Religious And Moral Law

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Laws define our rights and duties and the processes by which complaints and punishment can be addressed. All countries have laws, the most enlightened try to separate the church and the state, the Roman Catholic church also has laws that appear to govern church and state because they see themselves as having the right to govern in both arenas.

Laws separating the church and state are not meant to be hostile to either, rather they are an attempt to protect one from the other. History has clearly demonstrated that when the two are combined in any sort of government other than a theocracy, that no one is safe.

The Constitution Of The United States Of America
States the general purpose of the Constitution:
"We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
Article I. Places legislative power in a Congress composed of a Senate and House of Representatives, prescribes method of electing Congress, and empowers each house to establish its own procedural rules. Process of legislation from Congress to President is generally described. Section VIII grants Congress specific powers, e.g., to declare war. Section IX limits Congress's powers, forbidding, e.g., ex post facto laws. Section X limits powers of states and makes some state actions dependent on Congressional consent.
Article II. Creates Executive branch of government, headed by President and Vice President. Establishes Electoral College, prescribes election process, qualifications, and manner of succession when a president is incapacitated. Section II enumerates President's powers as military commander-in-chief and in foreign affairs. Section III governs President's working relations with Congress and grants President administrative power. Section IV governs impeachment of a President.
Article III. Vests all judicial power in a Supreme Court. Congress may establish inferior courts. Section II defines the extent of federal jurisdiction and distinguishes cases in which federal jurisdiction is original, e.g., cases between states, from those in which federal courts can hear only appeals. Section III defines, and limits prosecution for, Treason.
Article IV. Governs relations between states, prescribing full faith and credit for one another's laws, equal treatment of citizens of all states, and extradition procedures. Section III governs admission of states to the Union and administration of federal territories and property. Section IV guarantees a republican (see Republic) form of government to every state.
Article V. Governs the process of amending the Constitution.
Article VI. Establishes the Constitution as the supreme law of the land. Federal and state office holders shall be bound to support the Constitution; no religious test may be required for office.
Article VII. States that the Constitution shall take effect when nine (of the thirteen) states have ratified it.

Amendments To The Constitution
The Bill Of Rights
The first ten amendments are the bill of rights.
Right 1The four freedoms (worship, speech, press, assembly)
Right 2Right to bear arms
Right 3Private property
No right 4Unreasonable search and seizure
Right 5Double jeopardy
No right 6Speedy and fair trial
No right 7Jury trial
No right 8Excessive bail or torture
Right 9All other rights to the people
Right 10All other rights to the states
No right Without a formal process of constitutional change, the Patriot Act has made these rights null and void.
Some of the remaining rights have been taken away by other laws designed to support business or politics.
  1. Amendment I (1791). First of the Bill of Rights amendments (I-IX); prohibits government established religion; guarantees freedom of worship, of speech, of the press, of assembly and to petition the government.
  2. Amendment II (1791). For the purpose of maintaining a well-regulated militia, preserves the right to keep and bear arms.
  3. Amendment III (1791). Prohibits peacetime quartering of troops in private dwellings without owners' consent.
  4. Amendment IV (1791). Guarantees against unreasonable search and seizure.
  5. Amendment V (1791). Guarantees against violations of due process in criminal proceedings. No person may be compelled to testify against himself. Grand jury process is required for criminal Indictment. Double Jeopardy is prohibited. Public taking of private Property without just compensation is prohibited.
  6. Amendment VI (1791). Guarantees speedy, fair trial, impartial jury, right to counsel in all criminal cases.
  7. Amendment VII (1791). Guarantees jury trial in all major civil (noncriminal) cases, and prohibits retrial of adjudicated matters.
  8. Amendment VIII (1791). Prohibits excessive bail or fines and cruel and unusual punishment.
  9. Amendment IX (1791). Declares that the enumeration of certain rights in the Constitution does not imply that the people do not retain all other rights.
  10. Amendment X (1791). Reserves to the states powers that the Constitution does not give to the federal government or prohibit to the states.
  11. Amendment XI (1798). Declares that the federal courts may not try any case brought against a state by a citizen of another state or country.
  12. Amendment XII (1804). Revises presidential and vice presidential election rules.
  13. Amendment XIII (1865). First of three "Civil War" amendments; prohibits slavery.
  14. Amendment XIV (1868). Defines Unites States citizenship. Prohibits states from violating due process (see Amendment V) or equal protection of the law.
  15. Amendment XV (1870). Guarantees rights of citizens against Unites States or state infringement based on race, color, or previous servitude.
  16. Amendment XVI (1913). Authorizes a federal Income Tax.
  17. Amendment XVII (1913). Provides for direct popular election of Senators.
  18. Amendment XVIII (1919). Makes Prohibition federal law.
  19. Amendment XIX (1920). Guarantees women the vote in state and unites States elections.
  20. Amendment XX (1933). Changes Congressional terms of office and the inauguration date of the President and Vice President; clarifies succession to the presidency.
  21. Amendment XXI (1933). Repeals Amendment XVIII, ends prohibition.
  22. Amendment XXII (1951). Limits presidential tenure to two terms.
  23. Amendment XXIII (1961). Permits District of Columbia residents to vote for President and Vice President.
  24. Amendment XXIV (1964). Outlaws the Poll Tax in all federal elections and primaries.
  25. Amendment XXV (1967). Provides for procedures to fill vacancies in the Vice Presidency; further clarifies presidential succession rules.
  26. Amendment XXVI (1971). Lowers voting age in federal and state election to eighteen.
  27. Amendment XXVII (1992). Postpones until after the next Congressional election the effect of any law that alters the compensation of members of Congress.

France: Declaration Of The Rights Of Man And Of The Citizen
This law was enacted on August 26, 1789 during the French Revolution and the authors got some inspiration from the United States constitution.

The Representatives of the French People, formed into a National Assembly, considering ignorance, the lapse of memory or contempt of the rights of man to be the sole causes of public misfortunes and the corruption of Governments, have resolved to set forth, in a solemn Declaration, the natural, inalienable and sacred rights of man, to the end that this Declaration, constantly present to all members of the body politic, may remind them unceasingly of their rights and their duties; to the end that the acts of the legislative power and those of the executive power, since they may be at every moment [continually] compared with the aim of every political institution, may thereby be the more respected; to the end that the demands of the citizens, founded henceforth on simple and incontestable principles, may always be directed toward the maintenance of the Constitution and the happiness of all. Consequently, the National Assembly recognizes and declares, in presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of the man and the citizen.
Article 1 Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. The social distinctions can be founded only on the common utility.
Article 2 The goal of any political association is the conservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of the man. These rights are {personal} freedom [liberty], the {ownership of} property, {personal} safety and resistance [the ability to resist] to oppression.
Article 3 The principle of any sovereignty lies primarily in the nation as a whole. No body nor individual can exert authority which does not emanate from it expressly.
Article 4 Freedom consists in being able to do all that does not harm others. Thus, the exercise of the natural rights of each man has limits only to the extent of those which ensure that the other members of society obtain the pleasure of these same rights. These limits can be determined only by the law.
Article 5 The law has the right to proscribe the actions harmful of society. All that is not forbidden by the law cannot be prevented, and no one can be constrained to do what the law does not specifically order.
Article 6 The law is the overt expression of the general will. All the citizens have the right to contribute {to the legislative process} personally, or by their representatives, to the formation of law. The law must be the same one for all, either that it protects, or that it punishes. All the citizens being equal in its eyes are also acceptable by all dignitaries, in all places and in all measure of public employment, according to their capacity and without other distinction than that of their virtues and their talents.
Article 7 No man can be indicted, be arrested or detained [in custody] except under those circumstances determined by the law, and according to its forms which are prescribed. Those which solicit, dispatch, carry out or make others carry out arbitrary commands must be punished; but any citizen summoned or seized under the terms of the law must obey immediately: he makes himself guilty by resistance.
Article 8 The law should establish only such strict penalties as are obviously necessary; and, no person can be punished except under the terms of a law established and promulgated before the offence, and which is legally applicable.
Article 9 Every man is supposed innocent until having been declared guilty; {but,} if it be considered essential to arrest, any action, which is not necessary to secure the person, must be severely repressed at law.
Article 10 No person should fear for expressing opinions, even religious ones, provided that the manifestation of their opinion [advocacy] does not disturb the established law and order.
Article 11 The free communication of thought and the opinion is one of the most invaluable rights of the man: any citizen can thus speak, write, print freely, except that he must answer for his abuse this freedom in such cases determined by the law.
Article 12 The guarantee of human rights and of the citizen requires a police force: this force is thus instituted for the advantage of all, and not just for the particular utility of those {officials} to which it is entrusted.
Article 13 For the maintenance of the police force, and for the expenditure of administration, a common contribution{tax} is essential: it must be also distributed between all the citizens, respective of their faculties {to pay such taxes}.
Article 14 All citizens have the right to vote, by themselves or through their representatives, for the need for the public contribution, to agree to it voluntarily, to allow implementation of it, and to determine its appropriation, the {amount of} assessment, its collection and its duration.
Article 15 Society has the right to require an account by any public agent of their administration.
Article 16 Any society in which the guarantee of {human} rights is not assured, nor the separation of powers set forth, has no {legal} constitution.
Article 17 Property {rights} being inviolable and sacred, one cannot lose the private use of property, if there is no public necessity, legally noted, required obviously, and under the condition of a just reimbursment as a predicate {to the taking}.

England: The Magna Charta
John, by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and count of Anjou, to the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, justiciars, foresters, sheriffs, stewards, servants, and to all his bailiffs and liege subjects, greeting.

