatican II, the movement was encouraged by the Catholic church. Several bodies and two Vatican councils were formed with the mission of encouraging this union.
    Ecumenism in the Catholic church was largely an attempt to define or clarify doctrine and to react to other viewpoints called heresies. To deal with doctrinal errors, the church convened at least 20 ecumenical councils during the years 325-1870. With the splintering of the church, the new strategy of ecumenism is to reunite its various factions. Doctrinally, this is not only difficult - it is impossible in many cases. But with the abandonment of the Bible as the rule of faith in favor of personal feeling and revelation of the charismatic movement and tradition in the Catholic church anything is possible.
    There were two ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church.

    1. The first council (1869-70) was convened by Pope Pius IX and ended when Italian troops seized Rome for the new kingdom of Italy.
    2. Vatican II (1962-65), was convened by Pope John XXIII and continued by Paul VI. It sought to renew the church spiritually by changing its liturgy and including more lay participation. It also reconsidered its place in the modern world and encouraged the ecumenical movement.

    Protestant ecumenical bodies included:

    Completed Unions

    Complete Cooperation

    Attempted Unions

    Evangelical Cooperation
    On March 29, 1994, forty representatives of the Catholic and some Evangelical churches signed an informal agreement called Evangelicals and Catholics Together: The Christian Mission in the Third Millennium. In 1997 another document was signed, Evangelicals and Catholics Together: The Gift of Salvation. This document goes on to express an agreement between the two communities about the doctrine of salvation.

    This first step towards reconciliation has been made as both sides see their shared interest in pro-life, school choice and the "traditional" family values. This is an attempt to take the culture back from secularism by showing a united front through their agreement on moral and social issues. They specifically target abortion, euthanasia, pornography, homosexuality, the liberal media, and sex education and urged each other to stop aggressive proselytizing of each other's flocks (sheep stealing).

    This is a false unity to achieve a political goal. They have decided to find points of agreement in the social struggle and focus solely upon these points in order to be united for the cause of Christ. Doctrinal differences were not addressed in the original document, the focus is what they can affirm together - the points of agreement. And this agreement is not based on Biblical doctrine.
    Some signers include Chuck Colson (who initiated the project in 1990), J. I. Packer, Pat Robertson, Bill Bright, Cardinal John O'Connor, and Reverend Richard Neuhaus.

    The Head of the Christian Churches
    The Pope is recognized as the de facto head of any future unified Christian church. So far, this has been recognized by:

    The United Religions Initiative
    In 2000, the world saw the meeting of a group which came together to initiate the blue print for a one world government and a one world religion. Both intend to be built under the laws of the United nations. Unfortunately these laws can be interpreted to stop efforts to preach the gospel and to convert people as hate crimes and hate speech.

    The Charismatic Movement
    This movement has become a powerful force for ecumenism. It is an international, interdenominational Christian revival movement characterized by speaking in unknown tongues and embraced by Episcopalians, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, Catholic , Eastern Orthodox, other Protestant denominations, and even non-Christian eastern religions.
    It is significant because of the way in which it has penetrated mainline churches. The goal of each charismatic is not to separate from their churches but to stay in them and renew them. Ultimately, all faiths will be joined together under the bond of tongues speaking and religion by experience - not by the written word of God.

    Once this level of unification is achieved with the Roman church as the visible head, it won't be long before people will be urged to unify their beliefs and practices under penalty of death.

    American Politics: The Moral Majority and the Catholic Coalition
    In modern times we see the church actively involved in politics, trying to legislate moral and economic support for its programs.
    Organized as powerful voting block, zealous and determined, the church is on a mission to win every political seat or influence our leaders. Organized under the name of the Moral Majority and becoming outwardly politically active in the early 1980's, the larger Protestant church have abandoned support for religious liberty and have united with the Catholic church in seeking political power. The Catholic Coalition is the Roman Catholic Church's attempt to do what the Protestant churches did, organize as an open political voting block so that they can influence elections and be recognized as a power broker in the affairs of nations.

