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Bible Prophecy and History - Maps

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Empires Maps Prophecies
1. Babylon Babylonian Empire Assyrian Empire   Egypt Head of Gold; Lion
2. Persia Medo Persian Empire - Silver Chest; Bear; Ram
3. Greece Greek Empire Four Divisions of Greece Belly of Brass; Leopard; Goat
4. Rome Roman Empire Roman Provinces Legs of Iron; Terrible Beast
5. Europe Ten European Tribes Uniting Europe Feet of Iron and Clay
6. Church Division by Religion The 10/40 Window The Little Horn; Second Coming
Protestants Rome - 7 Hills The Seven Churches The Seven Churches; Persecution
7. Israel Ancient Israel Ezekiel's Vision Modern Israel Israel; The Messiah
New Jerusalem Old Jerusalem The Sanctuary The Sanctuary; The Feasts
Garden of Eden The Exodus Second Coming; The Last Exodus
8. Old Places The Old World
City of Babylon
Pangea
The Holy Land
Old Europe
United States Expansion
The Struggle for Supremacy;
The King of the North
9. Modern Islam The Middle East Modern Europe The United States; A Global Church
Last Empire Armageddon United States Battle of Armageddon; Battle of Q'aim
Other Maps
Moon Mars Star Chart Ancient Civilizations New Jerusalem Paul's Journeys Disasters
Geology Maps
Tectonic Plates Impact Craters Ocean and Wind Currents Geographical Features

The Ancient World
The Dispersion of the Nations In Genesis 10, the Bible says that the world was divided about 100 years after the flood after the birth of Peleg. This could refer to a division of the land and the people.
At the Tower of Babel, the languages were created and the people were forced to separate by language among the seventy descendants of the three sons of Noah.
  • Shem. Semites (South)
  • Japheth. Indo-European (North)
  • Ham. Africa, Asia (East and West)
    Tribe Modern Territory
    Mizraim Egypt
    Cush Ethiopia and Sudan
    Put (Phut) Libya
    Lud Lydia (Turkey)
    Asshur Assyria, Babylon
    Sinite China
    Elishah, Kittim Cyprus
    Javan, Tiras Greece
  • Map of the ancient world

    Descendants Of Noah
    Descendants of Noah (The Table of Seventy Nations)
    3 Sons 16 Grandsons54 DescendantsRegion
    Shem Elam, Asshur, LudNo children listed at the time the nations were separated (Semitic)
    Arabia (Jews and Arabs)
    Arpachshad Shelah (Son: Eber) (Grandsons: Peleg, Joktan)
    (Sons of Joktan: Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, Jobab)
    Aram Uz, Hul, Gether, Mash
    Ham Cush Nimrod, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah (sons: Sheba, Dedan), Sabteca (Negroid and Mongoloid)
    Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Far East into China and America
    Mizraim Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, Caphtorim
    Put (Phut) No children listed
    Caanan Sidon, Heth, Jebusite, Amorite, Girgashite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, Hamathite
    Japheth Gomer Ashkenaz, Riphath, Togarmah (Caucasian)
    Indo-European, Europe, Mediterranean coast (Greeks and Romans)
    Magog, Madai, Tubal, Meshech, Tiras No children listed. But Rosh is a name that is linked with these tribes
    Javan Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, Dodanim
    Migration The tribes migrated and settled into a few regions where there was a desert river valley.
    East. Written evidence remains of the ancient civilizations that developed in the east in Sumer, Egypt, the Indus Valley and China around 2000 BC.
    West. In the west The Etruscans moved to northern Italy and the Minoans settled in Crete. Their ancestors settled in Lydia (Asia Minor).
    America. The Clovis people and Olmecs also migrated to central America. Although scientists say it was from the Bering Straits, I believe it, or an earlier migration, could have been across North Africa when Pangea was still connected. Evidence of giant human beings have been found in North America.
    Glen Rose Tracks. A human skeleton of a woman 7 feet tall (210 cm). In addition several footprints of giant men 8.3 - 11.8 feet (253-360 cm) tall have been found in the same region in Texas with dinosaur tracks and below dinosaur tracks!

    Alamogordo Tracks. Thirteen giant tracks 22 inches long (56 cm) in New Mexico.

    Burdick Footprint. Dr. Clifford Burdick found a 10.25 inch long and 3.5 inch wide footprint of a human wearing a sandal has been found with tribolites 2000 feet up on Swasey mountain, Utah. Tribolites should have died about 300 million years ago according to evolution. At least 80 more prints have been found since 1968.
    See a map of other important migrations and people.
    By 350 AD another important migration occurred as the Huns forced the native Barbarian people off the land and into the Roman empire. But they virtually disappeared as a people.
    Around 1000 AD the Turks migrated off the steppes but they left no real traces.
    In the thirteenth century (1227) the Mongols migrated off the steppes but left no lasting traces of themselves.
    Fast Facts! Steppes. Civilizations developed on the plains or large, flat grassland areas. The civilizations in Europe developed faster because they had the horse and their plains were so large that they connected various civilizations. In Eurasia the plains are called steppes. In Africa they are called veldts. In South America they are called pampas and prairie in North America.

    Pangea: The Ancient Continent
    Pangea Dispersion This is a map of Pangea, the world before it was broken up. The undivided earth looks like the description of the New Jerusalem, with mountain ranges in the north and south. If this was the description of the terrain, then the people could have traveled great distances without the hindrance of huge mountains after the flood.

    The land was divided according to tribes about 100 years after the flood. Perhaps, the continents had not completed the drift.
    So this shows a possible distribution of the nations by land route before the continents drifted far apart. Other resettlements could have happened later. However, the map shows that America could have been populated directly from Africa and Europe.
    A 2000 mile (3200 Km) walk, like the Appalachian Trail, can be done in six months in mountainous terrain. That is about ten miles per day (16 Km). I have seen people who have walked over thirty miles over very steep mountains in one day. I was very out of shape and I could do eight miles in one day. So, starting from a central point in Eden, all continents could be reached in one year with easy travelling. That is a distance of 3200 miles (5100 km).
    See a map of the dispersion of animals on Pangea and Tectonic Plates.
    Structure Type Location Evolution Event Age
    CalderaSize
    Km
    Structure LocationAge
    AiraKyushu,
    Japan
    22k-
    Aso --
    KikaiJapan --
    KrakatoaIndonesia-7
    Campi FlegreiNaples, Italy --
    Lake TobaSumatra 74k30x100
    Lake TaupoNew Zealand 330k30x40
    Siberian TrapsRussia251m-
    Long ValleyCalifornia 3m15x30
    Valle GrandeNew Mexico 1m22
    YellowstoneWyoming 2.1m88
    There have been other large explosive eruptions that formed collapsed regions called calderas. They effect whole continents and spread ash worldwide.
    The eruption of the Yellowstone super volcano would be equivalent to a half mile asteroid hitting earth, killing 1 billion people
    Siljan Crater Sweden Frasnian-Fammian 70% of sea life killed 364
    Pripyat-Dniepr-Donetsk Verneshot Ukraine 364
    Bedout Crater Australian Coast Permian-Triassic96% of all life killed 251
    Wilkes Land Crater Antarctica 250
    Siberian Traps Verneshot, Flood basalt Siberia. Near Tura, Yakutsk, Irkutsk, Noril'sk 251
    Manicougan Crater Canada Triassic-Jurassic20% of life killed 214
    Central Atlantic Magmatic Province Verneshot Sierra Leone coast 213
    Chicxulub Crater Mexico Cretaceous-Tertiary60% of life killed.
    Dinosaurs are extinct
    65
    Deccan Traps Verneshot, Flood basalt India 65
    Columbia River Plateau Flood basalt United States Local destruction 17
    Brazilian Highlands Flood basalt Brazil Local destruction -
    Impact craters, catastrophic verneshot volcanos, calderas and flood basalt areas are remnants of the sites of great destruction that caused mass extinctions. This is a list of the mass extinction structures.
    • Caldera. A depression caused by the collapse of the earth underneath a large supervolcano.
    • Impact Crater. A depression caused by a large object falling on the earth. It may come from outerspace or verneshots.
    • Verneshot. Large objects expelled by a catastrophic volcanic explosion.
    • Flood Basalts. These are areas that are built up by huge flows of lava.
    • Creation and Noah's Flood. The events that caused global mass extinctions, must have occurred at the flood.
      Or it is possible that some of what we see is evidence of the forces at work during the first two days of creation.

    Pangea: The Breaking Of The Continent
    » Ring of Fire. It was created by the compression of the Asian and American continents as they moved in opposite directions and compressed the space between. Notice that it is located on the edges of Pangaea.
    » Western American Continent. The South American plates probably have more stress fractures because the continent moved a greater distance relative to North America.
    Crater Location Width (Km)
    Sudbury Ontario- 250
    Manicouagan QuebecAsteroid 100
    Chesapeake Bay Maryland - 90
    Beaverhead Montana- 60
    Charlevoix Quebec- 54
    Montagnais Nova Scotia- 45
    Saint Martin Manitoba- 40
    Carswell Saskatchewan- 39
    Clearwater West Quebec- 36
    Manson Iowa- 35
    Chicxulub Yucatan Asteroid: .9 km or 10 miles170
    Araguainha Brazil- 40
    Wilkes Land Antarctica30 miles (50 km) wide 484
    Vredefort Africa- 300
    Eltanin Southern Ocean2 km Asteroid: Near the Philippine plate ˜40
    Ewing? PacificAsteroid ˜150
    Bedout High AustraliaAsteroid 180
    Tookoonooka Australia - 55
    Woodleigh AustraliaAsteroid 40
    Yarrabubba Australia- 30
    Teague Australia- 30
    Popigai Russia Asteroid 100
    Puchezh-Katunki Russia - 85
    Kara Russia - 65
    Kara-Kul Tajikistan - 52
    Siljan Sweden - 52
    Mjølnir Norway - 40
    Boltysh Ukraine - 24
    Ries Germany - 24
    Rochechouart France - 23
    Lappajärvi Finland - 23
    Asteroid Possible impact sites at the flood
    About 140-170 impact craters have been found on land and few in the ocean (Eltanin, Ewing and Bedout).
    The flood began when the fountains of the sea "burst open" and it rained for 40 days.
    ... all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened. (Genesis 7: 11)
    We suspect that a large projectile cracked the foundations of the earth.