Know that, having regard to God and for the salvation of our soul, and those of all our ancestors and heirs, and unto the honor of God and the advancement of holy church, and for the reform of our realm, by advice of our venerable fathers, Stephen archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England and cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Henry archbishop of Dublin, William of London, Peter of Winchester, Jocelyn of Bath and Glastonbury, Hugh of Lincoln, Walter of Worcester, William of Coventry, Benedict of Rochester, bishops; of master Pandulf, subdeacon and member of the household of our lord the Pope, of brother Aymeric (master of the Knights of the Temple in England), and of the illustrious men William Marshall earl of Pembroke, William earl of Salisbury, William earl of Warenne, William earl of Arundel, Alan of Galloway (constable of Scotland), Waren Fitz Gerald, Peter Fits Herbert, Hubert de Burgh (seneschal of Poitou), Hugh de Neville, Matthew Fitz Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip d'Aubigny, Robert of Roppesley, John Marshall, John Fitz Hugh, and others, our liegemen.
1. In the first place we have granted to God, and by this our present charter confirmed for us and our heirs for ever that the English church shall be free, and shall have her rights entire, and her liberties inviolate; and we will that it be thus observed; which is apparent from this that the freedom of elections, which is reckoned most important and very essential to the English church, we, of our pure and unconstrained will, did grant, and did by our charter confirm and did obtain the ratification of the same from our lord, Pope Innocent III., before the quarrel arose between us and our barons: and this we will observe, and our will is that it be observed in good faith by our heirs for ever. We have also granted to all freemen of our kingdom, for us and our heirs for ever, all the underwritten liberties, to be had and held by them and their heirs, of us and our heirs for ever.

2. If any of our earls or barons, or others holding of us in chief by military service shall have died, and at the time of his death his heir shall be of full age and owe "relief" he shall have his inheritance on payment of the ancient relief, namely the heir or heirs of an earl, 100 pounds for a whole earl's barony; the heir or heirs of a baron, 100 pounds for a whole barony; the heir or heirs of a knight, 100 shillings at most for a whole knight's fee; and whoever owes less let him give less, according to the ancient custom of fiefs.

3. If, however, the heir of any of the previously said has been under age and in wardship, let him have his inheritance without relief and without fine when he comes of age.

4. The guardian of the land of an heir who is thus under age, shall take from the land of the heir nothing but reasonably produce, reasonable customs, and reasonable services, and that without destruction or waste of men or goods; and if we have committed the wardship of the lands of any such minor to the sheriff, or to any other who is responsible to us for its issues, and he has made destruction or waste of what he holds in wardship, we will take of him amends, and the land shall be committed to two lawful and discreet men of that fee, who shall be responsible for the issues to us or to him to whom we shall assign them; and if we have given or sold the wardship of any such land to anyone and he has therein made destruction or waste, he shall lose that wardship, and it shall be transferred to two lawful and discreet men of that fief, who shall be responsible to us in like manner as previously said.

5. The guardian, moreover, so long as he has the wardship of the land, shall keep up the houses, parks, fish ponds, stanks, mills, and other things pertaining to the land, out of the issues of the same land; and he shall restore to the heir, when he has come to full age, all his land, stocked with ploughs and "waynage, " according as the season of husbandry shall require, and the issues of the land can reasonably bear. 6. Heirs shall be married without disparagement, yet so that before the marriage takes place the nearest in blood to that heir shall have notice.

7. A widow, after the death of her husband, shall immediately and without difficulty have her marriage portion and inheritance; nor shall she give anything for her dower, or for her marriage portion, or for the inheritance which her husband and she held on the day of the death of that husband; and she may remain in the house of her husband for forty days after his death, within which time her dower shall be assigned to her.

8. No widow shall be compelled to marry, so long as she prefers to live without a husband; provided always that she gives security not to marry without our consent, if she holds of us, or without the consent of the lord of whom she holds, if she holds of another.

9. Neither we nor our bailiffs shall seize any land or rent for any debt, so long as the chattels of the debtor are sufficient to repay the debt; nor shall the sureties of the debtor be distrained so long as the principal debtor is able to satisfy the debt; and if the principal debtor shall fail to pay the debt, having nothing with which to pay it, then the sureties shall answer for the debt; and let them have the lands and rents of the debtor, if they desire them, until they are indemnified for the debt which they have paid for him, unless the principal debtor can show proof that he is discharged thereof as against the said sureties.

10. If one who has borrowed from the Jews any sum, great or small, die before that loan can be repaid, the debt shall not bear interest while the heir sunder age, of whoever he may hold; and if the debt fall into our hands, we will not take anything except the principal sum contained in the bond.

11. And if any one die indebted to the Jews, his wife shall have her dower and pay nothing of that debt; and if any children of the deceased are left underage, necessaries shall be provided for them in keeping with the holding of the deceased; and out of the residue the debt shall be paid, reserving, however, service due to feudal lords; in like manner let it be done touching debts due to others than Jews.

12. No scutage nor aid shall be imposed on our kingdom, unless by common counsel of our kingdom, except for ransoming our person, for making our eldest son a knight, and for once marrying our eldest daughter; and for these there shall not be levied more than a reasonable aid. In like manner it shall be done concerning aids from the city of London.

13. And the city of London shall have all its ancient liberties and free customs, as well by land as by water; furthermore, we decree and grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns, and ports shall have all their liberties and free customs.

14. And for obtaining the common counsel of the kingdom anent the assessing of an aid (except in the three cases previously said) or of a scutage, we will cause to be summoned the archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and greater barons, severally by our letters; and we will moreover cause to be summoned generally, through our sheriffs and bailiffs, all others who hold of us in chief, for a fixed date, namely, after the expiry of at least forty days, and at a fixed place; and in all letters of such summons we will specify the reason of the summons. And when the summons has thus been made, the business shall proceed on the day appointed, according to the counsel of such as are present, although not all who were summoned have come.

15. We will not for the future grant to any one license to take an aid from his own free tenants, except to ransom his body, to make his eldest son a knight, and once to marry his eldest daughter; and on each of these occasions there shall be levied only a reasonable aid.

16. No one shall be distrained for performance of greater service for a knight's fee, or for any other free tenement, than is due therefrom.

17. Common pleas shall not follow our court, but shall be held in some fixed place.

18. Inquests of novel disseisin, of mort d'ancester, and of darrein presentment, shall not be held elsewhere than in their own county courts and that in manner following, -- We, or, if we should be out of the realm, our chief justiciar, will send two justiciars through every county four times a year, who shall, along with four knights of the county chosen by the county, hold the said assize in the county court, on the day and in the place of meeting of that court.

19. And if any of the said assizes cannot be taken on the day of the county court, let there remain of the knights and freeholders, who were present at the county court on that day, as many as may be required for the efficient making of judgments, according as the business be more or less.

20. A freeman shall not be amerced for a slight offense, except in accordance with the degree of the offense; and for a grave offense he shall be amerced in accordance with the gravity of the offense, yet saving always his "contenement;" and a merchant in the same way, saving his "merchandise;" and a villein shall be amerced in the same way, saving his "wainage" -- if they have fallen into our mercy: and none of the previously said amercements shall be imposed except by the oath of honest men of the neighborhood.

21. Earls and barons shall not be amerced except through their peers, and only in accordance with the degree of the offense.

22. A clerk shall not be amerced in respect of his lay holding except after the manner of the others previously said; further, he shall not be amerced in accordance with the extent of his ecclesiastical benefice.

23. No village or individual shall be compelled to make bridges at river-banks, except those who from of old were legally bound to do so.

24. No sheriff, constable, coroners, or others of our bailiffs, shall hold pleas of our Crown.

25. All counties, hundreds, wapentakes, and trithings (except our demesne manors) shall remain at old rents, and without any additional payment.

26. If any one holding of us a lay fief shall die, and our sheriff or bailiff shall exhibit our letters patent of summons for a debt which the deceased owe to us, it shall be lawful for our sheriff or bailiff to attach and catalogue chattels of the deceased, found upon the lay fief, to the value of that debt, at the sight of law worthy men, provided always that nothing whatever be thence removed until the debt which is evident shall be fully paid to us; and the residue shall be left to the executors to fulfil the will of the deceased; and if there be nothing due from him to us, all the chattels shall go to the deceased, saving to his wife and children their reasonable shares.

27. If any freeman shall die intestate, his chattels shall be distributed by the hands of his nearest kinsfolk and friends, under supervision of the church, saving to everyone the debts which the deceased owed to him.

28. No constable or other bailiff of ours shall take corn or other provisions from any one without immediately tendering money therefore, unless he can have postponement thereof by permission of the seller.

29. No constable shall compel any knight to give money in lieu of castle-guard, when he is willing to perform it in his own person, or (if he cannot do it from any reasonable cause) then by another responsible man. Further, if we have led or sent him upon military service, he shall be relieved from guard in proportion to the time during which he has been on service because of us.

30. No sheriff or bailiff of ours, or other person, shall take the horses or carts of any freeman for transport duty, against the will of the said freeman.

31. Neither we nor our bailiffs shall take, for our castles or for any other work of ours, wood which is not ours, against the will of the owner of that wood.

32. We will not retain beyond one year and one day, the lands of those who have been convicted of felony, and the lands shall thereafter be handed over to the lords of the fiefs.

33. All kiddles for the future shall be removed altogether from Thames and Medway, and throughout all England, except upon the seashore.

34. The writ which is called praecipe shall not for the future be issued to any one, regarding any tenement whereby a freeman may lose his court.

35. Let there be one measure of wine throughout our whole realm; and one measure of ale; and one measure of corn, to wit, "the London quarter;" and one width of cloth (whether dyed, or russet, or "halberget"), to wit, two ellswithin the selvages; of weights also let it be as of measures.

36. Nothing in future shall be given or taken for a writ of inquisition of life or limbs, but freely it shall be granted, and never denied.

37. If any one holds of us by fee farm, by socage, or by burgage, and holds also land of another lord by knight's service, we will not (by reason of that fee farm, socage, or burgage) have the wardship of the heir, or of such land of his as is of the fief of that other; nor shall we have wardship of that fee farm, socage, or burgage, unless such fee farm owes knight's service. We will not by reason of any small serjeanty which any one may hold of us by the service of rendering to us knives, arrows, or the like, have wardship of his heir of of the land which he holds of another lord by knight's service.