    What the Catholic church brings to this table of political control in the United States is its global presence and its unapologetic belief that the church has the moral and God-given right to control the actions of governments.

    Even the American Muslims are getting together to form a political block to vote as conservative Republicans. Despite the fact that news personnel seem blind to the facts, the reality is that Democrats will have to adopt the conservative agenda in order to get any votes or they must convince their lethargic supporters to be just as diligent as the conservative Christians. Every vote counts.

    Lip service is no longer adequate for these groups. Full support of their agenda is required. The country will not be run by popular opinion polls. We take no prisoners.

    Persecution Of The Jews
    The Jewish nation has historically been under attack by many nations. Some see the unfortunate declaration by some Jews at the crucifixion that "His blood be upon us and on our Children" as the reason why this occurs. But Jesus himself prayed for their forgiveness on the cross. And God had already declared that He would not punish a generation for the sins of their fathers. To say that God has cursed them forever has no basis in the facts at the cross or the nature of God.

    So these excuses have no basis in any true Christian reasoning. If they lost the "most favored nation status" with God because of disobedience, the Christian nation has been even more disobedient to God.

    What the Jews did in protecting their religion from the Christian sect pales in comparison to what Christians have done to others and each other. While they were an exclusive religion that did not seek to gain converts, history can find them guilty of none of the mass atrocities of which others are guilty.

    Various laws made it illegal or punishable by death to marry a Jew or to convert to Judaism. They were barred from owning land, having certain occupations, holding public office, going to universities or practicing their religion. Their children were confiscated, property confiscated, forced to convert, forced baptisms, civil rights terminated, exiled from their land, scattered among their enemies. Blamed for calamities, forced to undergo public identification and humiliation and murdered in great numbers all because they were Jews. They were also thrown out of their homeland, barred from their homeland, scattered, persecuted and blamed for everything imaginable.

    It is a credit to this race, that despite the persecution and the limited opportunities that they were given, that they still managed to be successful. The Jews did not enter certain occupations in order to exploit Christians, they were forced out of certain occupations into what we considered trivial and meaningless.
    After confiscating their property and banning them to ghettos, Pope Paul IV confined them to wearing yellow hats and selling second hand clothes to make a living. He did this because he hated Jews and because he suspected them of helping Protestants.
    Most of these atrocities were done at the hands of Christians or governments claiming to represent Christians. Justifying such actions because the Jews are "Christ Killers", they refuse to see that Christ had forgiven them. They also refused to see that in the similar situation they would have been just as unfaithful to God and His Messiah, because we are currently even more disobedient. In 1205, Pope Innocent III wrote

    The Jews, by their own guilt, are consigned to perpetual servitude because they crucified the Lord ... As slaves rejected by God, in whose death they wickedly conspire, they shall by the effect of this very action, recognize themselves as the slaves of those whom Christ's death set free

    If this is the Christian concept of what Jews deserve, and if Jews currently are suspicious of, and despise Christianity, there is a legitimate reason. Enforced religion is never pleasing to God and never produces a worshipper dedicated to God. It creates the opposite.

    Following is a summary of some of the hardships experienced by Jews throughout history.
    Year Persecutor Comments
    1100-1500 BC Pharoah 430 years of slavery in Egypt
    70 Roman Army under Titus Jewish revolt. One million killed and the second temple was destroyed.
    132 Rome Bar Kochba revolt. 500,000 killed others scattered, exiled from Palestine.
    315 Constantine Edict of Milan. Jews lost civil rights and Jerusalem
    613 Spain Jewish Children over 6 were taken from their parents who would not convert to Christianity.
    1096-1272 Crusades 12,000 Jews in the Rhineland were killed in the first crusade
    1215 Fourth Lateran Council Jews and Muslims were forced to wear special clothes
    1229 Spanish Inquisition Forced to convert to Christianity. Hundreds of thousands were killed, tortured or forced to flee Spain.
    1306 European expulsion Jews were expelled in England, Spain, Germany and Austria
    1347 Europe Blamed for the plague in 1348. 8 to 14 thousand were killed in various cities
    1374 Europe Blamed for the demonic possession in Christians. Tens of thousands were killed.
    1555 Pope Paul IV Papal bull allowed no tolerance for Jews. They must wear yellow hats and arm bands and live in locked ghettos in Rome and Ancona. Copies of the Talmud are burned. Napolean freed them in 1796
    1648 Ukraine 100,000 killed during an uprising against Polish rule and in a campaign to exterminate Jews.
    1942 Nazi Germany Twelve million people killed, including six Million Jews