    Object Large Object From Space
    This object could have been a comet, meteor or asteroid struck the earth, tilted it and broke the foundations. Water under pressure poured out on to the earth in a giant tsunami and it caused it to flood and rain. There are several current craters that could have been caused at that time, but the meteors that broke the plates of the earth are probably buried in the sea.
    Several strategically placed objects could have broken the plates and separated the land mass. We can use what we have to make a guess about the location of the possible points of separation.
    • Pacific Ocean. The Philippine plate. Bedout and Woodleigh in western Australia and Ewing in the western Pacific ocean.
    • Eastern American Continent. Chicxulub. Or an object cracks the Caribbean, African and North American plate.
    • South West American Continent. The Pacific plate cracked and the continent became more mobile when the Nazca, Scotia and Cocos plates formed.
    • South Pole. Eltanin, Wilkes Land. Separates four continents.
    • North Pole. Popigai. Separates Asia from America at Greenland.
    Object Verneshot: Large Object From A Volcanic Explosion
    There is another theory that does not conflict with the bible. A catastrophic gas explosion that is caused by pressure from a stream of lava building up under a thick chunk of rock (craton). A supervolcano. The blast causes an earthquake of magnitude 11 and throws large chunks of rocks which form craters where they land. They believe that this blast occurred in the Deccan Traps of India and that it caused the Chicxulub crater.
    » A Circular Debris Pattern. If you look at the map above you will notice that the large craters seem to be in a circle with the focus in India. The force of the blast was in the direction of North America. Most of them landed in Canada, and more debris fell within that triangle than in any other place. The rocks missed the Middle East where the ark was located. The debris that was thrown into the air that would have caused a nuclear winter was washed away in the global rain that lasted for forty days.
    The Science Of Carbon Dating. Pangea and the possible location of some asteroid impacts actually verify what we believe about the cause of the flood and the effects. We believe that the earth is 6000 years old, therefore we do not believe in the millions of years between events that is the basis of current scientific belief. So how do we reconcile those long periods of time and the timeline proposed by carbon dating?
    Carbon dating can give a difference of ages of millions of years for different parts of the same body. Also, any sample that is carbon dated will be affected if the object has been submerged in water, because water changes the rate of decay of carbon 14! This is what we claim happened in the flood when the entire planet was submerged and subjected to forces that broke the foundations of the earth. Also, slight changes in the speed of light can also cause such enormous changes in radioactive decay so that dates calculated at millions of years are reduced to thousands of years. The speed of light is decreasing.
    But can all these events happen in less than 6000 years?
    • Craters. So we see these craters as recent events. Some might be the objects that helped to break up the land. Others might have fallen on a softened earth and made larger craters. Other evidence might be washed away into the sea.
      One large object from space might have triggered the process. When it smashed into the earth, it tilted the planet, put pressure on the mantle and made the internal stress that caused the verneshots.
    • Continental Drift. The soft continents could have moved 4000 miles in 400 years. This is less movement than an earthquake. However, the current configuration of the continents could have formed when the land between them was submerged under the ocean.
    • Ark Science. We also show how all the species could have been loaded on the Ark with room to spare!

    The Ancient Places
    Ancient Name Modern Destiny In Prophecy
    Egypt, Abyssinia EgyptWill become a lowly kingdom without a monarchy until the end.
    Abyssinia Ethiopia Follows the king of the north with the Libyans
    Babylon, Mesopotamia,
    Land of Shinar
    IraqThe nation will exist at the end of time. But the original, ancient city will never be rebuilt. Alexander the Great and Saddam Hussein have tried to rebuild it.
    It was also known as Sumer, the Land of the Chaldees and the Akkadian people
    Persia (Parthia)Iran The nation will exist at the end of time, but not as a significant empire.
    Media Iran
    Thrace GreeceThe nation will exist at the end of time, but not as a significant empire. The ancient Greeks were also known by the name Javan and Macedonians.
    Rome Italy The original empire will be divided until the end of time
    Gaul France Would be the source of a demonic doctrine. Causes the fall of the church
    Lydia and Cilicia
    Anatolia
    Asia Minor
    Ottoman Empire
    Turkey Some interpretations give Turkey a role as the "King of the North"
    Old Name New Name
    Burma Myanmar
    Ceylon Sri Lanka
    Formosa Taiwan
    Cipangu Japan
    Java Major Borneo
    Champa Vietnam
    Siam Thailand
    East Pakistan Bangladesh
    TransoxianaUzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgystan, SW Kazakhstan
    Bohemia and
    Moravia
    Czechoslovakia
    Czechoslovakia Czech Republic, Slovakia
    Yugoslavia Slovakia, Croatia, Herzegovina, Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro
    Hellespont Dardanelles
    East Francia Germany
    West Francia France
    Flanders Belgium
    Biafra Nigeria
    Belgian Congo Zaire
    Zaire Congo (Democratic Republic)
    Rhodesia Zimbabwe, Zambia
    Mosquito Coast Nicaragua
    Sandwich Islands Hawaiian Islands
    See the old names of Roman provinces.
    Byzantium, ConstantinopleIstanbulThe new capital of eastern Rome (Byzantine Empire)
    Kittim CyprusShips of Kittim invade the Roman empire. Kittim might be a word that refers to any rampaging evil empire
    Edom, Moab and AmmonJordan Will escape destruction in the last wars, but will be defeated when it attacks Israel
    Israel
    (The Levant)
    IsraelWill accept the Messiah during a time of great conflict
    Aram, Assyria SyriaThe land is part of the New Jerusalem
    Nubia, CushSudanWill pay homage to God
    PhilistiaGazaNot prophesied
    KhorasonAfghanistan and West PakistanTen lost tribes exiled here
    Bactria (Balkh)AfghanistanNot prophesied
    Bharata IndiaNot prophesied
    Scandinavia Norway, Sweden, FinlandNot prophesied
    Nubia Egypt-SudanNot prophesied

    The Birth Of Empires
    Century Africa Europe Middle East Asia America
    West East North West Holy LandPersia India Chinese Russia North South
    3300-1500 West KushEgypt Minoan Levant - Mesopotamia Dasyus Xia - - -
    1500 BC Tribal KushEgyptTribal Israel Israel Medes Persia Sakas Shang (Yin) Tribes TuniitClovis Olmec
    721-605BC Egypt,
    Nubian
    Assyrian Magadha Zhou Tuniit Olmec
    605-586BC Daniel Babylon
    539-334BC - Persian (Achaemenid) Nanda Zhou
    Qin
    334-197BC Tribal -(Ptolemy) Greek (Seleucid) Mauryan
    197BC-70 Roman Jesus Parthian Indo-Greek Han Hopewell Maya, Nazca
    70AD-224 Aksum Roman Kuninda
    Kushan
    224-476 Barbarian Invasion Sassanid Kushan
    476-630 Egypt,
    Numidia
    Catholic
    Bishops
    ByzantineGupta SuiKhazaria Thule, Pueblo Maya, Zapotec
    632-661 Rashidun
    660-750 Ghana Umayyad Prathihara Tang Hohokam Maya, Chaco
    750-1000AbbasidPala Kiev Rus
    1000-1200 Mali Fatimid Holy Roman EmpireCrusadesSeljukAbbasid Solanki
    Sena
    Song,
    W. Xia, Jin
    Kiev Rus Anasazi Toltec
    1200-1250 Mali, Kilwa,
    Great
    Zimbabwe,
    Songhay
    Ayyubid Seljuk
    Sultan of Rum
    Delhi Sultanate Yuan (Mongol) Inuit
    Cahokia
    Inca
    1250-1300 Mamluk
    1300-1400 Arabs
    Ottoman
    Abbasid
    Timurid
    Ming Duchy of Moscow (Muscovy) Inca
    Aztec
    1400-1500 Pueblo
    Columbus Slaves Columbus New World
    1500-1800 Britain
    Portugual
    Ottoman SafavidMughal
    Maratha
    Quing Romanov Britain,
    France
    Spain,
    Portugual
    1800-1922 Britain, France Qajar Britain Quing
    1933-1945 Vote
    Democracy
    Republic
    Nazi Islam Communism Communism Vote
    Democracy
    Republic
    1947-1981 Islam
    Islam
    Vote IsraelIslam
    Islam
    Vote
    1981-Now Communism Vote
    Jewish Areas under Christian or Jewish influence who were exposed to the gospel and people of God
    Christian
    Muslim Areas under Muslim influence
    Hindu At its peak, the Indian empire stretched from Bangladesh to Afghanistan. But Islam converted the west
    Buddhist Areas under Buddhist influence
    Symbols Vote Democracy Communism Communism Islam Islam
    Daniel The Empires In The Prophecies Of Daniel. People ask why Bible prophecy did not include many great civilizations. The primary reason is that the prophecies monitor civilizations who affect the people of God. But an examination of the chart above also shows that many of the other great civilizations organized themselves after the world empires of the Bible. And they were really still decentralized, feudal systems. So Daniel was even true on a global scale. After the Roman empire, the world fractured into many strong and weak kingdoms. After this many great civilizations emerged.