38. No bailiff for the future shall, upon his own unsupported complaint, put any one to his "law, " without credible witnesses brought for this purpose.

39. No freeman shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised or exiled or in anyway destroyed, nor will we go upon him nor send upon him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.

40. To no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay, right or justice.

41. All merchants shall have safe and secure exit from England, and entry to England, with the right to tarry there and to move about as well by land as by water, for buying and selling by the ancient and right customs, quit from all evil tolls, except (in time of war) such merchants as are of the land at war with us. And if such are found in our land at the beginning of the war, they shall be detained, without injury to their bodies or goods, until information be received by us, or by our chief justiciar, how the merchants of our land found in the land at war with us are treated; and if our men are safe there, the others shall be safe in our land.

42. It shall be lawful in future for any one (excepting always those imprisoned or outlawed in accordance with the law of the kingdom, and natives of any country at war with us, and merchants, who shall be treated as is above provided) to leave our kingdom and to return, safe and secure by land and water, except for a short period in time of war, on grounds of public policy -- reserving always the allegiance due to us.

43. If any one holding of some escheat (such as the honor of Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster, or of other escheats which are in our hands and are baronies) shall die, his heir shall give no other relief, and perform no other service to us than he would have done to the baron, if that barony had been in the baron's hand; and we shall hold it in the same manner in which the baron held it.

44. Men who dwell without the forest need not henceforth come before our justiciars of the forest upon a general summons, except those who are impleaded, or who have become sureties for any person or persons attached for forest offenses.

45. We will appoint as justices, constables, sheriffs, or bailiffs only such as know the law of the realm and mean to observe it well.

46. All barons who have founded abbeys, concerning which they hold charters from the kings of England, or of which they have long-continued possession, shall have the wardship of them, when vacant, as they ought to have.

47. All forests that have been made such in our time shall immediately be disafforested; and a similar course shall be followed with regard to river banks that have been placed "in defense" by us in our time.

48. All evil customs connected with forests and warrens, foresters and warreners, sheriffs and their officers, river banks and their wardens, shall immediately be inquired into in each county by twelve sworn knights of the same county chosen by the honest men of the same county, and shall, within forty days of the said inquest, be utterly abolished, so as never to be restored, provided always that we previously have intimation thereof, or our justiciar, if we should not be in England.

49. We will immediately restore all hostages and charters delivered to us by Englishmen, as sureties of the peace or of faithful service.

50. We will entirely remove from their bailiwicks, the relations of Gerard Athee (so that in future they shall have no bailiwick in England); namely, Engelard of Cigogne, Peter, Guy, and Andrew of Chanceaux, Guy of Cigogne, Geoffrey of Martigny with his brothers, Philip Mark with his brothers and his nephew Geoffrey, and the whole brood of the same.

51. As soon as peace is restored, we will banish from the kingdom all foreign born knights, crossbow men, sergeants, and mercenary soldiers, who have come with horses and arms to the kingdom's hurt.

52. If any one has been dispossessed or removed by us, without the legal judgment of his peers, from his lands, castles, franchises, or from his right, we will immediately restore them to him; and if a dispute arise over this, then let it be decided by the twenty five barons of whom mention is made below in the clause for securing the peace. Moreover, for all those possessions, from which any one has, without the lawful judgment of his peers, been disseised or removed, by our father, King Henry, or by our brother, King Richard, and which we retain in our hand (or which are possessed by others, to whom we are bound to warrant them) we shall have respite until the usual term of crusaders; excepting those things about which a plea has been raised, or an inquest made by our order, before our taking of the cross; but as soon as we return from our expedition (or if perhaps we desist from the expedition) we will immediately grant full justice therein.

53. We shall have, moreover, the same respite and in the same manner in rendering justice concerning the disafforestation or retention of those forests which Henry our father and Richard our brother afforested, and concerning wardship of lands which are of the fief of another (namely, such wardships as we have hitherto had by reason of a fief which any one held of us by knight's service), and concerning abbeys founded on other fiefs than our own, in which the lord of the fief claims to have right; and when we have returned, or if we desist from our expedition, we will immediately grant full justice to all who complain of such things.

54. No one shall be arrested or imprisoned upon the appeal of a woman, for the death of any other than her husband.

55. All fines made with us unjustly and against the law of the land, and all amercements imposed unjustly and against the law of the land, shall be entirely remitted, or else it shall be done concerning them according to the decision of the twenty five barons of whom mention is made below in the clause for securing the peace, or according to the judgment of the majority of the same, along with the previously said Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, if he can be present, and such others as he may wish to bring with him for this purpose, and if he cannot be present the business shall nevertheless proceed without him, provided always that if any one or more of the previously said twenty five barons are in a similar suit, they shall be removed as far as concerns this particular judgment, others being substituted in their places after having been selected by the rest of the same twenty five for this purpose only, and after having been sworn.

56. If we have disseised or removed Welshmen from lands or liberties, or other things, without the legal judgment of their peers in England or in Wales, they shall be immediately restored to them; and if a dispute arise over this, then let it be decided in the marches by the judgment of their peers; for tenements in England according to the law of England, for tenements in Wales according to the law of Wales, and for tenements in the marches according to the law of the marches. Welshmen shall do the same to us and ours.

57. Further, for all those possessions from which any Welshman has, without the lawful judgment of his peers, been disseised or removed by King Henry our father or King Richard our brother, and which we retain in our hand (or which are possessed by others, to whom we are bound to warrant them) we shall have respite until the usual term of crusaders; excepting those things about which a plea has been raised or an inquest made by our order before we took the cross; but as soon as we return (or if perhaps we desist from our expedition), we will immediately grant full justice in accordance with the laws of the Welsh and in relation to the previously said regions.

58. We will immediately give up the son of Llywelyn and all the hostages of Wales, and the charters delivered to us as security for the peace.

59. We will do toward Alexander, King of Scots, concerning the return of his sisters and his hostages, and concerning his franchises, and his right, in the same manner as we shall do toward our other barons of England, unless it ought to be otherwise according to the charters which we hold from William his father, formerly King of Scots; and this shall be according to the judgment of his peers in our court.

60. Moreover, all these previously said customs and liberties, the observance of which we have granted in our kingdom as far as pertains to us toward our men, shall be observed by all of our kingdom, as well clergy as laymen, as far as pertains to them toward their men.

61. Since, moreover, for God and the amendment of our kingdom and for the better allaying of the quarrel that has arisen between us and our barons, We have granted all these concessions, desirous that they should enjoy them incomplete and firm endurance for ever, we give and grant to them the underwritten security, namely, that the barons choose twenty five barons of the kingdom, whoever they will, who shall be bound with all their might, to observe and hold, and cause to be observed, the peace and liberties we have granted and confirmed to them by this our present Charter, so that if we, or our justiciar, or our bailiffs or any one of our officers, shall in anything be at fault toward any one, or shall have broken any one of the articles of the peace or of this security, and the offense be notified to four barons of the previously said twenty five, the said four barons shall repair to us (or our justiciar, if we are out of the realm) and, laying the transgression before us, petition to have that transgression redressed without delay.

And if we shall not have corrected the transgression (or, in the event of our being out of the realm, if our justiciar shall not have corrected it) within forty days, reckoning from the time it has been intimated to us (or to our justiciar, if we should be out of the realm), the four barons previously said shall refer that matter to the rest of the twenty five barons, and those twenty five barons shall, together with the community of the whole land, distrain and distress us in all possible ways, namely, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, and in any other way they can, until redress has been obtained as they deem fit, saving harmless our own person, and the persons of our queen and children; and when redress has been obtained, they shall resume their old relations toward us.

And let whoever in the country desires it, swear to obey the orders of the said twenty five barons for the execution of all the previously said matters, and along with them, to molest us to the utmost of his power; and we publicly and freely grant leave to everyone who wishes to swear, and we shall never forbid any one to swear. All those, moreover, in the land who of themselves and of their own accord are unwilling to swear to the twenty five to help them in constraining and molesting us, we shall by our command compel the same to swear to the effect previously said. And if any one of the twenty five shall have died or departed from the land, or be incapacitated in any other manner which would prevent the previously said provisions being carried out, those of the said twenty five barons who are left shall choose another in his place according to their own judgment, and he shall be sworn in the same way as the others.

Further, in all matters, the execution of which is intrusted to these twenty five barons, if perhaps these twenty five are present, that which the majority of those present ordain or command shall be held as fixed and established, exactly as if the whole twenty five had concurred in this; and the said twenty five shall swear that they will faithfully observe all that is previously said, and cause it to be observed with all their might. And we shall procure nothing from any one, directly or indirectly, whereby any part of these concessions and liberties might be revoked or diminished; and if any such thing has been procured, let it be void and null, and we shall never use it personally or by another.

62. And all the ill will, hatreds, and bitterness that have arisen between us and our men, clergy and lay, from the date of the quarrel, we have completely remitted and pardoned everyone. Moreover, all trespasses occasioned by the said quarrel, from Easter in the sixteenth year of our reign till the restoration of peace, we have fully remitted to all, both clergy and laymen, and completely forgiven, as far as pertains to us. And, on this head, we have caused to be made for them letters testimonial patent of the lord Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, of the lord Henry, archbishop of Dublin, of the bishops previously said, and of Master Pandulf as touching this security and the concessions previously said.

63. Therefore it is our will, and we firmly enjoin, that the English Church be free, and that the men in our kingdom have and hold all the previously said liberties, rights, and concessions, well and peaceably, freely and quietly, fully and wholly, for themselves and their heirs, of us and our heirs, in all respects and in all places for ever, as is previously said. An oath, moreover, has been taken, as well on our part as on the part of the barons, that all these conditions previously said shall be kept in good faith and without evil intent. Given under our hand -- the above named and many others being witnesses -- in the meadow which is called Runnymede, between Windsor and Staines, on the fifteenth day of June, in the seventeenth year of our reign.