    It is my sincere hope that, for the sake of the promise made to Abraham, that God will convince them that Christ is the Messiah. Thankfully, the apostle Paul in Romans 11 foresees a massive turning to Christ of the Jewish nation. I hope it will be through the prophecies of Daniel, not through what is currently represented as Christianity. But I fear that it will happen because of the issues that will confront us during the final persecution of the church.

    The history of the church is a history of the marriage of church and state. In Medieval Europe, unity came not by politics as in the old Roman empire or intermarriage - but through the unifying force of the church through the uniformity of belief and the use of the state military power to maintain this way.

    Once saved from years of Roman persecution through the conversion of Constantine, the church at first benefited by the repeal of laws enacted for their persecution. However, they did not protest as similar laws were used to repress the pagans and the church quickly learned the power and influence it can demand by controlling the state. As soon as the church is comfortable in its position of power - it begins to enact civil laws to pursue its ecclesiastical and political desires.

    Having no army, the church calls for armed struggle against its enemies and uses the military power of the state as its weapon and promises of eternal and temporal gain or punishment as a lure.

    It is equally clear, that before a deadly blood bath began, the church secretly worked with the state to draft laws. They took over educational institutions and made the state pay for their religious programs. Protestants were identified and watched by leaders appointed over them so that when the call for death was given in the middle of the night no one could escape.

    The church used many tactics to lure people into fighting. With promises of indulgences, land, cancellation of debt owed to Jews, as penance - kings and peasants alike participated in these campaigns to promote social order, for fear of reprisal, personal gain or as penance for past sins.

    Justinian used these tactics. Sadly, we see this pattern emerging in the United States of America. Where good men and women, tired of the growth and influence of evil have taken to politics to control institutions and laws in an attempt to set up a righteous government. They have targeted education. But history points out that it never stops.

    We also see a quiet revolution in the entertainment business. Immorality and violence still rule - but the church is making its presence known. Knowing the venomous hatred that the media has towards religion, I am surprised that the media has started to feature or promote Catholicism. It makes me wonder who owns the press? Who are the decision makers with deep pockets? Who owns the networks? In the 1980's the church realized, that to win the battle they must win every government elected office and that they must control the media. Again, who owns the media? Who is muzzling the press?

    Desperate for power, endowed with a sense of moral right and an inability to do wrong, under the banner of public good and social order, eventually laws will be passed and pressure applied for conformity and unity in behavior. The current Muslim countries are modern day proof of what happens when the righteous rule and morality is legislated.

    Once Christians are in control, I do not believe that their record will be any better. Their past demonstrates it. Human nature dictates that we are doomed to repeat these mistakes.

    And I will bring the third part through the fire, Refine them as silver is refined, And test them as gold is tested. They will call on my name, and I will answer them; I will say, They are my people, And they will say, The Lord is my God.   Zechariah 13: 9. Time: 200 minutes
    Print: 52 pages
    Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God; because His judgments are true and righteous; for he has judged the great harlot who was corrupting the earth with her immorality, and He has avenged the blood of His bondservants on her.   Revelation 19: 1-2.
    Copyright     Updated : March 9, 2003. April 19, 2005
    Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Raj S. (2004). Patterson (March 2008)
    Credits: The information was compiled from various sources.
    (1) Fox's Book of Martyrs
    (2) Roman Catholic Faith Examined" by David J. Riggs internet Article
    (3) Estimates of the Number Killed by the Papacy in the Middle Ages an Internet article by David A. Plaisted
    (4) A History of Torture. George Riley Scott. Bracken Books (1994)
    (5) The History of Protestantism. by James A. Wylie.