    Modern Empires
    Modern Empires
    Empires
    British European
    Spanish
    French
    Portuguese
    Chinese
    (Quing Dynasty)
    Other
    Russian
    The modern empires of the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries were mostly made by the strong members of the Roman empire. The British empire eventually absorbed the Ottoman empire.
    Trading RouteLocation and Products
    Silk Road 1 A trading route which extended from China to Constantinople. It included several routes over land and sea
    Vikings2 The Vikings conquered Russia by sailing from the Baltic to the Black Sea through the Russian river systems
    Triangle Slave Trade 3A • Slaves were shipped from West and South East Africa to the North and South American continent.
    3B • Sugar, tobacco, cotton and other products of slave labor were shipped to Europe from America.
    3C • Other manufactured goods were taken from Europe to be used to trade for slaves.
    Global Today our global trading routes are driven by the need for energy in the form of oil, gas and coal. These are mostly in the Middle East. See the list of energy reserves by country below.

    Ancient Perception Of The World Empire Period Land Population GDP
    Old World Km2%Earth Million% $Billion
    British 1583-1945 33.722.63% 45820.0% $918.7
    Mongol 1206-1368 24.016.11% 11025.6% $257.7
    Spanish 1516-1899 20.013.43% 68.212.3% $
    Qing 1644-1912 14.79.87% 432.236.6% $241.3
    Russian 1721-1917 23.715.91% 176.49.8% $
    Umayyad 661-750 13.08.73% 6229.5% $
    Roman 27BC-476AD /1453 6.54.36% 65-8829.2-39.5% $
    Old Persian 550-330BC 8.755.85% 49.420% $
    French 1534-1980 13.08.73% 112.95.1% $234.1
    Italian 1861-1914 3.82.55% 51.92.3% $143.4
    Portuguese 1415-1912 10.46.98% 12.6% $
    Nazi Germany 1933-1945 6.44.30% 75.4% $375.6
    Macedonia 800-146 BC 5.2 3.49% -% $
    Ottoman 1299-1923 5.2 3.49% 397.10% $26.4
    » Sea Of Darkness. The ocean was populated with dragons.
    » American Continent. It was discovered in 1492, but people believed that they were on the west shores of India (West Indies) until the theory of a new continent emerged in 1504.
    » Flat Earth. Most people believed the earth was flat.
    Lydian 1200-546BC 0.5.336% -% $
    Neo-Babylonian 626-539BC 0.5.336% -% $
    Aztec 1428-1521 0.22.148% -% $
    The Old World. This is a map of what people in the fifteenth century thought the world looked like. The American continent was missing and nobody dared to cross the sea of darkness which was populated with monsters.
    » Tordesillas Line (1493). Pope Alexander VI's line dividing the earth between Spain (west) and Portugal (east hemisphere).

    Egypt
    Map of empire of Egypt The Pyramids. Egypt has over 90 major pyramids built between 2600-1500BC. The vast majority are found in the north, in the Nile delta region. They are all located on the west bank of the Nile. The most famous are the structures found at Giza, built during the fourth dynasty.
    • The Great Pyramid (Khufu). It is the only surviving structure of the seven wonders of the ancient world. See a map of the seven wonders.
    • Khafre. Son of Khufu, grandson of Sneferu
    • Menkaure. Son of Khafre.
    • The Sphinx. Half lion and half man.
    Israel. Israel lived in the land of Goshen during a prosperous period of many building projects. They probably built some of the pyramids.

    Nubia. This is the kingdom which is south of Egypt. They have over 180 pyramids. Many are small buildings.

    Fast Facts! The Nile is the longest river in the world (6825 Km). It flows from Africa to the Mediterranean Sea through two main tributaries which meet in Khartoum, Sudan.
    Blue Nile. Its head waters are in Lake Tana in Ethiopia.
    White Nile. The most distant head waters are in the Nyungwe Forests of Rwanda. They and many feeder rivers flow to Lake Victoria then to Lake Albert.
    The Exodus. Israel escaped from Egypt by crossing the Red sea at the northern tip, during the reign of either Amenhotep 1 or his son Tutmoses 1. Nefure was the daughter of Tutmoses 1 who rescued Moses. She became queen Hatshepsut. They lived in Egypt from about the twelfth dynasty to the eighteenth. They wandered through the desert and eventually arrived in Palestine after forty years. It is a trip that should have taken two or three months.
    History: Alexander the Great.
    After Alexander conquered Egypt in 331BC, he was guided by ravens as he crossed the desert to visit the temple of Amon-Ra. There he wanted to know if he was the son of God like other pharaohs. He was made pharaoh by the Egyptians. He also built the city of Alexandria in his honor.

    History: Napoleon.
    When the French conquered Egypt in 1798, they blew the nose off the Sphinx when they used it for target practice. They found the Rosetta stone, blasted the circular zodiac out of the temple in Dendera carried many Egyptian objects to their museums in France.

    The Empire of Assyria
    Map of empire of Assyria The Hittites invaded the north regions of Assyria and assimilated into the region.
    The Ten Lost Tribes. In 722 BC the Assyrian empire, under King Shalmaneser V and Sargon II, captured the northern kingdom of Israel, destroyed the capital in Samaria and took away ten tribes and their priests to Khorason. They became known as the ten lost tribes.
    The Jews". Only the tribes of Judah and Benjamin and their priests remained in the south and became "the Jews". They would be taken into exile by Babylon in 586BC.
    This empire is not described in any of the prophecies relating to the distant future end of time. This is because the experience of the ten "lost tribes" did not become a model of the church of God at the end of time.
    Hittites (1295 BC) Assyrian (800 BC) Assyrian (600 BC) Israel (North) 10 Tribes Judah (South) 2 Tribes

    The Empire of Babylon
    Map of empire of Babylon
    Routes : Hebrew Captives (605 BC) Hebrew Captives (586 BC) Desert Route (605 BC)
    Babylon controlled Israel for seventy years (609-539 BC).
    » 605. Daniel taken captive. Nabopolassar died and Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon by a short route across the desert.
    » 597. More captives. Ezekiel and Jehoiachin
    » 588-586. Siege of Jerusalem. Solomon's temple in Jerusalem destroyed. Zedekiah and other captives taken.
    This is the empire described as the head of gold and the lion with wings in prophecy. Babylon became a model of the circumstances at the end of time because it will destroy the religion of God and the church will be rescued by God from a similar captivity.

    The Medo-Persian Empire
    Map of the Medo-Persian empire The Medo-Persian empire ruled from 539 BC to 331 BC. It defeated three nations:

    Lydia. 547 BC.
    Babylon. 539 BC.
    Egypt. 538 BC.

    The leader was Cyrus the Great. He allowed the Jewish captives to go home with their sacred objects. He respected all religions and people and rebuilt the religious temples of the gods and freed all exiles.
    In the time of Christ, this empire was known as the Parthian empire.
    This was prophesied as a bear with three ribs in its mouth.

    The Greek Empire
    Map of the Greek empire The bronze empire, that was also described as a leopard with four wings. It ruled from 331 BC to 168 BC under the leadership of Alexander the Great. He defeated Darius III of Persia.
    The Greeks defeated Persia in three decisive battles.
    Battle of Granicus (334 BC).
    Battle of Issus (333 BC).
    Battle of Arbela (Gaugamela).
    1 October 331 BC. One million Persians against 50,000 Greeks.

    Siege of Tyre (332 BC). 7 months
    Egypt (spring 331 BC). Temple of Amon-Ra
    Battle of Hydaspes (326 BC). The last battle was against King Porus and an Indian elephant corp
    The Hellespont (Dardanelles) is the location where Alexander crossed from Macedonia to Asia Minor in 334 BC with his chief officers Antigonus, Ptolemy and Seleucus and an army of 35,000 Macedonians and 7,600 Greeks to begin his war against Darius III and Persia
    Alexander the great, was described as a "notable horn" which was broken into four horns

    The Divisions Of The Greek Empire
    Map of the 4 divisions of Greece The Greek Empire lasted from 331 BC to 168 BC. The kingdom was divided among his generals, the diadochi. But they fought among themselves for the kingdom.
    Battle of Ipsus 301 BC. Antigonus attempted to reunite Alexander's empire under his control. He invaded Egypt, but his forces and those of his son Demetrius were defeated. Antigonus was killed. Asia Minor was taken by Lysimachus.
    Battle of Corupedion 281 BC. Lysimachus was defeated by Seleucus I.

    Battle of Raphia/Gaza 217 BC. Ptolemy IV defeats Antiochus III.
    4 Divisions Location YearsConquerer 2 Divisions RomanBattle
    West Cassander Greece, Macedonia321-168Lysimachus (288) North Aemilius PaullusPydna (168)
    NorthLysimachusThrace, Asia Minor323-281Seleucus (281)Pompey (63 BC)-
    East SeleucusSyria, Babylon, Persia312-63Ptolemy CeraunusPompey (63 BC)-
    SouthPtolemy Egypt, Palestine323-30- South Octavian (31 BC)Actium
    Alexander the Great died June 11, 323BC leaving a half brother Arridaeus (Philip II) and a pregrant queen Roxanne and Perdiccas, a commander Alexander had named as his successor. After the death of Alexander without an heir, the Greek empire was eventually divided among four successors. Ptolemy, Seleucus and Lysimachus were his generals and Cassander was the son of his general Antipater. After a while, the empire was reduced to a northern and southern kingdom.

    Diadochi Wars.
    South. The Greeks started a new dynasty of kings (Ptolemies) in Egypt. They were defeated in the battle of Actium in 31 BC.
    North. The generals in the north were at war.
    • Lysimachus. In 288 BC, Lysimachus allied with Pyrrhus of Epirus and invaded Macedonia then he expelled Pyrrhus in 285. Now he controlled Greece, Macedonia, Thrace and Asia Minor.
    • Seleucus 1 Nicantor. In 281 BC, he killed Lysimachus in the battle of Corupedion. Now everything except Egypt belonged to him, but not for long.
    • Ptolemy Ceraunus. In 281 BC, he murdered Seleucus 1 Nicantor and controlled the north.
    Roman Conquest.
    Aemilius Paullus. In 168 BC, He defeated Perseus in the Battle of Pydna and the Greek kingdom came under Roman rule.
    Attalus III. In 133 BC, Asia Minor was willed to Rome by Attalus. In 63 BC Pompey ended all rebellion against Rome.
    Pompey. In 63 BC, he conquered Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine.
    Mark Anthony and Cleopatra. In 31 BC, they were defeated by Octavian (Augustus Caesar) in the battle of Actium.
    See map of the Kings of the North and South

    The Roman Empire
    Map of the Roman Empire The Roman empire ruled from 168 BC to 476 A.D.