Canon Law: The Laws Of The Roman Catholic Church
These are some of the laws of the Roman Catholic church as of 2001. Apparently, the numbering system used is not maintained when old laws are removed and new ones adopted. Therefore Canon law 29 might not be the same law 300 years ago. I need to do more research on this.

Definitions Topic
In 1998, Pope John Paul II authored "Ad Tuendam Fidem" to enforce the "common adherence of Christ's faithful under the guidance of the sacred Magisterium" in regards to Church teachings. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (formerly known as the Office of the Inquisition), released a commentary letter outlining specific examples.
  • Heresy - Denial of any part of these doctrines:
    • Dogmas about Christ
    • Dogmas about Mary
    • The doctrine of the institution of the sacraments by Christ and their efficacy with regard to grace. (Salvation by Works).
    • The doctrine of the real and substantial presence of Christ in the Eucharist
    • The foundation of the [ Catholic ] Church by the will of Christ
    • The doctrine on the primacy and infallibility of the Roman Pontiff
    • The doctrine on the existence of original sin
    • The doctrine on the immortality of the spiritual soul
    • The doctrine on the immediate recompense after death
    • The absence of error in the inspired sacred texts
    • The doctrine on the grave immorality of direct and voluntary killing of an innocent human being.
  • Lack of full communion with the Church - Denial of any part of these doctrines:
    • The development in the understanding of the doctrine connected with the definition of papal infallibility.
    • The legitimacy of the election of the Supreme Pontiff (Canon Law 349)
    • The canonizations of saints
    • The declaration ... on the invalidity of Anglican ordinations
    • Male priesthood, ecumenical councils, euthanasia, prostitution and fornication.
The Severity of Punishment :
  • Excommunication - exclusion from the sacraments, especially the communion. The sentence was often accompanied with awful curses upon the bodies and souls of the offender. In some Catholic states (Charlemagne ) it has been accompanied by civil penalties, imprisonment and seizure of property.
  • Anathema - The "greater" excommunication. It excludes them from all Christian activity and makes the offender an outlaw. The Council of Nicaea, 335, anathematized the Arians, and the Council of Trent, 1563, closed with three anathemas on all heretics.
  • Interdict - Can be against an individual but it can extended over a whole town or diocese or district or country, and involved the innocent with the guilty. It was a suspension of any public exercise of religion, including even the rites of marriage and burial. Only baptism and extreme unction could be performed; and only behind closed doors. It cast the gloom of a funeral over a country, and made people tremble in expectation of the last judgment.
The length of Punishment :
  • ferendae sententiae - A punishment is not binding upon the offender until it has been imposed.
  • latae sententiae - A punishment is incurred automatically upon the commission of an offence.
Canon Section Topic
Canon 331 The office uniquely committed by the Lord to Peter, the first of the Apostles, and to be transmitted to his successors, abides in the Bishop of the Church of Rome. He is the head of the College of Bishops, the Vicar of Christ, and the Pastor of the universal Church here on earth. Consequently, by virtue of his office, he has supreme, full, immediate and universal ordinary power in the Church, and he can always freely exercise this power. Legitimacy of the election of the Pope
Canon 349 The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church constitute a special College, whose prerogative it is to elect the Roman Pontiff in accordance with the norms of a special law. The Cardinals are also available to the Roman Pontiff, either acting collegially, when they are summoned together to deal with questions of major importance, or acting individually, that is, in the offices which they hold in assisting the Roman Pontiff especially in the daily care of the universal Church. Legitimacy of the election of the Pope
Canon 747
  1. It is the obligation and inherent right of the Church, independent of any human authority, to preach the Gospel to all peoples, using for this purpose even its own means of social communication, for it is to the Church that Christ the Lord entrusted the deposit of faith, so that by the assistance of the Holy Spirit, it might conscientiously guard revealed truth, more intimately penetrate it, and faithfully proclaim and expound it.
  2. The Church has the right always and everywhere to proclaim moral principles, even in respect of the social order, and to make judgements about any human matter in so far as this is required by fundamental human rights or the salvation of souls.
Global Evangelism
Canon 749
  1. In virtue of his office the Supreme Pontiff is infallible in his teaching when, as chief Shepherd and Teacher of all Christ's faithful, with the duty of strengthening his brethren in the faith, he proclaims by definitive act a doctrine to be held concerning faith or morals.
  2. The College of Bishops also possesses infallibility in its teaching when the Bishops, gathered together in an Ecumenical Council and exercising their magisterium as teachers and judges of faith and morals, definitively declare for the universal Church a doctrine to be held concerning faith or morals; likewise, when the Bishops, dispersed throughout the world but maintaining the bond of union among themselves and with the successor of Peter, together with the same Roman Pontiff authentically teach matters of faith or morals, and are agreed that a particular teaching is definitively to be held.
  3. No doctrine is understood to be infallibly defined unless this is manifestly demonstrated.
Canon 750 Those things are to be believed by divine and Catholic faith which are contained in the word of God as it has been written or handed down by tradition, that is, in the single deposit of faith entrusted to the Church, and which are at the same time proposed as divinely revealed either by the solemn magisterium of the Church, or by its ordinary and universal magisterium, which is manifested by the common adherence of Christ's faithful under the guidance of the sacred magisterium. All are therefore bound to shun any contrary doctrines. Tradition and the word of God
Canon 751 Heresy is the obstinate denial or doubt, after baptism, of a truth which must be believed by divine and Catholic faith. Apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith. Schism is the withdrawal of submission to the Supreme Pontiff or from communion with the members of the Church subject to him. Heresy, apostasy, schism
Canon 752 While the assent of faith is not required, a religious submission of intellect and will is to be given to any doctrine which either the Supreme Pontiff or the College of Bishops, exercising their authentic magisterium, declare upon a matter of faith or morals, even though they do not intend to proclaim that doctrine by definitive act. Christ's faithful are therefore to ensure that they avoid whatever does not accord with that doctrine. Submission to doctrine declared by the bishops
Canon 753 Whether they teach individually, or in Episcopal Conferences, or gathered together in particular councils, Bishops in communion with the head and the members of the College, while not infallible in their teaching, are the authentic instructors and teachers of the faith for Christ's faithful entrusted to their care. The faithful are bound to adhere, with a religious submission of mind, to this authentic magisterium of their Bishops. Bishops are the only authentic teachers
Canon 755
  1. It pertains especially to the entire College of Bishops and to the Apostolic See to foster and direct among Catholics the ecumenical movement, the purpose of which is the restoration of unity between all Christians which, by the will of Christ, the Church is bound to promote.
  2. It is a matter likewise for Bishops and, in accordance with the law, for Episcopal Conferences, to promote this same unity and, in line with the various needs and opportunities of the circumstances, to issue practical norms which accord with the provisions laid down by the supreme authority of the Church.
Ecumenical movement
Canon 793
  1. Parents, and those who take their place, have both the obligation and the right to educate their children. Catholic parents have also the duty and the right to choose those means and institutes which, in their local circumstances, can best promote the Catholic education of their children.
  2. Parents have moreover the right to avail themselves of that assistance from civil society which they need to provide a Catholic education for their children.
Canon 794
  1. The Church has in a special way the duty and the right of educating, for it has a divine mission of helping all to arrive at the fullness of Christian life.
  2. Pastors of souls have the duty of making all possible arrangements so that all the faithful may avail themselves of a Catholic education.
Canon 797 Parents must have a real freedom in their choice of schools. For this reason Christ's faithful must be watchful that the civil society acknowledges this freedom of parents and, in accordance with the requirements of distributive justice, even provides them with assistance. Education
Canon 798 Parents are to send their children to those schools which will provide for their Catholic education. If they cannot do this, they are bound to ensure the proper Catholic education of their children outside the school. Education
Canon 799 Christ's faithful are to strive to secure that in the civil society the laws which regulate the formation of the young, also provide a religious and moral education in the schools that is in accord with the conscience of the parents. All public education must be Catholic
Canon 1311 The Church has its own inherent right to constrain with penal sanctions Christ's faithful who commit offences. Disobedience
Canon 1314 A penalty is for the most part ferendae sententiae, that is, not binding upon the offender until it has been imposed. It is, however, latae sententiae, so that it is incurred automatically upon the commission of an offence, if a law or precept expressly lays this down. Penalties
Canon 1366 Parents, and those taking the place of parents, who hand over their children to be baptized or brought up in a non-Catholic religion, are to be punished with a censure or other just penalty. Non-Catholic education or conversion
Canon 1370
  1. A person who uses physical force against the Roman Pontiff incurs a latae sententiae excommunication reserved to the Apostolic See; if the offender is a cleric, another penalty, not excluding dismissal from the clerical state, may be added according to the gravity of the crime.
  2. One who does this against a Bishop incurs a latae sententiae interdict and, if a cleric, he incurs also a latae sententiae suspension.
  3. A person who uses physical force against a cleric or religious out of contempt for the faith, or the Church, or ecclesiastical authority or the ministry, is to be punished with a just penalty.
Use of physical force against a priest
Canon 1371 The following are to be punished with a just penalty:
  1. A person who, apart from the case mentioned in Canon 1364 number 1, teaches a doctrine condemned by the Roman Pontiff, or by an Ecumenical Council, or obstinately rejects the teaching mentioned in Canon 752 and, when warned by the Apostolic See or by the Ordinary, does not retract;
  2. a person who in any other way does not obey the lawful command or prohibition of the Apostolic See or the Ordinary or Superior and, after being warned, persists in disobedience.
Disobedience must be punished
Canon 1372 A person who appeals from an act of the Roman Pontiff to an Ecumenical Council or to the College of Bishops, is to be punished with a censure. Punished for appealing
Canon 1373 A person who publicly incites his or her subjects to hatred or animosity against the Apostolic See or the Ordinary because of some act of ecclesiastical authority or ministry, or who provokes the subjects to disobedience against them, is to be punished by interdict or other just penalties. Punish those who incite hatred or disobedience against the church
Canon 1374 A person who joins an association which plots against the Church is to be punished with a just penalty - one who promotes or takes office in such an association is to be punished with an interdict. Anti-Catholic organizations
Canon 1375 Those who hinder the freedom of the ministry or of an election or of the exercise of ecclesiastical power, or the lawful use of sacred or other ecclesiastical goods, or who intimidate either an elector or one who is elected or one who exercises ecclesiastical power or ministry, may be punished with a just penalty. Interfering with the ministry
Canon 1376 A person who profanes a sacred object, moveable or immovable, is to be punished with a just penalty. Desecrating idols
Canon 1377 A person who without the prescribed permission alienates ecclesiastical goods, is to be punished with a just penalty. ??
Canon 1364
  1. An apostate from the faith, a heretic or a schismatic incurs a latae sententiae excommunication, without prejudice to the provision of Canon 194 number 1, number 2; a cleric, moreover, may be punished with the penalties mentioned in Canon 1336 number 1, numbers 1, 2 and 3.
  2. If a longstanding contempt or the gravity of scandal calls for it, other penalties may be added, not excluding dismissal from the clerical state.
Heretic, apostate or schismatic
Canon 1365 One who is guilty of prohibited participation in religious rites is to be punished with a just penalty. Disobedience
Canon 1367 One who throws away the consecrated species or, for a sacrilegious purpose, takes them away or keeps them, incurs a latae sententiae excommunication reserved to the Apostolic See; a cleric, moreover, may be punished with some other penalty, not excluding dismissal from the clerical state. Defiling the communion bread
Canon 1368 A person who, in asserting or promising something before an ecclesiastical authority, commits perjury, is to be punished with a just penalty. Lying to the church
Canon 1369 A person is to be punished with a just penalty, who, at a public event or assembly, or in a published writing, or by otherwise using the means of social communication, utters blasphemy, or gravely harms public morals, or rails at or excites hatred of or contempt for religion or the Church. Blasphemy or contempt for the church in public or in writing
Canon 1390
  1. A person who falsely denounces a confessor of the offence mentioned in canon 1387 to an ecclesiastical Superior, incurs a latae sententiae interdict and, if a cleric, he incurs also a suspension.
  2. A person who calumniously denounces an offence to an ecclesiastical Superior, or otherwise injures the good name of another, can be punished with a just penalty, not excluding a censure.
  3. The calumniator can also be compelled to make appropriate amends.
Anti-Catholicism - Personal attacks
Canon 1391 The following can be punished with a just penalty, according to the gravity of the offence:
  1. A person who composes a false public ecclesiastical document, or who changes or conceals a genuine one, or who uses a false or altered one;
  2. A person who, in an ecclesiastical matter uses some other false or altered document;
  3. A person who, in a public ecclesiastical document, asserts something false.
Anti-Catholicism - False documents or false statements.
Canon 1393 A person who violates obligations imposed by a penalty, can be punished with a just penalty. Disobedience
Canon 1401 The Church has its own and exclusive right to judge:
  1. cases which refer to matters which are spiritual or linked with the spiritual;
  2. the violation of ecclesiastical laws and whatever contains an element of sin, to determine guilt and impose ecclesiastical penalties.
Exclusive right to judge all religious and moral matters
Canon 1404 The First See is judged by no one The pope cannot be judged
Canon 1405
  1. In the cases mentioned in canon 1401, the Roman Pontiff alone has the right to judge:
    1. Heads of State;
    2. Cardinals;
    3. Legates of the Apostolic See and, in penal cases, Bishops
    4. other cases which he has reserved to himself.
  2. A judge cannot review an act or instrument which the Roman Pontiff has specifically confirmed, except by his prior mandate.
  3. It is reserved to the Roman Rota to judge:
    1. Bishops in contentious cases, without prejudice to canon 1419 number 2;
    2. The Abbot primate or the Abbot superior of a monastic congregation, and the supreme Moderator of a religious institute of pontifical right;
    3. dioceses and other ecclesiastical persons, physical or juridical, which have no Superior other than the Roman Pontiff.
Right to judge all civil matters without criticism

