The Ram And The Goat
(Daniel 8)

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Greece Rome Christ Sanctuary Destroyed Rome Papal Rome Europe Papacy Falls Sanctuary Restored Europe Rock Christ
Babylon Fell Goat 4 Horns Little Horn (Little Horn) Sanctuary Restored
Day of Atonement (Evening) Day of Atonement (Goat Attacks Ram) Banished
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The Vision Of The Sanctuary War
The Ram. In the third year of the reign of Belshazzar the king a vision appeared to me, Daniel, subsequent to the one which appeared to me previously. I looked in the vision, and while I was looking I was in the citadel of Susa, which is in the province of Elam; and I looked in the vision and I myself was beside the Ulai Canal. Then I lifted my eyes and looked, and then, a ram which had two horns was standing in front of the canal. Now the two horns were long, but one was longer than the other, with the longer one coming up last. I saw the ram butting westward, northward, and southward, and no other beasts could stand before him nor was there anyone to rescue from his power, but he did as he pleased and magnified himself.
The Goat. While I was observing, then, a male goat was coming from the west over the surface of the whole earth without touching the ground; and the goat had a conspicuous horn between his eyes. He came up to the ram that had the two horns, which I had seen standing in front of the canal, and rushed at him in his mighty wrath. I saw him come beside the ram, and he was enraged at him; and he struck the ram and shattered his two horns, and the ram had no strength to withstand him. So he hurled him to the ground and trampled on him, and there was none to rescue the ram from his power.
The Large Horn. Then the male goat magnified himself exceedingly. But as soon as he was mighty, the large horn was broken; and in its place there came up four conspicuous horns toward the four winds of heaven.
The Little Horn. Out of one of them came out a rather small horn which grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the Beautiful Land. It grew up to the host of heaven and caused some of the host and some of the stars to fall to the earth, and it trampled them down. It even magnified itself to be equal with the Commander of the host; and it removed the regular sacrifice from Him, and the place of His sanctuary was thrown down. And on account of transgression the host will be given over to the horn along with the regular sacrifice; and it will fling truth to the ground and perform its will and prosper.
The Cleansing On Yom Kippur. Then I heard a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to that particular one who was speaking, "How long will the vision about the regular sacrifice apply, while the transgression causes horror, so as to allow both the holy place and the host to be trampled?'' He said to me, "For 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the holy place will be properly restored."
(Daniel 8: 1-14)

The Day of Atonement
(Yom Kippur)
This is the day when the sins of Israel were removed and the sanctuary was cleansed.

The symbols center around the attack on the sanctuary. It destroyed the building, the furniture, the worshippers and removed their God. It stopped the services on the most important day of their cleansing from sin - the Day of Atonement.

In this choice of symbols we see a remarkable creative quality of God. He was able to repeat the events of the previous two prophecies while exploring it as a religious conquest against His sanctuary instead of a military conquest against His people. The vision of Daniel 8 starts with the Medo-Persian empire, rather than with Babylon, because Babylon is about to fall and technically no longer exists.

Beast Interpretation
Ram Medo-Persia (Daniel 8: 3-4)

Ram with 2 horns (Medo-Persia)
The Attack On The Sanctuary
The rich lands of India and China were in the east.

Is it possible that God prevented an attack in the east so that the symbolism of attacking only the north, south and western walls of the sanctuary could be preserved?
The Ram is Medo-Persia. (Daniel 8: 20).
  1. Physical: A Symbol Of Medo-Persia.
    As we previously learned, beasts represent kingdoms. Here, we have "a ram which had two horns" with one horn higher than the other. Daniel 8: 20 tells us that the "two horns are the kings of Media and Persia". Therefore, the ram represents the Medo-Persian Empire.