    Battle of Pydna (168 BC).
    Rome defeated the Greeks. In 15 days, Aemilius Paullus defeated Perseus of Macedonia at Pydna, near Mount Olympus on 22 June 168.

    Battle of Actium 31 BC. Naval battle off the shores of Greece. Augustus (Octavian) defeated Cleopatra and Mark Anthony.

    Battle of Adrianople (378 AD). Goths kill Emperor Valens and half the Roman army. The empire splits after this.

    Battle of Chalons (451 AD). June 20. Western Rome defeats the Huns in Gaul. The Huns never establish a lasting kingdom.

    The prophecy stated that the Messiah would die during the rule of this empire. It also described two kings that would rule during His life, Augustus Caesar and Tiberius Caesar.
    Roman Empire. These German tribes migrated into the Roman empire after the Huns chased them from their homes. Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards, Franks and Suevi.
    Germany. These German tribes stayed in Germany. Saxons, Alemanni, Thuringians and Rugians. These old tribal areas became the stem duchies when Germany separated into East Francia.
    England. By 410 Britain was deserted by the Romans who were struggling with the Goths and Huns. So the Angles and Saxons went to assist the Celts and defeated the Picts and Scots who were invading Celtic Britain. But they eventually stayed and occupied the country.
    Heruli. They were Norsemen from Scandinavia. Some may be mixed with the Scyrri.
    Others. Alans - Iranian people who were not from the Germanic tribes.

    Europe - The Ten Divisions
    Map of the Ten divisions of Rome The northern border of the Roman empire was the Danube and Rhine river, the Carpathian mountains and the Black Sea.
    Tribe European Nation
    Franks France
    Allemanni Germany
    Lombards Italy
    Suevi Portugal
    Anglo-Saxons England
    Burgundians Switzerland
    Visigoths Spain
    Heruli Destroyed (493)
    Vandals Destroyed (534)
    OstrogothsDestroyed (538)
    The Lombards migrated to Italy after the Heruli and Ostrogoths were removed.
    These are the ten toes of the statue and the ten horns of the beast in the prophecies of Daniel

    Roman Provinces
    Roman Provinces
    # Old Name Region
    1 Legion Italia Italy
    2 Sicily Sicily
    3 Corsica Corsica
    3 Sardinia Sardinia
    5a Achaea Greece
    5b EpirusGreece
    5c MacedoniaGreece
    20 ThraciaBulgaria
    14 Legion MoesiaRomania
    18 DaciaRomania
    23 NoricumAustria
    22 RaetiaSwitzerland
    21a Legion DalmatiaYugoslavia
    Croatia
    Bosnia
    21b Illyricum
    15 Legion PannoniaHungary
    16 ArmeniaArmenia
    7 Asia (Pergamum)Turkey
    8a Bithynia Turkey
    8b PontusTurkey
    31 LyciaTurkey
    32 PamphyliaTurkey
    33 Armenia InferiorTurkey
    34 GalatiaTurkey
    35 CappadociaTurkey
    36 LycaoniaTurkey
    37 CiliciaTurkey
    38 PisidiaTurkey
    39 CommageneTurkey
    30 CyprusCyprus
    29 Cyrenacia and CretaCrete
    40 Colchis (Lazica)Georgia
    41 CrimeaMoldova
    44 Langobardi, Cherusci, SugambriGermany
    Byzantine and Southern Roman Empire
    # Old Name Region
    13 Legion AegyptusEgypt
    24 CyrenaicaLibya
    11 NumidiaAlgeria, Libya
    6 Legion Africa (Carthage)Tunisia
    25 MauretaniaAlgeria, Morocco
    10 Judea PalestinaIsrael
    26 Arabia PetraeaJordan
    9 Legion SyriaSyria, Lebanon
    27 SopheneSyria
    28 OsroeneSyria
    42 MesopotamiaIraq
    43 AssyriaIraq (Kurd)
    16 ArmeniaArmenia, Iran
    Some kingdoms were left to the Roman Empire as an inheritance. Cyrenacia, Bithynia and Pergamum (Asia)
    Western Roman Empire (Europe)
    # Old Name Region
    4a Legion Tarraconensis Hispania Spain
    4b Baetica Spain
    4c Baleares Spain
    4d Lusitania Portugal
    12a NarbonensisGallia
    (Gaul)
    France
    12b AquitaniaFrance
    12c LugdunensisFrance
    12d BelgicaBelgium
    12e Alpes PenninaeFrance
    12f Alpes CottiaeFrance
    12g Alpes MaritimaeMonaco
    19a Legion Germania SuperiorGermany
    19b Germania InferiorGermany
    17a Legion BritanniaEngland
    17b CaledoniaScotland
    17c HiberniaIreland
    The African and Middle East nations are not in the European Union.
    Legion Only these seven regions contained armies from Christ until about 114 A.D. They were the centers of power at His birth.
    Legion After 114 A.D. these regions also maintained an army.

    Attempts To Unite Europe
    Map of attempts to unite Europe Major Empires
    Empire Section of Roman Empire
    Roman Area in the purple border
    Charlemagne Red border. France, Germany, North Italy
    Napoleon Blue border. France, Belgium, North Italy, Corsica, Malta, Egypt, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Sweden, Spain, Naples.
    Allies: Spain, Russia, Bavaria
    Hitler's Third Reich Yellow border. Except England, Spain, Egypt, and Middle East
    European Union (2004) Except North Africa, Eastern empire and some of the Baltic region. But not fully political
    Ottoman Empire Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Cyprus, Crete, Serbia, Albania, Romania, Moldova, Yugoslavia
    Bismark Area in the blue and black border
    Kaiser Wilhelm Area in the black border
    German Reich German Allies Neutral Undefeated Roman Empire Others: European Union
    Families Hohenzollern (Germany and Prussia), Hapsburg (Spain and Austria), Romanov (Russia), Ottoman (Turkey)
    Hitler and Charlemagne were one of many who tried to unite Europe and recreate the old Roman empire. Prophecy states that the divisions of the Roman empire (Europe and the Byzantine empire) will never unite to form another Roman Empire. It specifically mentions attempts to unite through families.
    Time Method Leader Result
    538-1798 Religion Popes and kings Successful religious union by force for western empire from 538-1798.
    768-814 War Charlemagne Region of France, Germany and Italy (Holy Roman Empire)
    936-973 War Otto I the Great Unsuccessful political union. Germany, north Italy. He was able to promote church and state union but he did not unite the territory of the old Roman empire.
    1294-1328 War Charles IV Unsuccessful political union.
    1300-1922 War Ottoman Turks Turkey, eastern Europe and Middle East influence.
    1643-1715 War Louis XIV Unsuccessful political union.
    1795-1812 War Napoleon Unsuccessful political union. Britain and most of the Holy Roman empire escaped
    1866-1871 War Bismark German unification. Prussian who wanted to unite Germany. Prussia, north and south Germany, France (Lorraine, Alsace)
    538-1918 Marriage Queen Victoria

    European Royalty
    Unsuccessful political union even though European royal families were related. Carlos 1 of Spain and Queen Victoria of England were two examples.

    Queen Victoria was called the "Grandmother of Europe" because she successfully married her nine children to many royal families. But political unity was elusive. Prophecy predicts an unsuccessful union by marriage.
    1914 War Kaiser Wilhelm Unsuccessful political union in World War 1. Germany, Belgium, Prussia
    1940s War Adolph Hitler and Mussolini Unsuccessful political union in World War 2. Most of the European continent were either allies or directly occupied, there were allies in parts of North Africa. But England, Switzerland, Spain, Egypt, Palestine and most of the far eastern Roman Empire were not captured. Mussolini invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
    2001 Economy European Union Successful economic union of parts of the Roman empire. Prophecy does not support a political union under one government, but it does support a religious union under the church.
    2005 Political The union is now in doubt as France and the Netherlands rejected the constitution in 2005. Prophecy remains true.
    Several attempts have been made to unite Europe. None have achieved the unity present under the Roman empire during the reign of the Caesars.
    Various attempts to unite the nations included war, marriage between the royal houses, religion and the latest attempt at an economic union.

    For a long period there was a successful but turbulent union with the church. But the nations (notably Britain and France) were constant enemies. There has never been a successful political union under one ruler since the Caesars. All attempts have failed. Britain seems to be the country that continues to escape. Prophecy says that there never will be a successful political union under one ruler. At least not one that will last.

    Attempts To Unite The World Languages
    Map of attempts to unite languages Distribution Of Languages
    Babel. God scattered the language at Babel but every world empire has imposed a common language on the conquered people. The distribution of language and writing scripts is clearly seen in the official and common languages of many conquered nations hundreds of years later.

    The source of much of the world languages is Europe (Greece, Rome, Britain, Spain, France and Portugal). Islam spread Arabic.