United Nations Resolution 181
In 1922, Israel was part of the old Turkish empire. This resolution provided a plan for creating the state of Israel with special attention to the problems concerning the city of Jerusalem. It began with the Palestinian Mandate in 1922 and ended with the United Nations plan in 1948. As part of this plan (Part III), Jerusalem would be administered as an international city for 10 years. After this period, the residents should vote on the future of the city.

Palestinian Mandate (July 25, 1922).

The mandates for Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine were assigned by the Supreme Court of the League of Nations at its San Remo meeting in April 1920. Negotiations between Great Britain and the United States with regard to the Palestine mandate were successfully concluded in May 1922, and approved by the Council of the League of Nations in July 1922. The mandates for Palestine and Syria came into force simultaneously on September 29, 1922. In this document, the League of Nations recognized the "historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine" and the "grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country."

Resolution 181 - United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 called for the partition of the British-ruled Palestine Mandate into a Jewish state and an Arab state. It was approved on November 29, 1947 with 33 votes in favor, 13 against, 10 abstentions and one absent. The resolution was accepted by the Jews in Palestine, yet rejected by the Arabs in Palestine and the Arab states.

United Nations Resolution 181, Part III: The Plan for Jerusalem - Part III of the plan describes an independent Arab and Jewish States and the special international regime for the city of Jerusalem.

The Vote
In favour: 33. Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussian S.S.R., Canada, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, Liberia, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Sweden, Ukrainian S.S.R., Union of South Africa, U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Uruguay, Venezuela.

Against: 13. Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen.