    The ram is the bear of chapter 7 with one side raised higher than the other. One horn is higher because the Persians become stronger than the Medes and absorbed their kingdom.
    The ram pushed "westward, and northward, and southward." Geographically, this describes the conquests of Medo-Persia. These three directions correspond to the three kingdoms symbolized by the three ribs in the mouth of the bear of Daniel 7.
    • West. Babylon.
    • North. Lydia.
    • South. Egypt.
  2. Spiritual: A Symbol Of Christ. Cyrus, the leader of the Persians represents Christ, the Lord's goat and the ram. Cyrus defeated Babylon. Christ will defeat Babylon the Great. Both rescue the people of God from Babylon by parting the Euphrates river. Both build the temple of God which was destroyed by Babylon. Satan attacks both.
Male Goat Greece (Daniel 8: 5-8)

Goat (Greece) The male goat is Greece. (Daniel 8: 21,22). The goat has two meanings in Daniel 8.
  1. Physical: A Symbol Of Greece . (Daniel 8: 21,22)
    Alexander the Great. It had a notable horn which waxed very great (Verse 8).
    Four Divisions. This single horn was broken, and four horns came up in its place toward the four winds of heaven.
    Speed. "touched not the ground". This flying goat represents great speed.
    Medo-Persia. It defeated the two horned ram. Greece defeated Medo-Persia.

    This matches the history of the Grecian conquest. Alexander the Great's conquests were very swift. We know that in the height of his power, Alexander died from a fever brought on by drunkenness, and his kingdom was divided between his four generals - Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seluecus I. The four horns corresponds to the kingdoms of these four generals.
  2. Spiritual: A Symbol Of Satanic Activity
    The goat is a satanic symbol described in Israel's day of judgment, the great Day of Atonement. (Leviticus 16: 5)
    There were two goats used on the Day of Atonement. (Leviticus 16: 5-10) One was sacrificed, the other was banished to the desert.

The Little Horn Rome (Daniel 8: 9-12)

Little horn (Papal Rome)
In nature, horns do not grow out of horns. They grow out of heads. This little horn of Daniel 8 grows out of the goat symbolizing another phase of Satan's control in world history.
The Attack On The People
While the other animals attacked the sanctuary, the little horn primarily attacked the people.

Physically, pagan Rome attacked these territories.
» South. Africa and Egypt
» East. Babylon and Greece
» Pleasant Land. Israel

Spiritually, papal Rome attacked the people.
» South. If God sits on Mount Zion in the North, then the people of the earth are south (the footstool).
Beautiful in elevation, the joy of the whole earth is Mount Zion in the far north, the city of the great King. (Psalm 48: 2)
» East. The priests. The clergy.
» Pleasant Land. Israel.
"Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.
And out of one of them came out a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land."

"four winds of heaven" (used here, and Daniel 11: 4) it represents directions, or points on the compass.

"out of one of them". A little horn comes out of one of the "four winds" symbolizing one of the four directions of the compass.

The grammatical structure of the original Hebrew indicates that the word "them" does not refer to the four horns because the word is masculine. The grammar requires that the pronoun have the same gender as the word to which it refers.
Horns is feminine and winds is a masculine word. Therefore the pronoun "them" must refer to the winds.
Why is this detail important? The little horn does not come out of the remnants of the Greek empire. It is a separate power that arises out of the Satanic goat in one of the four directions. Rome was west of this empire.
The Conquests Of The Little Horn
Greece The little horn grew out of the north west, the direction of Greece. It came to power after Greece.

» South: Punic Wars (242-146 BC). Rome conquered Egypt and north Africa.
» East: Macedonian Wars (214-148 BC). Rome went to Asia Minor and conquered the Babylonian and Greek empire.
» The Pleasant Land (63 BC). Rome conquered Judea and Syria.
The Conquests Of Pagan And Papal Rome. Pagan and Papal Rome gained power by removing three rivals.
»Physical: Pagan Rome. They conquered the powers in three directions: South (Egypt), East (Greek empire) and Palestine. Three powers fell before Pagan Rome ruled the world, (Babylon, Medo-Persia and Greece).
» Commander of the Host. Rome crucified the Messiah in 31 A.D.
» Magnified to the Commander of the Host. Emperor Augustus Caesar started the cult of the living gods.
» Daily Removed. Christ, the Lamb of God, was killed by the Romans under emperor Tiberias.
» Host Given to the Little Horn. Israel was given to Rome by emperor Hadrian.
» Place Of His Sanctuary Thrown Down. Rome destroyed the temple in Jerusalem in 70 A.D. by emperor Titus.