    The Vatican And The Seven Hills Of Rome
    Rome and Vatican
    • Seven Hills. The seven hills were only 150 to 180 feet high.
      »Quirinal (Quirinalis) [170 ft]. Residence of the head of state.
      »Viminal (Viminalis) [180 ft]. Smallest hill.
      »Esquiline (Esquilinus) [175 ft]
      »Caelian (Caelius) [165 ft]. The elite Romans lived here.
      »Aventine (Aventinus) [150 ft]. Remus lived here.
      »Capitoline (Capitolinus) [165 ft] Site of the fortresses.
      »Palatine (Palatinus) [165 ft]. Romulus lived here. Palaces and residences of the rich and powerful.
    • Walls.
      » Murus Romuli ("Wall of Romulus"). Built by Romulus to protect the Palatine Hill.
      » Servian. A 12 ft (3.6m) wide defensive wall around Rome built in the fourth century BC.
      » Aurelian (271-275). Built by emperors Aurelian and Probus.
    • Campus Martius (Field of Mars). A plain in the north west of Rome where military training was held.
    • Roman Forum. Located in the valley between the Capitoline and Palatine hills which held the important government buildings.
      » Regia. The residence of the Roman kings and the office of the Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of the Roman religion.
      » Temple of Vesta. A round temple with the entrnce facing east.
      » House of the vestal Virgins. The home of the priestesses of Vesta. It was once the house of the Pontifex Maximus.
      » Palladium. A statue of Athena (Minerva). It was an image of great antiquity on which the safety of a city depended.
      » Arch Of Titus. South east of the forum was a monument built after the Romans defeated the Jews in 70 AD. It depicts the menorah and other spoils of war taken by the Romans. The money and treasure stolen was also used to build the Coliseum.
    • Water 11 Aqueducts carried water, usually to public baths.
      » Thermae. Public baths built 212-216 AD
    Temples. The city was full of temples dedicated to various gods.
    » Pantheon (126 AD). A temple which had statues of all the gods of ancient Rome arranged in a circle around the building
    » Templum Divii. Temples erected for the people who were deified. Templum Divii Claudii who was deified in 54 AD, Templum Divii Romulii, Templum Divii Caesaris, and Templum Divii Iulii (Temple of Caesar) 29 BC, dedicated to Julius Caesar.
    Entertainment And Public Life
    » Circus. A stadium for mass entertainment and chariot racing like the Greek Hippodrome.
    » Circus Maximus. Holds 150,000 spectators. Located in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills.
    » Coliseum (Flavian Ampitheatre) [72-80 AD]. It was an arena which seated 50,000 spectators to entertain the public. It was used for gladiator combats. Armed combatants fight each other, wild animals and condemned criminals such as Christians.
    » Naumachia. A field where ancient land or sea battles and victories were reenacted using prisoners condemned to death. Caesar created the first in 46 BC. It was bloodier than gladiator sports.
    Vatican City. Located west of the Tiber in the north west of Rome. Established 1929, it is the smallest independent state. 110 acres, 836 population, army (Swiss guard), currency.

    The United States Expansion
    United States
    Empires Dates States
    British 1776-9013 Colonies
    Tribes 1787Northwest Territory
    Tribes 1795Yazoo Land (AL, MS)
    French 1803Louisiana Purchase
    Mexico 1819Florida
    Mexico 1846-47Texas, California
    Spanish 1819-90 Oregon Country
    Russia 1867Alaska
    Hawaii 1898Hawaii
    Important Routes to the West Dates
    Louis and Clark 1804
    Trail of Tears (East to Oklahoma) 1838
    Oregon Trail -
    Transcontinental Railroad 1869
    Route 66 1950's
    The United States expanded from the Atlantic to the Pacific by taking over or buying the territories of other empires.
      • The Native Americans were driven off their land and forced to move to reservations or walk to Oklahoma.
      • Louisiana purchase from France for $15 million. France was in debt after the revolution.
      • (Adams-Onis Treaty). Florida is given up by Spain. We paid $5 million.
      • Texas is taken after the Mexican war.
      • Mexico surrenders California and the Mexican Territory after the Bear Flag Rebellion.
      • Alaska was purchased from Russia for $7.2 million.
    Mississippi River. This river runs from northern Montana to New Orleans along the eastern border of the Louisiana purchase territory. It is an important trade route that is a link to some of the major rivers which carry grain cargo and the oil from the Gulf of Mexico and cargo from foreign ships at the port in Louisiana.

    Tornado Alley. An area in the Great Plains of the central United States that is mostly west of the Mississippi river, between the Rocky Mountains in the west and the Appalachian Mountains in the east. It generates the most tornadoes at the front where the warm air masses from the gulf of Mexico and the polar air from Canada collide during the tornado season (March to September). The states in this region are east Colorado and east Wyoming, North Dakota and South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, South West Minnesota, West Kentucky and West Tennessee.

    Fault Lines. There are four major fault zones in the continental United States and one in Alaska.
    • San Andreas Fault. The active fault is located in California at the boundary of the Pacific and North American plates is 816 miles (1300 km) long.
    • New Madrid Fault. It is a 120 mile (191 km) fault located in 5 states between Memphis and St. Louis and has produced some of the strongest earthquakes.
    • Ramapo Fault. This is a 70 mile (112 km) fault located in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. It was last active in 1884 with a 5.2 earthquake. There is also a fault line running east to west along 125th street from the Hudson to the East river.
    • Cascadia Subduction Zone. This fault zone in the Pacific northwest is located out in the ocean off the shores of Washington and Oregon.
    • Denali Fault. This active fault is located in Alaska.
    • Other Zones. There have also been earthquakes in South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and Washington DC.
    Other United States Maps: Monuments, Parks and Trails. Twelve Circuit Court Regions. Native Americans.

    The Seven Churches of Revelation
    Map of the 7 churches of Asia Minor
    The Seven Churches
    # Church Meaning
    1 Ephesus Desirable
    2 Smyrna Sweet smelling
    3 Pergamum Height, elevation
    4 Thyatira Sacrifice of contrition
    5 Sardis What remains
    6 PhiladelphiaBrotherly Love
    7 Laodicea Judgment, justice
    The Seven Wonders
    # Structure Location
    1 Statue of Zeus Olympia
    2 Temple of Artemis Ephesus
    3 Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Bodrum
    4 Colossus of Rhodes Rhodes
    5 Hanging Gardens Babylon
    6 Pharos Lighthouse Alexandria
    7 Great Pyramid of Giza Egypt
    The seven churches in the prophecies of Revelation are located in Asia Minor. John wrote these prophecies while he was exiled on the Isle of Patmos.

    Paul's Missionary Journeys
    Paul's Journeys
    1 Acts 13-14 Antioch to Seleucia, stoned in Lystra and returned to Antioch
    2 Acts 15: 36 - 18: 22 Paul and Silas from Antioch. Beaten and imprisoned in Philippi. Released by an earthquake
    3 Acts 18: 23 - 21:17 Antioch to Jerusalem. Riot in Ephesus. Eutychus falls from a window.
    4 Acts 27 Paul goes from Caesarea to Rome as a prisoner. He was shipwrecked on Malta

    Europe
    Map of old Europe Old Europe
    German Unification under Bismark (1871)
    Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Württemberg.

    Duchies: Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Mecklenburg, Saxe-Weimar, Oldenburg, Brunswick, Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Anhalt.

    Principalities: Schwarzburg, Hohenzollern, Waldeck, Reuß, Lippe.

    Free cities: Bremen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Lübeck.

    Ottoman Empire:
    Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Albania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Moldova
    Map of modern Europe Modern Europe
    European Union 2004
      § France (1951)
      § Germany
      § Italy
      § Belgium
      § Netherlands
      § Luxembourg
      Denmark (1973)
      United Kingdom
      § Ireland
      § Greece (1981)
      § Portugal (1986)
      § Spain
      § Finland (1995)
      Sweden
      Austria
      Cyprus (2004)
      Czech Republic
      Estonia
      Hungary
      Latvia
      Lithuania
      Malta
      Poland
      Slovak Republic
      Slovenia
      Bulgaria (2007)
      Romania (2007)

    Seeking Membership
      Turkey
    § Eurozone countries (Euroland 2004). These have completed their currency conversion on January 1, 2002.

    Division By Religion (Thirteenth Century)
    Map of the breakup of the church Western Rome.
    Catholic. After the division of the Roman empire into a western and eastern part, each came under the dominance of one religion. In the West, the bishop of Rome with the help of the European governments worked to make Roman Catholicism the state religion.

    Byzantine Empire.
    Islam. However, in the east the Byzantine empire came under the attack of the invading Turks and the Moslem religion became dominant.
    Eastern Orthodox. The surviving Christian religion in those regions became the Eastern Orthodox, Armenian and the Coptic church.
    Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Islam Pagan Buddhist Hindu Judaism Coptic Animist

    Protestant Distribution
    Protestant areas Germany. The Lutherans were mostly in northern Germany and Scandinavia.

    France. The Protestants were mostly in the south of France, northern Italy, northern Spain and even in southern Italy.

    Eastern Europe. Bohemia and Moravia were 80% Hussites before they were killed.

    Spain. Protestantism never really gained ground in Spain because of the Spanish Inquisition.
    Huguenot Albigenses Waldenses Hussites Lutheran Anabaptist Anglican (Episcopal)
    This map is an approximate distribution of Protestants in the sixteenth century. It was created from the descriptions of where these people operated. So it is not an adequate map of boundaries but as a map that shows spheres of influence.

    The 10/40 Window
    The 10/40 Window The 10/40 window, or the "resistant belt", covers the region that has the least amount of Christians. It is located between ten degrees north and 40 degrees north of the equator. Most of the Moslem, Hindu and Buddhist people reside in this region.
    This region poses the last obstacle in fulfilling the "Great Commission". This task is the last sign before the end of the world. Unfortunately, prophecy predicts two simultaneous efforts to reach the world.

    Three Angels' Message. The people of God will try to use persuasion to reach the world.