Abstained: 10. Argentina, Chile, China, Colombia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Honduras, Mexico, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia.
  1. Special Regime
    The City of Jerusalem shall be established as a corpus separatum under a special international regime and shall be administered by the United Nations. The Trusteeship Council shall be designated to discharge the responsibilities of the Administering Authority on behalf of the United Nations.
  2. Boundaries of the City
    The City of Jerusalem shall include the present municipality of Jerusalem plus the surrounding villages and towns, the most eastern of which shall be Abu Dis; the most southern, Bethlehem; the most western, 'Ein Karim (including also the built-up area of Motsa); and the most northern Shu'fat, as indicated on the attached sketch-map (annex B).
  3. Statute of the City
    The Trusteeship Council shall, within five months of the approval of the present plan, elaborate and approve a detailed statute of the City which shall contain, inter alia, the substance of the following provisions:
    1. Government machinery; special objectives. The Administering Authority in discharging its administrative obligations shall pursue the following special objectives:
      1. To protect and to preserve the unique spiritual and religious interests located in the city of the three great monotheistic faiths throughout the world, Christian, Jewish and Moslem; to this end to ensure that order and peace, and especially religious peace, reign in Jerusalem;
      2. To foster cooperation among all the inhabitants of the city in their own interests as well as in order to encourage and support the peaceful development of the mutual relations between the two Palestinian peoples throughout the Holy Land; to promote the security, well being and any constructive measures of development of the residents having regard to the special circumstances and customs of the various peoples and communities.
    2. Governor and Administrative staff. A Governor of the City of Jerusalem shall be appointed by the Trusteeship Council and shall be responsible to it. He shall be selected on the basis of special qualifications and without regard to nationality. He shall not, however, be a citizen of either State in Palestine. The Governor shall represent the United Nations in the City and shall exercise on their behalf all powers of administration, including the conduct of external affairs. He shall be assisted by an administrative staff classed as international officers in the meaning of Article 100 of the Charter and chosen whenever practicable from the residents of the city and of the rest of Palestine on a non-discriminatory basis. A detailed plan for the organization of the administration of the city shall be submitted by the Governor to the Trusteeship Council and duly approved by it.
    3. Local autonomy
      1. The existing local autonomous units in the territory of the city (villages, townships and municipalities) shall enjoy wide powers of local government and administration.
      2. The Governor shall study and submit for the consideration and decision of the Trusteeship Council a plan for the establishment of special town units consisting, respectively, of the Jewish and Arab sections of new Jerusalem. The new town units shall continue to form part the present municipality of Jerusalem.
    4. Security measures
      1. The City of Jerusalem shall be demilitarized; neutrality shall be declared and preserved, and no para-military formations, exercises or activities shall be permitted within its borders.
      2. Should the administration of the City of Jerusalem be seriously obstructed or prevented by the non-cooperation or interference of one or more sections of the population the Governor shall have authority to take such measures as may be necessary to restore the effective functioning of administration.
      3. To assist in the maintenance of internal law and order, especially for the protection of the Holy Places and religious buildings and sites in the city, the Governor shall organize a special police force of adequate strength, the members of which shall be recruited outside of Palestine. The Governor shall be empowered to direct such budgetary provision as may be necessary for the maintenance of this force.
    5. Legislative Organization.
      A Legislative Council, elected by adult residents of the city irrespective of nationality on the basis of universal and secret suffrage and proportional representation, shall have powers of legislation and taxation. No legislative measures shall, however, conflict or interfere with the provisions which will be set forth in the Statute of the City, nor shall any law, regulation, or official action prevail over them. The Statute shall grant to the Governor a right of vetoing bills inconsistent with the provisions referred to in the preceding sentence. It shall also empower him to promulgate temporary ordinances in case the Council fails to adopt in time a bill deemed essential to the normal functioning of the administration.
    6. Administration of Justice.
      The Statute shall provide for the establishment of an independent judiciary system, including a court of appeal. All the inhabitants of the city shall be subject to it.
    7. Economic Union and Economic Regime.
      The City of Jerusalem shall be included in the Economic Union of Palestine and be bound by all stipulations of the undertaking and of any treaties issued therefrom, as well as by the decisions of the Joint Economic Board. The headquarters of the Economic Board shall be established in the territory City. The Statute shall provide for the regulation of economic matters not falling within the regime of the Economic Union, on the basis of equal treatment and non-discrimination for all members of the United Nations and their nationals.
    8. Freedom of Transit and Visit: Control of residents.
      Subject to considerations of security, and of economic welfare as determined by the Governor under the directions of the Trusteeship Council, freedom of entry into, and residence within the borders of the City shall be guaranteed for the residents or citizens of the Arab and Jewish States. Immigration into, and residence within, the borders of the city for nationals of other States shall be controlled by the Governor under the directions of the Trusteeship Council.
    9. Relations with Arab and Jewish States. Representatives of the Arab and Jewish States shall be accredited to the Governor of the City and charged with the protection of the interests of their States and nationals in connection with the international administration of the City.
    10. Official languages.
      Arabic and Hebrew shall be the official languages of the city. This will not preclude the adoption of one or more additional working languages, as may be required.
    11. Citizenship.
      All the residents shall become ipso facto citizens of the City of Jerusalem unless they opt for citizenship of the State of which they have been citizens or, if Arabs or Jews, have filed notice of intention to become citizens of the Arab or Jewish State respectively, according to Part 1, section B, paragraph 9, of this Plan. The Trusteeship Council shall make arrangements for consular protection of the citizens of the City outside its territory.
    12. Freedoms of citizens
      1. Subject only to the requirements of public order and morals, the inhabitants of the City shall be ensured the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of conscience, religion and worship, language, education, speech and press, assembly and association, and petition.
      2. No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants on the grounds of race, religion, language or sex.
      3. All persons within the City shall be entitled to equal protection of the laws.
      4. The family law and personal status of the various persons and communities and their religious interests, including endowments, shall be respected.
      5. Except as may be required for the maintenance of public order and good government, no measure shall be taken to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of religious or charitable bodies of all faiths or to discriminate against any representative or member of these bodies on the ground of his religion or nationality.
      6. The City shall ensure adequate primary and secondary education for the Arab and Jewish communities respectively, in their own languages and in accordance with their cultural traditions. The right of each community to maintain its own schools for the education of its own members in its own language, while conforming to such educational requirements of a general nature as the City may impose, shall not be denied or impaired. Foreign educational establishments shall continue their activity on the basis of their existing rights.
      7. No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any inhabitant of the City of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the Press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.
    13. Holy Places
      1. Existing rights in respect of Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall not be denied or impaired.
      2. Free access to the Holy Places and religious buildings or sites and the free exercise of worship shall be secured in conformity with existing rights and subject to the requirements of public order and decorum.
      3. Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall be preserved. No act shall be permitted which may in any way impair their sacred character. If at any time it appears to the Governor that any particular Holy Place, religious building or site is in need of urgent repair, the Governor may call upon the community or communities concerned to carry out such repair. The Governor may carry it out himself at the expense of the community or communities concerned if no action is taken within a reasonable time.
      4. No taxation shall be levied in respect of any Holy Place, religious building or site which was exempt from taxation on the date of the creation of the City. No change in the incidence of such taxation shall be made which would either discriminate between the owners or occupiers of Holy Places, religious buildings or sites or would place such owners or occupiers in a position less favourable in relation to the general incidence of taxation than existed at the time of the adoption of the Assembly's recommendations.
    14. Special powers of the Governor in respect of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites in the City and in any part of Palestine.
      1. The protection of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites located in the City of Jerusalem shall be a special concern of the Governor.
      2. With relation to such places, buildings and sites in Palestine outside the city, the Governor shall determine, on the ground of powers granted to him by the Constitution of both States, whether the provisions of the Constitution of the Arab and Jewish States in Palestine dealing therewith and the religious rights appertaining thereto are being properly applied and respected.
      3. The Governor shall also be empowered to make decisions on the basis of existing rights in cases of disputes which may arise between the different religious communities or the rites of a religious community in respect of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites in any part of Palestine. In this task he may be assisted by a consultative council of representatives of different denominations acting in an advisory capacity.
  4. Duration of the Special Regime
    The Statute elaborated by the Trusteeship Council the aforementioned principles shall come into force not later than 1 October 1948. It shall remain in force in the first instance for a period of ten years, unless the Trusteeship Council finds it necessary to undertake a re-examination of these provisions at an earlier date. After the expiration of this period the whole scheme shall be subject to examination by the Trusteeship Council in the light of experience acquired with its functioning. The residents the City shall be then free to express by means of a referendum their wishes as to possible modifications of regime of the City.

The Pact between Pope John Paul II And Yasser Arafat
The pact between the Vatican and the Palestinians is dependent upon the reinstatement of United Nations Resolution 181 (Part III) which describes the special administration of Jerusalem. In this plan, the Pope proposes that he should be set up as the sovereign ruler of Jerusalem with the United Nations providing military protection.

On February 15, 2000 the Jerusalem Post reported that:

Chairman Yasser Arafat is to meet with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican today and sign an accord to normalize relations between the Palestinian Authority and Roman Catholic churches in Jerusalem.

... the agreement indicates a recognition by the Catholic Church of Palestinian claims to the city.

... Arafat has been lobbying for his idea of sharing undivided Jerusalem, and creating Vatican style sovereignty in the Old City ...

should Israel and the Palestinian Authority fail to reach an agreement on sharing Jerusalem, the Palestinian Authority would agree to create an international city in the Old City, as stated in UN Resolution 181


The Holy See, the Sovereign Authority of the Catholic Church, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (hereinafter: PLO), the Representative of the Palestinian People working for the benefit and on behalf of the Palestinian Authority:

Deeply aware of the special significance of the Holy Land, which is inter alia a privileged space for inter-religious dialogue between the followers of the three monotheistic religions;

Having reviewed the history and development of the relations between the Holy See and the Palestinian People, including the working contacts and the subsequent establishment - on October 26, 1994 - of official relations between the Holy See and the PLO;

Recalling and confirming the establishment of the Bilateral Permanent
Working Commission to identify, study and address issues of common interest between the two Parties;

Reaffirming the need to achieve a just and comprehensive peace in the Middle East, so that all its nations live as good neighbours and work together to achieve development and prosperity for the entire region and all its inhabitants;

Calling for a peaceful solution of the Palestinian - Israeli conflict, which would realize the inalienable national legitimate rights and aspirations of the Palestinian People, to be reached through negotiation and agreement, in order to ensure peace and security for all peoples of the region on the basis of international law, relevant United Nations and its Security Council resolutions, justice and equity;

Declaring that an equitable solution for the issue of Jerusalem, based on international resolutions, is fundamental for a just and lasting peace in the Middle East, and that unilateral decisions and actions altering the specific character and status of Jerusalem are morally and legally unacceptable;

Calling, therefore, for a special statute for Jerusalem, internationally guaranteed, which should safeguard the following:

  1. Freedom of religion and conscience for all.
  2. The equality before the law of the three monotheistic religions and
    their institutions and followers in the City.
  3. The proper identity and sacred character of the City and its universally
    significant, religious and cultural heritage.
  4. The Holy Places, the freedom of access to them and of worship in them.
  5. The Regime of "Status Quo" in those Holy Places where it applies;

Recognizing that Palestinians, irrespective of their religious affiliation, are equal members of Palestinian society;

Concluding that the achievements of the aforementioned Bilateral Permanent Working Commission now amount to appropriate matter for a first and Basic Agreement, which should provide a solid and lasting foundation for the continued development of their present and future relations, and for the
furtherance of the Commission's on going task,


Agree on the following Articles:
Article 1
Paragraph 1: The PLO affirms its permanent commitment to uphold and observe the human right to freedom of religion and conscience, as stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in other international instruments relative to its application.
Paragraph 2: The Holy See affirms the commitment of the Catholic Church to support this right and states once more the respect that the Catholic Church has for the followers of other religions.
Article 2
Paragraph 1: The Parties are committed to appropriate cooperation in promoting respect for human rights, individual and collective, in combating all forms of discrimination and threats to human life and dignity, as well as to the promotion of understanding and harmony between nations and communities.
Paragraph 2: The Parties will continue to encourage inter religious dialogue for the promotion of better understanding between people of different religions.
Article 3 The PLO will ensure and protect in Palestinian Law the equality of human and civil rights of all citizens, including specifically, inter alia, their
freedom from discrimination, individually or collectively, on the ground of
religious affiliation, belief or practice.
Article 4 The regime of the "Status Quo" will be maintained and observed in those Christian Holy Places where it applies.
Article 5 The PLO recognizes the freedom of the Catholic Church to exercise her rights to carry out, through the necessary means, her functions and traditions, such as those that are spiritual, religious, moral, charitable, educational and cultural.
Article 6 The PLO recognizes the rights of the Catholic Church in economic, legal and fiscal matters: these rights being exercised in harmony with the rights of the Palestinian authorities in these fields.
Article 7 Full effect will be given in Palestinian Law to the legal personality of the Catholic Church and of the canonical legal persons.
Article 8 The provisions of this Agreement are without prejudice to any agreement hitherto in force between either Party and any other party.
Article 9 The Bilateral Permanent Working Commission, in accordance with such instructions as may be given by the respective Authorities of the two Parties, may propose further ways to address items of this Agreement.
Article 10 Should any controversy arise regarding the interpretation or the application of provisions of the present Agreement, the Parties will resolve it by way of mutual consultation.
Article 11 Done in two original copies in the English and Arabic languages, both texts being equally authentic. In case of divergency, the English text shall prevail.
Article 12 This Agreement shall enter into force from the moment of its signature by the two Parties.

Signed in the Vatican, fifteenth of February, 2000

Prisoners Of War And Unlawful Combatants
The status of the captured taliban fighters in the terrorist war against Osama Bin Ladin hinges on the definition of words. The United States calls them "unlawful combatants" and the United Nations calls them "prisoners of war". What are the differences and how does this affect their international rights?

Unlawful Combatants and Detainees are generally defined as soldiers out of uniform, medics, clerics and civilians. They are also defined by the United States as:

... an individual who is not authorized to take a direct part in hostilities but does. ... Unlawful combatants are a proper object of attack while engaging as combatants. ... If captured, they may be tried and punished.

International law gives prisoners the right to:

  1. Not be tortured
  2. Humane treatment
  3. A fair trial, if charged with a crime

Prisoners of War are defined by the third Geneva Convention as:

  1. Members of the armed forces captured during a conflict
  2. Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps who fulfil the following conditions:
    1. That of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;
    2. That of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;
    3. That of carrying arms openly;
    4. That of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

The Legal Status of Persecuted Saints - I will speculate on the status of the persecuted saints in the end. Clearly, any persecuting force can delay justice with this redefinition of words. Until action in your favor can be exercised, a long period would have passed. In addition, the Geneva Convention and the International Laws against torture are clearly not adhered to in the new United States Patriot Act of 2001. So what could happen to persecuted saints?

First, they will not be violent will not have weapons, therefore they cannot be taken as Prisoners of War. The Geneva Convention does not apply. However, our views on prophecy and expressing the warnings God has given us will get us into trouble. Already, democratic countries such as Canada, France, Singapore and others have passed laws to punish religious expression as a threat to public harmony.

Second, they cannot be classified as unlawful combatants since they will not be armed. However, lying and redefining words and actions could place us into any of these categories. Claims such as "disturbing the peace" just by expressing our religious views. We could also be charged with denying the welfare of the majority and it could easily place us in a category of being "against the government". Such a status could make us subject to military or police action.

Finally, we could just be classified as common criminals, subject to normal civil and criminal laws. We could even be given up to mob rule, where the government can deny responsibility for our fate. In any situation, the International laws on the treatment of prisoners should apply, however, the Patriot Act of 2001 says otherwise.

The End Of Freedom
Our belief is that we are headed to a one world control of governments by the Catholic Church using the military and political power of the United States. This church will attach itself to any government that will make it the only religious power in the state. Consequently, the church was not against communism until it realized that it could not be controlled by the church. Furthermore, communism actively promoted atheism.
The church has a plan to take over democratic states.

  1. Extinguish freedom of religion by taking over the legislative process, majority vote or by direct influence on law makers
  2. Persecute minority religions and then ban them (this is happening in South America at this moment. France and Germany also).
  3. Take over public education and promote only Catholicism (In some countries of South America, they teach only Catholicism, Mary worship and blame Protestants for all the evils of the world).
  4. Persecute and kill covertly. At this point it can encourage the local congregation to stir up fear, drive away Protestant residents and burn churches.
  5. Persecute and kill openly. Punishment for disobeying church laws is made a part of the civil law.

Right To Persecute

The Encyclical of Pope Pius X, issued in 1864, asserted:
"The Catholic Church has persecuted ... when she thinks it is good to use physical force she will use it... Will the Catholic Church give bond that she will not persecute?... The Catholic Church gives no bonds for her good behaviour." -Western Watchman, December 24, 1908

"The church may by Divine right confiscate the property of heretics, imprison their persons, and condemn them to the flames." -Vatican II

Mr. Raywood Frazier, in the booklet "Catholic Words and Actions," presents documentary proof of the intensive persecution of Protestants and those who are not Catholics in Columbia, South America, between 1949 and 1953. The Catholic Church had the support of the Columbian government in the destruction of many churches, and the liquidation of more than 1,000 documented cases -- some of whom were shot, drowned, or emasculated. He says there is evidence of over 60,000 killed. Pope Pius XII awarded the President of Columbia with one of the highest awards which the Church bestows, and praised Columbia for its example of the Catholic faith." (Pages 59,60)

The defense of Roman Catholics to this presentation is as follows: "Communists destroy churches because they are God's enemies; Catholic's destroy churches because they are God's friends ... Against such men - founded churches ... Catholics in Latin America should arise and wipe them out with fire." - John J. Oberlander, in The Voice of Freedom, 1954, page 20.

The rector of the Catholic Institute of Paris, H.M.A. Baudrillart, revealed the attitude of the church and her leaders toward persecution. "When confronted with heresy," he said, "she does not content herself with persuasion, arguments of an intellectual and moral order appear to her insufficient, and she has recourse to force, to corporal punishment, to torture." The Catholic Church, The Renaissance, and Protestantism, pages 182-183

Religious Liberty In Danger

"Religious liberty is merely endured until the opposite can be carried into effect without peril to the Catholic Church." -Bishop O'Conner of Pittsburg.

"Democracy is a mischievous dream where the Catholic Church does not predominate." - Brownson's Review.

"If Catholics ever gain sufficient numerical majority in this country, religious freedom is at an end. So our enemies say; so we believe" -The Shephard of the Valley, journal of the late bishop of St. Louis.

"There is one, and only one, sure democracy, the Catholicism of the Popes" -The Catholic World, October, 1937.

"Some dwell on the vastly increased tolerance shown in this country now to Catholics and Catholic thugs... It betokens a decay of Protestantism." - Catholic World, October 1935, page 66

"It no longer can be said today that the U.S. is a Protestant country." -Cardinal Strich of Chicago, quoted in Time Magazine, August 5, 1955 "

The old Protestant culture is about at the end of its rope ... Why can't we make the U.S. Catholic in legislation, Catholic in justice, aims and ideals?" -Father F. X. Talbot, editor of America, official jesuit magazine for the U.S. statement in New York Globe December 14, 1930

Abandoning The Constitution

In the book Confusion Twice Confounded, Monsignor Joseph H. Brady states that the U.S. Supreme Court is wrong in decisions regarding "separation of Church and State." He says: "A sound view of the Constitution in its relation to religion probably awaits a change in personnel in our highest tribunal." -The Register, January 23, 1955.

"But Constitutions can be changed, and non-Catholic sects may decline to such a point that the political proscription [ban] of them may become feasible and expedient. What protection would they have against a Catholic state?" -The State and the Church, pages 38,39, by Miller and Ryan, imprimatur of Cardinal Hayes.

"The Catholic Church in this nation must live on to accomplish her work, even though our Republican form of government disappears." -The Catholic World, April, 1935, page 12. "

They [Catholics] must penetrate wherever possible in the administration of civil affairs... all Catholics should do all in their power to cause the constitution of states, and legislation to be modeled on the principles of the true Church." -Encyclical of Leo XIII.
On September 7, 1947, Pope Pius XII declared that "the time for reflection and planning is past in religious and moral fields and the time for action has arrived." He said that "the battle in religious and moral fields hinged on five points: Religious culture, the sanctifying of Sunday, the saving of the Christian family, social justice and loyalty and truthfulness in dealings." -Evening Star (Washington D.C.), September 8, 1947

Every man and woman shall repair in the morning to the divine service and sermons preached upon the Sabbath (Sunday), and in the afternoon to divine service, and catechizing, upon pain for the first fault to lose their provision and the allowance for the whole week following; for the second, to lose the said allowance and also be whipped; and for the third to suffer death."!!! Laws, and Orders, Divine, Politique, and Martial For the Colony in Virginia: first established by Sir Thomas Gates, Knight, Lieutenant - General, the May 24, 1610

Recent statements by the Polish Episcopate have fueled apprehension. In late April the bishops urged that the new constitution exclude any provision for the separation of church and state. Instead, they suggested, "exceptional emphasis should be laid on the need for cooperation between the state and the Catholic Church." TIME May 20, 1991 "Five Who Could Be Vice President" Page 40 "Power to The Pulpit"

Protestants Agree On Enforcing Sunday
Protestant leaders now join with the Catholics in the common goal of restoring morality. They believe that one sure way to accomplish this is through control of education and restoring the sacredness of Sunday.

What they fail to see is that they will be absorbed in the process and they will no longer have the luxury of maintaining their own beliefs, just as they themselves are guilty of taking away people's choice not to believe.

This organization proposes in every possible way to aid in preserving Sunday as a civil institution. Our national security requires the active support of all good citizens in the maintenance of our American Sabbath. Sunday laws must be enforced." -Quoted as "principles contained in the Constitution" of the original organization (then called the American Sabbath Union), cited in The Lord's Day Alliance, Twenty fifth Report (1913), page 6

The mission of the Christian Coalition is simple. It is "to mobilize Christians one percent at a time, one community at a time, until once again we are the head and not the tail, and at the top rather than the bottom of our political system... the Christian Coalition will be the most powerful political force in America by the end of this decade." And, "We have enough votes to run this country... and when the people say, 'we've had enough,' we're going to take over!" -Pat Robertson,

The Papal Mandate
The "Holy Office" is the new name for the Office of Inquisition that exterminated heretics. This power will be used against anyone who blocks the Pope's effort to create a global church-state run by the Roman Catholic Church.

The thought of a revived Holy Office of the Inquisition would pacify some and offend others. Nevertheless, the "Holy Office" still exists. Only it's name has been changed. Pope John Paul II has been instrumental in its revival. One may argue that this Ratzinger run agency is merely an attempt by the Catholic Church to root out communism or backslidden priests and their practices. However, with John Paul II's objective to implement "God's mandate" by creating a global church-state which will administer from traditional Roman Catholic theology, is enough cause for alarm.