    Conversion by Force. The apostate Christian religion will attempt to use force to convert the people of the world. This is the same method that it used in the past.
    Map of satellite foot prints.
    Dominant Religions : Islam Buddhist Hindu Christian Christian
    The Gospel must be preached to all the world as a witness to all the nations and then the end will come. (Matthew 24: 14)

    The Islamic Caliphates
    Islam expansion Invasions
    » Crusaders
    » Turks
    » Mongols
    Arabia-North Africa Egypt Berber (Sunni) Persian (Shia) Turkish (Sunni)
    » Rashidun (632-661)
    » Umayyad (661-750)
    » Abbasid (750-1517)
    • Fatimid (909-1171)
    » Ayyubid (1171-1341)
    » Mamluk (1250-1570)
    » Cordoba (756-1031)
    » Almoravid (1040-1147)
    » Almohad (1121-1269)
    • il-khanate (1256-1335)
    » Timurid (1370-1526)
    • Safavid (1501-1736)
    » Seljuk (1037-1194)
    » Ottoman (1299-1923)

    Modern Middle East
    Map of the Middle East
    Regional Oil, Gas and Coal Reserves
    Location OilGasCoal
    Middle East 743.41 2585.40462
    Eastern Europe 79.22 1964.09279,778
    North America 213.05 265.08279,506
    South America 103.36 250.8421,928
    Africa 102.58 485.8455,486
    Asia Pacific 35.94 391.66327,264
    Western Europe 14.99 189.2636,389
    Strategic Petroleum Reserve 0.70 00

    Most of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) are located in the Middle East.
    • Daily Consumption. The U.S. consumes about 20 million barrels (3 million m3) of petroleum every day. This is about 25% of the daily world consumption of 80 million barrels.
      China and India are experiencing energy consumption, economic growth and pollution rates at a faster pace than anticipated. Therefore, the energy reserves, global warming pollutants and energy crisis wars are expected much sooner.
    • Global Reserves. There are about 1212.88 billion barrels of global oil reserves in the known fields and about 1900 billion barrels if new fields are added. Therefore, at present rates of consumption, the proven reserves will last only 41.5 years or 65 years if the predicted new fields are found. That is 2044 or 2069.
    • Strategic Petroleum Reserves. Since the 1973 oil crisis, the USA has created an underground reserve with the capacity to hold 700 million barrels (111 million m3) of crude oil. It is 93% full and expected to be filled in March 2005. It is held at four sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Big Hill and Byran Mound in Texas. West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana.
    List of Oil and Gas Fields
    Region CountryFields
    Middle East Saudi ArabiaGhawar, Berri, Abqaiq, Dammam, Qatif, Zuluf, Abu, Safah, Faroozzan-Marjan, Fadhili, Manifa, Shaybah +
    IranAzadegan, Ahwaz, Yadavaran, Marun, Abouzar +
    IraqRumaila, Kirkuk, Qurna, Majnoon, Baghdad, Zubair +
    KuwaitBurgan, Raudhatain, Sabriya, Minagish +
    OtherYibil, Dukhan, Umm Shaif, Zakum, An Nagyah +
    Caspian Basin KazakhstanKashagan, Tengiz, Kurmangazy, Karachaganak
    AzerbaijanACG mega-structure
    Asia RussiaSamotlor, Romashkino, Tarim, Sakhalin, Campos Basin.
    Gas Field : Urengoy, Orenburg, Yamburg, Sakhalin, Shtokman, Bovanenkovskoye
    Coal : Siberia, Arctic region and the far east.
    ChinaDaging, Shengli
    Coal : Tarim Basin, Shangdong, Manchurian plain
    IndiaKalol, Balol, Rawa, Santhal, Bombay
    North America United StatesPrudhoe Bay, ANWR, Wilmington, Elk Hill, Yates, SACROC
    Gulf of Mexico (Jack 2, Atlantis, Thunder Horse, Knotty Head)
    Coal : Appalachian, North Dakota, Green River Formation, Iowa to Ohio, ANWR
    CanadaAthabasca tar sands, Hibernia, Terra Nova, Hebron-Ben
    MexicoCantarell, Chicontepec
    South America VenezuelaBolivar, Boscan, Orinoco tar sands
    BrazilCampos Basin, Marlim
    North Sea NorwayEkofisk, Statfjord, Snorre, Oseberg, Norne, Draugen.
    Gas Field : Ormen Lange
    NetherlandsGas Field : Groningen, Slochteren
    Africa NigeriaNiger Delta, Bonga
    AlgeriaHassi Messaoud
    Oil Producing Nations
    2003 Oil, Gas and Coal Reserves
    Country Oil GasCoal
    OPEC Nations
    Saudi Arabia 266.81 241.84 0
    Iran 132.46 971.15462
    Iraq 115.00 111.950
    Kuwait 104.00 56.020
    United Arab Emirates 97.80 214.400
    Venezuela 130 151.34528
    Libya 39.13 52.650
    Nigeria 35.88 184.66209
    Qatar 15.21 910.520
    Algeria 11.35 160.5144
    Indonesia 4.30 97.795,476
    Non-OPEC Nations
    Canada *178.79 56.587,251
    Russia 60-200 1680.00173,074
    United States 21.37 192.50270,718
    Mexico 12.88 15.991,335
    Norway 7.71 84.266
    Oman 5.51 29.280
    United Kingdom 4.03 18.75243
    Egypt 3.70 58.5023
    Other Reserves
    China 18.25 53.33126,215
    India 5.8538.88101,903
    Kazakhstan 9.00 65.0034,479
    Uzbekistan 0.59 66.204,409
    Turkmenistan 0.55 71.000
    Azerbaijan 7.00 30.000
    Pakistan 0.28928.153,362
    Afghanistan 01.75 73
    Ukraine 0.4039.6037,647
    Yugoslavia 0.0781.7018,288
    Poland 0.0965.8215,432
    Germany 0.376.997,428
    Czech Republic 0.0150.146,120
    Turkey 0.300.304,614
    Greece 0.0070.0354,299
    Hungary 0.1021.213,700
    Netherlands 0.10662.00548
    Italy 0.6228.0037
    France 0.1580.37817
    Brazil 11.2411.5111,148
    Colombia 1.544.047,287
    Peru 0.938.721,168
    Chile 0.153.461,302
    Australia 1.44 27.6486,531
    Thailand 0.29114.751,493
    New Zealand 0.053 0.90629
    North Korea 00661
    Japan 0.0951.40396
    Vietnam 0.60 6.80165
    Philippines 0.139 3.96260
    Malaysia 3.00 75.004
    Brunei 1.35 13.800
    Burma 0.05 10.002
    Angola 5.41 1.620
    Ghana 3--
    Gabon 2.50 1.200
    Congo 1.51 3.200
    Sudan 0.56 3.000
    South Africa 0.0160.00153,738
    Yemen 4.00 16.900
    Syria 2.50 8.500
    Bahrain 0.125 3.250
    Total 1292 61121,000,912
    * Canada includes 174.1 of tar sands
    Oil (Gb = Billion barrels)
    Gas (Trillion Cubic feet)
    Coal (Million short tons) 2003 figures
    Source.
    "Oil and Gas Journal" 2006 Figures from the Energy Information Administration (EIA).
    Coal estimates of the EIA from the "International Energy Annual 2003".
    Types of Oil.
    • Sweet Light Crude. Conventional oil, liquid petroleum with low sulfur. Found in the Middle East.
    • Heavy Oil. Thicker, high sulfur and heavy metal contamination that needs more refining. Found in the Orinoco region of Venezuela and probably in the Andes Mountain region down to Argentina. Venezuela may have 1.20 trillion barrels.
    • Tar Sands, Oil Sands, Bitumen. About 10% oil mixed with sand and rock that must be mined and processed.
      Mostly found in two places, Athabasca tar sands of Alberta, Canada (1.8 trillion barrels). The Orinoco oil sands of Venezuela.
      Fast Facts! Two tons of rocks makes 1 barrel of oil!
    • Oil Shale. Fine grained rock mixed with an organic material called kerogen. Found in the United States, Brazil, India and Malagasy. In the United States it is found in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and some parts of the east. It must be mined. There is also a new technology of heating the rocks to 650ºC and pumping the melted oil. It is estimated that there is 1 trillion barrels of oil. But it needs three gallons of water for each gallon of oil and lots of electricity to recover. And a way must be found to protect the ground water from the recovery technology.
      Fast Facts! One ton of rocks makes 1 gallon of oil!
    Fast Facts! Since tar existed in Mesopotamia before the flood, the rapid burial of plants and animals is not the only source of oil.

    Israel
    Ancient Israel Modern Israel
    Jerusalem (Ancient).
    It was the site of the ancient Jewish temples which were destroyed twice.
    » Babylon. 586BC.
    » Rome. 70AD.

    Jerusalem (Modern).
    The temple mount, or "the noble sanctuary" has the following structures.
    » The Wailing Wall. Ruins of the Jewish temple destroyed in 70AD.
    » Dome of the Rock. Islamic site built 687-691AD.
    » Al-Aqsa Mosque. Islamic temple at the Dome of the Rock.

    Archaeology.
    » "House of David". Tel Dan
    » Pilate Reference. Caesarea
    » Dead Sea Scrolls. Qumran caves
    » Moabite Stone. Dibon
    Map of ancient Israel Map of modern Israel
    Geography.
    Size. The land of Israel is 290 miles (470 km) long from north to south and about 85 miles (135 km) across at its widest point between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean sea.
    Borders. It is bordered by Lebanon in the north, Egypt in the southwest, Syria in the northeast, Jordan in the east and the Mediterranean Sea in the west.
    Climate. It has a temperate climate with much sunshine, and a rainy season from November to April producing 20-30 inches (50-75 cm) in the north and about an inch (about 3 cm) in the south. Regional climatic conditions vary considerably:
    • Coastal Plain. Hot, humid summers and mild, wet winters.
    • Hill Regions. Dry, warm summers, moderately cold winters, with rain and occasional light snow.
    • Jordan Valley. Hot, dry summers and pleasant winters.
    • South. Semi-arid conditions, with warm to hot days and cool nights throughout the year.
    Foreign Occupation Of Israel.
    • Ancient. Babylon (609 BC), Medo-Persia (539 BC), Greece (334 BC), Seleucid (312 BC).
    • Rome (63 BCE -313 AD). Pompey and Pagan Rome
      » Byzantine Rome (313-636). Emperor Constantine and Christian Rome
    • Arab-Islamic (636-1099).
    • Crusaders (1099-1291). Captured Jerusalem and had spotty influence over the region.
    • Mamluk-Islamic (1291-1516).
    • Ottoman-Islam (1517-1917).
    • British (1918-1948).
    • Modern State Of Israel (14 May 1948). Israel regains autonomy after 2557 years.