Malachi Martin has already stated in his book, "The Keys of this Blood," that the pope will not tolerate any belief systems that oppose his, not on a civil or church level. In John Paul II the world will behold a tyrant who will coldly execute direct orders against those whom he deems are heretics or immoral. Moreover, like his papal predecessors, John Paul II will carry out his "Godly mandate" in the name of Christ, or perhaps Mary.
May God help us all. - By Kathleen R. Hayes February 1991, NRI Trumpet Page 3

You will find these ideas in the original book on pages 137, 287, 345, 492, 493

Arguments Against Sabbath Keepers
A time will come when the following arguments will be used to silence by law or social pressure the interpretation of prophecy and the keeping of Sabbath. The first step in doing this is to abandon the authority of the Bible. If the Bible cannot be trusted, then the prophecies are worthless.

  1. Hate - The events of September 11 and many other incidences of violence are blamed on racism. Even if you are a non violent group and believe that God shows no favoritism to any group, the label of racism will be made just for teaching what the Bible warns against.
    Vatican City (AP)-- A new Vatican document on how to interpret the Bible condemns the fundamentalist approach of word for word literalism as distorting, dangerous and possibly leading to racism. --Associated Press

    The FCC issued a ruling discouraging noncommercial educational TV stations from offering "programming primarily devoted to religious exhortation, proselytizing, or statements of personally held religious views and beliefs
    Spreading the faith is now labeled as a hate crime. Main line religions no longer care because they have agreed not to engage in "sheep stealing" (converting each other's members). They have resorted to an ecumenical union in which they share clergy and other administrative functions.
  2. Disrupting families. Jesus himself said that His teaching will bring division and that you are not worthy of Him if you love father, mother, brother, sister or your life more than Him. You must choose Christ over any other loyalties.
    But, the Catholic church denounces conversions based on this argument - that it divides families.
  3. Endangering national security - Not keeping Sunday holy is being linked to this. In the days of gas shortage and our dependence on foreign oil, Sunday rest was encouraged to reduce travel. During this time, not resting on Sunday was linked to endangering national security. These arguments and others like them are being resurrected.

Liberty By Countries
It is useless to look at the official constitutions to see if a country has religious freedom. You must examine what really happens in practice. Often, countries find a reason to exterminate minority religions by requiring religions to register - yet making it impossible to do so. Consequently, any meetings for prayer, service to the homeless can and does result in arrest for operating illegally.

Laws Are Meaningless. For example, in Turkmenistan religious minorities are being persecuted although Article 11 of the Constitution of Turkmenistan says:

"Everyone has the right independently to determine her or his own religious preference, to practice any religion alone or in association with others, to practice no religion, to express and disseminate beliefs related to religious preference, and to participate in the performance of religious cults, rituals, and ceremonies."

Targeting Religious Minority. Loop holes used to drive away religious minorities are the following:

  1. Registration of churches or individuals and limiting activities while requiring no such restrictions on the favored church. In some cases, the laws on registration make it impossible to register.
  2. Vague Ideas of "Public Good". Laws are passed which have broad interpretations. They are meant to secure "public order". These laws attempt to define "appropriate religious practice" which is based on the practices of the favored religion. Here are some examples of violations.

Country Religion Freedom
Sudan Muslim Christian genocide, mutilation, rape, slavery. The Muslim is following a strategy of total war
Myannmar Muslim No freedom
Canada Catholic Hate crime law against "inciting religious hatred"
Singapore Buddhism 1992 Religious harmony Act. It does not allow criticism of any other religion
United Kingdom Anglican Language outlawing incitement to religious hatred was taken out of an Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Bill was defeated by 240-141 in the House of Lords. Efforts are being made to reintroduce this law.
France Catholic A new law called the "About Picard bill" targets about 170 religious organizations (2001). Under this law creation of an offence of "mental manipulation" mentions activities that are "dangerous for the integrity of the human personality" or as "detrimental to the public order". This law is subject to any interpretation and is meant to eliminate religious minorities.
Germany Catholic, Lutheran Laws against religious sects.
Greece Orthodox Converting others is punishable by imprisonment, fine and supervision for up to 1 year. Otherwise, freedom of religion is allowed in Article 13, Phrase 2 of the Greek Constitution.
Scotland Anglican The Scottish parliament is considering a new law "which would make religious hatred an aggravation of existing criminal offenses"
Hungary Christian Creating a committee against religious sects, it is "for the co-ordination of social self-defense against spiritual influences endangering fundamental freedoms."
India Hindu A wave of Hindu nationalism has led to violence against Christians and Muslims Attacks have ranged from the killing of priests and raping of nuns, to the physical destruction of churches, and forced conversion of Christians to Hinduism.
Georgia Orthodox The parliament adopted a constitutional amendment giving the Orthodox Church a special role in society. Religious minorities have no legal status and are experiencing violence.
Vietnam Atheist Outlawed Protestant churches. All religions have problems.
North Korea Atheist About 500 underground house churches with 90,000 members, that are persecuted
China Atheist Any kind of religious expression is persecuted
Iraq Muslim Some discrimination
Afghanistan Muslim Minorities must wear a mark on their forehead or sleeve
Iran Muslim Slavery (children, forced prostitution). Apostasy, or conversion from Islam to another religion, is punishable by death. Muslims who convert to Christianity also suffer discrimination. Minority religions experience discrimination in the courts, employment, housing and education.
Laos Buddhist Laos's constitution provides for freedom of worship but Churches are closed, church members are threatened at gunpoint, forced to sign documents to renounce their faith, and threatened with loss of land and livelihood. People are held in stocks and handcuffs, given electric shock treatments.
Turkmenistan Muslim Religious minorities cannot meet for prayer. The only officially registered churches are Muslim and Russian Orthodox Church
Egypt Muslim Religion is identified on a national identification card. Religious minorities are discriminated against in court and jobs.
Turkey Muslim The Constitution guarantees religious freedom but the Interior Ministry has taken steps to launch judicial proceedings questioning the legality of designated places of worship used by some 40 small Protestant church groups across the country in an attempt to close house churches. At law specifically aimed at religious minorities makes it illegal to hold public meetings in "apartment flats, shops and detached buildings".
Pakistan Muslim Blasphemy laws which allow the death penalty or life imprisonment for directly or indirectly defiling "the sacred name of the Holy Prophet Mohammed."
Kazakhstan Muslim, Orthodox A draft religion law on 31 January 2002 which is expected to be passed would allow the government to ban all unregistered religious groups. It requires religious educational activity to be licensed, and all missionaries to be registered.
Saudi Arabia Muslim Public worship by other religions is banned and places of worship other than mosques are not permitted. Although private worship is supposed to be allowed, house churches are raided if they become known or too large.
Uzbekistan Muslim Religions must register, although this is refused. So minorities are branded as religious extremists and have their homes raided and literature confiscated.
Mexico Catholic Religious minorities especially in states such as Chiapas and Oaxaca.
Macedonia Orthodox Orthodox church persecuting the Muslims
Chile Catholic 20 cults have been labeled as destructive to Chilean society
Russia Atheist Article 27, Part 4 of the 1997 Russian law on religion, which states that all religious organisations failing to reregister by 31 December 2000 were liable to liquidation
Nigeria Muslim, Christian Muslim Shari'ah law. Christian churches burned
Ivory Coast Muslim, Christian Christian churches burned, homes vandalized.

Internet Sites
I have been impressed to think about several methods to control messages by cutting off access to the message. The fastest and cheapest way for any group to deliver its written messages is through the internet.

Always follow the ten commandments. Do not take any short cuts. As I was impressed to think of ways to remove legal sites, I ran across a case involving the aggressive tactics of a church organization. Just a simple (false) charge of copyright infringement, without an investigation or evaluation of the loss to the business was enough to cause the seizure of assets (files and computers) and the shutdown of an internet business run from a home. The damage caused to the raided business by untruthful allegations was immediate and costly. In the ensuing legal battle and delaying tactics, the offending 'church' probably hoped to exhaust the other party financially and even tried to buy them out.
Even if the government issued laws to protect a business from shutdown from an unsubstantiated charge, while the legal proceedings drag on for months, it could effectively close down the site.

So, with that knowledge, I propose some tactics that can be used and what you must do to provide yourself some protection. Protection against the sort of malicious tactics above could not be provided.

Copyright infringement. A simple threat to a hosting company that you are infringing on their copyright material or their code or their 'look and feel' will effectively shut you down immediately. Usually, the host company themselves are included in the threat of a lawsuit, so their best recourse is to shut down the site until it can be legally sorted out. And if your site is continually a problem, through no fault of your own, they can simply just stop doing business with you.

As shown from the case described above, you cannot eliminate the problem. But you can minimize this problem by stopping any legitimate legal claim.

Ultimately, the defense of last resort is to run a site out of your home if you can afford the telecommunications cost. Even if you followed the guidelines above, this only eliminates the threat of untimely shutdown by a hosting company. It does not eliminate security attacks, spamming or other denial of service attacks. Neither does it eliminate legal problems of ownership caused by malicious lies or people with deeper pockets whose victory strategy is just to get you off the internet for as long as possible.

Around the eighteenth century, some enlightened powers from the old Roman empires created laws that separated the church from the state. The Western governments have largely been ruled by these laws, even though some nations have a church that is favored by the state.
The United States was the leader in not establishing any one religion. It was called by God to shield those who were fleeing the persecution in Europe (Revelation 12).
As we fight the battle of immorality and paganism in our schools and society, let us remember that the rights that are being abused by such persons also guarantee our religious freedoms. And that government by the righteous has historically been much deadlier than the excesses of the immoral.
We can combat immorality with education and strong families but we can only fight religious tyranny as martyrs.

But when they hand you over, do not worry about how or what you are to say; for it will be given you in that hour what you are to say. For it is not you who speaks, but it is the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you.   Matthew 10: 19-20 Time: 80 minutes
Print: 24 pages
Copyright     Updated : March 9, 2003
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (March 2008)
Credits: The information was compiled from various sources.
Some old English words have been changed in the Magna Charta to help the automatic translator.
Information on the status of religious freedom was obtained from the International Association for Religious Freedom
Information on heresy obtained from "Catholic Theological Heresy" http://www.memorare.com/liturgy/theology.html