    The Exodus Journey
    Exodus
    The Exodus is the forty year journey of Moses and the Jews (Israel) at the end of their 430 year slavery in Egypt until they crossed the Jordan river into the Promised Land.
    Highlights
    Arrow Crossing the Red Sea.
    Arrow Ten commandments on Mt. Sinai
    Arrow Fed by quails
    Arrow Twelve spies.
    Arrow Crossing the Jordan.
    Arrow The walls of Jericho collapse.

    Complaints and Punishments
    Arrow Rephidim: No water to drink
    Arrow Massah: Moses strikes rock
    Arrow Sinai: Worshipped Calf
    Arrow Taberah: Fire from God
    Arrow Kibroth-Hattaavah: Plague, quails
    Arrow Hazeroth: Miriam given leprosy
    Arrow Kadesh-Barnea: Moses hits rock
    Arrow Meribah: Moses strikes rock twice
    Arrow Hormah: Defeated by Caananites and Amalekites. Exiled for 40 years.
    Arrow Earthquake and Fire: Korah, the sons of Levi and 250 leaders rebel.
    Arrow Aaron's rod budded.
    Arrow 14,700 die of plague the next day.
    Arrow Mt. Nebo. Moses died.

    Travel Time
    Arrow 50 days from Egypt to Sinai
    Arrow 1 Year from Egypt to Kadesh
    Arrow 40 Years from Egypt to Jericho

    Seven Nations Defeated
    Arrow Canaanites.
    Arrow Hittites.
    Arrow Perizzites.
    Arrow Jebusites.
    Arrow Amorites.
    Arrow Hivites.
    Arrow Girgashites.

    The Israelites Camp In The Desert
    North
    Dan
    (Levi)
    camp site Asher camp site Napthali
    Marari Tribe of Levi (Marari)
    West
    Benjamin
    camp site
    Manasseh
    camp site
    Ephraim
    (Joseph)
    Tribe of Levi (Gershon) Sanctuary

    Ark of the
    Covenant
    Ark of the Covenant
    Veil

    Veil

    Veil

    Veil
    Table of Shewbread
    Table of shewbread
    Altar of Incense

    Menorah
    Menorah
    Veil

    Veil

    Veil

    Veil

    Veil
    Laver Altar
    Laver   Altar of Sacrifice

    Most Holy Place

    Holy Place

    Outer Court
    East Gate Tribe of Levi (Moses and Aaron) East
    Judah
    camp site
    Issachar
    camp site
    Zebulun
    Gershon Moses and Aaron
    Kohath Tribe of Levi (Kohath)
    Gad camp site Simeon camp site Reuben
    South
    In the New Jerusalem, Levi replaces Dan and Joseph replaces Ephraim. There are no special tribes of priests around the city, because all tribes that surround the city are priests.
    We have an entire lesson on the sanctuary and the meaning of the symbols.
    Dimensions of the Furniture
    Item Cubits Inches Metric
    Ark of the Covenant 2½-1½-1½ 52-31-31 131-79-79
    Altar of Incense 1-1-220-20-40 53-53-106
    Table of Shewbread2-1-1½ 41-20-31 106-53-79
    Menorah Not given
    Laver Not given
    Altar of Sacrifice 5-5-3 104-104-62 263-263-158
    Most Holy Place curtain
    and columns
    10-9 200-180 530-477
    4 columns
    Holy Place curtain
    and columns
    10-9 200-180 530-477
    5 columns
    Outer court door 20-5 410-102 1060-262
    Dimensions are given in length, width and height.
    Metric units are in centimeters
    One common cubit = 18 inches = 45.72 cm
    One king's cubit = 21 inches = 53.34 cm
    Dimensions of the Structure
    Structure Cubits Inches Metric
    Most Holy Place 9-9 180-180 477-477
    Holy Place 21-9 420-180 1113-477
    Outer Court 100-50-5 167-83-8½Ft 53-26-2½M
    Boards 10-1½ 208-31 524-79
    Tabernacle Boards 20 boards (North and South).
    6 boards (West).
    Outer Court walls 100-5 20-1 M 53-2½M
    North and South : 20 pillars.
    West: 10 pillars
    East : 10 pillars and gate
    Linen. 10 panels 28-4 560-80 1484-212
    Goat's Hair. 11 panels 30-4 600-80 1590-212
    Red Ram's skinProbably 50-30
    Porpoise skin Probably 50-30
    The Temples : Two permanent temples were built in Jerusalem.
    1. Solomon's Temple. It was built 490 years after the exodus and destroyed by Babylon in 586 BC.
    2. Herod's Temple. It was started after the seventy year exile to Babylon was over and was finally completed years later when Herod did extensive remodeling that lasted 46 years. It was destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D.
    Now the Moslem mosque of Omar stands on the rock where these temples stood.
    Sanctuary Top view
    Top View of the Most Holy Place
    1. Curtain
    2. Poles
    3. Columns
    4. Boards
    5. Boards to support side walls
    6. Bars and Rings
    7. Ark of the Covenant
    8. Altar of Incense
    Interesting Fact: I created a scale model of the sanctuary and discovered that it was impossible to orient the Ark of the Covenant with the poles aligned North to South as shown in most illustrations.
    The distance between the columns was too narrow. The room was also too narrow. The ark could only be placed in the room if the poles and the long sides were aligned East to West.

    So I did further research and found the following information about the ark.
    1. Archaeology. The rectangular depression in the floor of the sanctuary where the ark stood for about 1000 years showed that it was oriented with the longest side east to west. Archaeologist Leen Ritmeyer made these discoveries and published it in the January/February 1996 issue of the Biblical Archeology Review Magazine.
    2. The Long Poles. The width of the square room was nine cubits. Therefore, the poles were too long to fit north to south or east to west. However, since the east side was not a solid wall, the poles could extend beyond the curtain. 1 Kings 8: 8.
    3. 1 Kings 8: 8. The Bible describes the ten cubit long poles of the ark as touching the curtain that separated the two rooms.
      But the poles were so long that the ends of the poles could be seen from the Holy Place before the inner sanctuary, but they could not be seen outside.
    4. Mathematics. The 1.5 cubit wide ark with the long poles on each of the long sides could be carried between the columns in only this configuration. The entrance to the holy place was 2.25 cubits wide between the center of the columns and 3 cubits wide in the Most Holy Place. So each column could be a least half a cubit wide and still allowed the ark to pass through.

    Babylon (Babylonia) and The Holy Land
    Holy Land Mesopotamia
    The Land between the rivers (Euphrates and Tigris). It can be divided into several sections.
      • Assyria. North
      • Akkad. Center
      • Sumer. South
    Babylonia. Akkad and Sumer
    Chaldea. South
    Land of Shinar. Babylon

    Southern Mesopotamia was known as Babylon after Hammurabi's reign in 1792 BC.

    The Center of Idolatry
      • Tower of Babel.
      • Image of Gold.
      • City of Babylon.

    Modern People
    Modern Iraq is divided among three groups.
    Kurd. North (ethnic Sunni)
    Sunni. West (religious)
    Shia. South (religious)

    Other Empires
      • Mitanni. Syria
      • Hittite. Turkey
    Sodom and Gomorrah. They were located near Zoar (Genesis 13: 10-11). Abraham could see the land in the east from his location near Bethel and Ai at the "oaks of Mamre". The location is the best guess that I can find from all the maps and literature. Hebron is apparently the same place as Mamre.
    Abraham's Journey. Abraham traveled North from Ur in the Chaldees along the Euphrates and then South from Haran through Canaan to Egypt. Most of these cities became cities of refuge by law. Numbers 35: 6. Genesis 11: 31-12:6.

    The Fall Of Ancient Babylon
    The Ancient City of Babylon
    Babylon The ancient city of Babylon is sixty miles south west of Baghdad.
    It is about 14 miles (22.5 km) on each side, surrounded by a moat. The wall had 250 towers 450 feet high (37m) and it was 35 feet (10.7m) below ground. The wall was 56 miles long (90 km), 300 feet high (91m) and 25 feet (7.6m) thick. A chariot could be driven on the wall. There was a second wall 75 feet (23m) behind the first.

    Two Possible Locations of the Tower of Babel.
    • Ruins seven miles north of the city.
    Etemenanki (E-temen-an-ki). "The house that is the foundation of heaven and earth". It was a ziggurat made of seven terraces and eight towers. It was a cube 92 meters tall (300 feet).

    Structures.
    Processional Way. The 70 feet (21.4m) wide road from the Ishtar gate to the Esagila. The walls were lined with lions.
    Palace. Near the Ishtar gate and the hanging gardens.
    Hanging Gardens. They may have been located in the palace complex next to the Processional Way.
    Esagila. "The temple that raised its head", was the Babylonian name of the temple of Marduk. It was built at the center of the world as the axis of the universe. It was either founded by the god Lugal-du-azaga or built by Marduk.
    Plains of Dura. It was where Nebuchadnezzar built the statue of gold for worship.

    Gods and Temples
    There were 53 Temples and 180 altars to the goddess Ishtar. Nine gates are named after the gods.
    God Gate Comment
    Marduk EastThe great god of Babylon. (Bel or Baal)
    Zababa East Warrior god
    Enlil (Ellil) SouthGod of Earth and wind
    Urash SouthEarth goddess
    Shamash
    (Babbar, Utu)
    SouthSun god
    Adad West Storm or weather god
    Lugalgirra North One of twin gods
    Ishtar NorthGoddess of fertility
    Sin (Nannar) NorthMoon god
    Girra (Gibil) -Light and fire The Ishtar Gate
    Ninurta -War god
    Ea -Water and wisdom. Father of Marduk
    Nabu (Nebo) -Knowledge, writing, scribe of the gods
    Gula -Homes, earth, health
    Belit-Nina -Both names were applied to Ishtar
    Ninmach -Mother goddess, creator
    Tammuz -Fall season. Sun, vegetation, rebirth
    Dagon -Underworld, fertility
    The Persian Conquest.
    Cyrus, the Persian king from the east, conquered the city on October 12, 539 BCE (Tishri 16) during an annual festival when everyone would be drinking and dancing. He diverted the Euphrates in the north of the city and lowering the river up to the thighs. Then the army entered under the gates through the river bed. There were also walls on either side of the river running through the city. These had 100 brass gates. 25 gates connected the city to the river, but the gates were left open. If the gates had been closed the Persian army could only have marched from one end of the river to the other and never entered the city.

    The Babylonians thought that they were secure and had stored enough food to last 20 years. Cyrus divided the soldiers into three groups. He used some soldiers to dig a canal and divert the river into a marsh near by. He positioned other soldiers at the northern and southern regions of the city where the river flowed through the walls. Gobryas (Ugbaru) the governor of Gutium defected to Cyrus and came with the troops.
    Read the prophecy about the fall of Babylon.

    Ishtar Gate. The original blue Ishtar Gate, decorated with horses and dragons, is now in the Berlin Museum. Saddam Hussein rebuilt this gate as part of his failed efforts to rebuild the city of Babylon. During the war in Iraq, American and Polish soldiers stayed at this ancient site and ruined the ancient artifacts.

    Armageddon Forces
    Israel and Armageddon Prophecy
    Israel Surrounded This is a map of the time when Israel is surrounded by her enemies. It is a combination of Muslim, Jewish and Christian prophecies.
    Muslim prophecies.
    • Christian prophecies.
      The Preparation.
      » Zechariah 12.
      » Daniel 11: 44-45.

      The War.
      » New Jerusalem.
      » Hamon-Gog.
    The preparation for Armageddon will involve some conflict in the Middle East that will be a sign that there will be global persecution for the church.
    Islamic Holy Sites.
    » Mecca (Makkah). The holiest place on earth. Site of a building made by Abraham and Ishmael.
    » Medina. Muhammad is buried here. It is the destination of the Hegira, his flight from persecution.
    » Jerusalem. Muhammad ascended to heaven from this spot. Site of Jewish and Islamic temples.

    Shi'a Holy Sites.
    » Najaf. Shrine of the Imam Ali. The founder of Shi'a Muslims.
    » Karbala. Shrine of the Imam Husain, grandson of Ali. Martyred in 680AD. A gate of Paradise.
    » Samarra. Site of the Askariya Mosque ("Gold Dome Mosque") and shrine of the tenth and eleventh Imam (Ali al-Hadi and his son Hassan al-Haskari) and the cave where the twelfth imam (Madhi) disappeared and is still hiding.
    » Kadhimiya. Shrine of the Imam Musa al-Kadhim, the seventh Imam.
    » Jamkaran, Iran. Site of the holy well where Imam Madhi was seen in 947AD.
    » Mashad, Iran. Shrine of Imam Reza, the eighth imam. He was poisoned.
    » Qom, Iran. Shrine of the sister of Imam Reza.
    Imam Madhi.
    He is the twelfth imam who died and disappeared in 878AD and was seen at a well in Jamkaran, Iran in 947AD. He is being kept alive by God and he is hidden. He will return at the end of time to bring justice to the world, riding to battle on a white horse to prepare the way for the coming of Isa (Jesus).
    Nuclear Facilities. Analysts claim that these are some of the nuclear production sites of Iran.
    » Weapons. Tehran, Esfahan, Natanz, Qom, Arak, Saghand, Gchine, Lashkar-Abad, Ramandeh
    » Power Plant. Bushehr, Tehran
    » Nuclear Waste. Anarak, Karaj
    On 7 June 1981, Israel destroyed the Iraqi nuclear facility at Osiraq near Baghdad.

    The New Jerusalem
    Map of The New Jerusalem
    Zechariah 14 describes the map of the area. The land will be changed.
    1. Mount of Olives (Verse 4). This mountain will split and form a mountain range in the north and south.
    2. Valley (Verse 5, 10). The city will be located on the plains of a valley between these mountains.
    3. Hill (Verse 10). Jerusalem will be on a hill on this plain.
    4. River (Verse 8). A river of living water flows east and west from Jerusalem into a sea in the east and a sea in the west. This is the same river of life that flows from the throne of God. (Revelation 22: 1)
    5. Sun, Moon and Stars (Verse 7). Outer space will change also. Their light will be dimmer than the light coming from the new earth. (Revelation 21: 23)
    6. New Jerusalem. The city comes from heaven, through space, and lands on the Mount of Olives. (Revelation 21: 2, 10)
    Green Square. 375 mile border. Blue Square. 1500 mile border. The New Jerusalem

    Mount of Olives. And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall split in the middle of it toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south. And you shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach to Azal: yes, you shall flee, like as you fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the Lord my God shall come, and all the saints with you. (Zechariah 14: 4-5)

    Size. The city is laid out as a square, and its length is as great as its width; and he measured the city with the rod; fifteen hundred miles; its length and width and height are equal. (Revelation 21: 16)
    Since the language is ambiguous, the length of each side of the city could be either 375 miles or 1500 miles.

    375 Miles (604 kilometers).
    The New Jerusalem is 375 miles long and 375 miles wide. It extends from the bottom of the Sinai peninsula to the middle of Syria. And from Cairo to the western border of Iraq. This essentially enclosed the actual area of the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 11: 23-25).

    It is also 375 miles high. This extends over 200 miles higher than where the space shuttle flies.

    Putting this in perspective, clouds can extend up to 11 miles, the space shuttle orbits at about 150 miles and the space station orbits at about 220 miles.
    Our tallest buildings are about a quarter of a mile high.

    1500 Miles (2414 kilometers).
    If the city is 1500 miles in all three direction, then it extends from the western border of Egypt to eastern Iraq. And from the top of the Black sea to the southern border of Saudi Arabia.
    Notice that at this size these facts become very important.
    1. Garden of Eden. The center of the eastern wall, the center gate is located exactly in the place where the Garden of Eden is believed to exist.
    2. The Gate of God. "Babel" means the gate of God. Notice that it was built near the Garden of Eden.
    3. Magog. The Land of Magog is just outside the city. According to Revelation 21, when the New Jerusalem is surrounded, they will come from Gog and Magog.
    4. Egypt and Assyria. They are a part of this enclosed structure. This fulfills the following prophecy.

      In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing In the midst of the land: Whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, "Blessed be Egypt my people and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance." (Isaiah 19: 24-25)
    • Egypt "My People". Two tribes, the children of Joseph were half Egyptian.
    • Assyria "The Work of My Hands". Abraham was a Syrian from Babylon.
    • Israel "My inheritance". This is the nation God created through a covenant.
    See another map of the same area without the current geography.
    The Garden of Eden
    "And the Lord God planted a garden towards the east in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed"
    "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it was parted, and became four rivers. The name of the first is Pishon: it flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon: if flows around the whole land of Cush. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel [Tigris]: it flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates."
    (Genesis 2: 8, 10-14)
    So He drove the man out; and at the east of the garden of Eden He stationed the Cherubim and the flaming sword which turned every direction to guard the way to the tree of life. (Genesis 3: 24)

    There are several theories about the location of the Garden of Eden.
    • Iraq. On land, near Ur where the Tigris and Euphrates join before flowing into the Persian Gulf.
    • Persian Gulf. Under the waters of the shores of the Persian Gulf near Iraq.
    • Turkey. Where the Tigris and Euphrates originate. Although it is a possible source, this is not located east of Israel or east of Babylon. So this may be wrong.
    • United States. In the south east, along the Florida, Georgia and Alabama border. The United States was joined to Africa in Pangea, but it was not east of Israel. So this is wrong.
    • Jerusalem. This is my theory. Calvary was the same mountain where Abraham offered Isaac. So, given the history and use of symbolism, Jerusalem may have been the location of the Garden of Eden. Calvary may have been the location of the tree of knowledge. Gethsemane may have been the location of the Tree of Life.
    Problems in the Garden
    The Gihon and the Pishon no longer exist. But the location of the Gihon river has been a problem for all theories, because it does not flow through Cush. In fact, it flows north from the head of all four rivers.
    There are some possible explanations:
    1. Nimrod, the Son of Cush. The Gihon flowed through the land of Nimrod. He lived in that area and built the tower of Babel. So, technically, that area is also the land of Cush.
    2. A Circluar River The Gihon could have made a circle around the Arabian coast and joined with the Nile. In fact, there are reports of an Egyptian legend that the Nile was circular. Babylonians mentioned a great river named the "Bitter River" which encircled the earth. Josephus wrote that the River of Eden encircled the earth and was the source of four great rivers.
    3. The Nile and Jordan Rivers. Beginning at the source in Turkey, the Jordan could be part of a tributary that fed the Nile.

    Jesus said to him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me. John 14: 6 Time: 120 minutes
    Print: 31 pages
    Copyright     Updated : June 2006
    Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (January 2008)
    Credits: The information was compiled from various sources.
    All images were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.
       Maps were created by Teachinghearts.org by using PowerPoint and Paint.
       Free maps of the modern world are available from Graphic Maps (Worldatlas.com)
       CIA World Factbook has maps in the public domain
    Strategic Petroleum Reserves. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_Petroleum_Reserve
    Troop placements. motherjones.com
    Map of the city of Babylon. Combination of Unger and other maps
    Ancient Europe. URL: http://www.friesian.com/francia.htm
    Paul's Missionary Journeys. A combination of maps from the NASB and other sources.
    Verneshot. URL: http://www.meta-religion.com/Archaeology/Other/verneshot_cause_of_dinosuars.htm
    Migration of Early Civilizations URL: http://www.friesian.com/upan.htm
    List of largest empires. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_empires
    Foreign Occupation Of Israel. URL: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/History+of+Israel/HISTORY-%20Foreign%20Domination