»Spiritual: Papal Rome. Three powers were uprooted to place it in power -Vandals, Heruli and Ostrogoths.
» Magnified To The Commander Of The Host. Pope is god on earth, the representative of Christ.
» Daily Removed. The continual ministry of Christ as High Priest was replaced with a human priesthood.
» Host Given To The Little Horn. Apostasy caused the church to be controlled by the papacy.
» Place Of His Sanctuary Thrown Down. The church will occupy Jerusalem during the final persecution.
4 The Judgment Of The Righteous (Daniel 8: 14)
And he said to me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed. (Daniel 8:14)
In another study we will look at this prophecy and the one from Daniel 9 concerning this cleansing of the sanctuary.

The Animals On The Day Of Atonement
The Hebrew word for scapegoat is "Azazel." This literally means "angry or furious god" (Dr. Albert R. Treiyer, The Day of Atonement, page 257).

The scapegoat, named "Azazel" is a symbol for Satan. (see Leviticus 17: 7)
They shall no more offer their sacrifices to demons, after whom they have played the harlot. This shall be a statute forever for them throughout their generations. (NKJV)

And they shall no more sacrifice their sacrifices to the he-goats, after which they play the harlot. This shall be a statute forever to them throughout their generations. (ASV)

The symbol for Lucifer in the modern occult is a hairy goat.
"And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering. And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house. And he shall take the two goats, and present them before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the Lord, and the other lot for the scapegoat. And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the Lord's lot fell, and offer him for a sin offering. But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the Lord, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness." (Leviticus 16: 5-10)

Sin Offering: The Lord's Goat
Every sacrificed animal in the Hebrew sanctuary (temple) represented the Great Sacrifice, Jesus Christ. Each pointed toward the sacrifice Christ made as the lamb of God. Jesus paid for the sins of mankind by the shedding of His blood at the cross of Calvary.

The scapegoat was not sacrificed. He cannot represent Jesus Christ.

The goat symbolizing Christ was sacrificed as a sin offering. The high priest would take some of the goat's blood into the Most Holy Place and sprinkle it seven times on the lid of the Ark of the Covenant.

Azazel: The Scapegoat (The Goat Of Removal).
There was a second goat that was not sacrificed. This is the scapegoat who represents Satan. He was not sacrificed for sin, but he is held responsible. The high priest would symbolically take all of the sins that had "accumulated in the sanctuary" during the year and would place them upon his head. He was then led into the wilderness to die far away from the camp of Israel. This symbolically represented the cleansing of the God's house in heaven by a divine judgment after 1798. In this judgment proper blame for the origin of sin is placed upon the head of Satan before his final banishment from the presence of God and His people at the end of time.
This banishment occurs during the millennium and the destroyed earth represents the wilderness where Satan will be confined. The scapegoat is thrown off a high cliff and killed. Satan is killed after the millennium, but He also fell from Mount Zion in heaven after the crucifixion of Jesus. (Luke 10: 18-19)

Burnt Offering: Bull, Ram And Seven Male Lambs.
On Yom Kippur several animals were offered as the burnt offering. It is this ram that the scapegoat attacks in the vision.

The Day Of Atonement
Time Out for Satan
The fact that the sins are confessed over the goat does not mean that the goat pays the price for the sin. This goat does not die, so he does not atone for the sins of the innocent.
Confessing the sins in his hearing means that he hears the list of charges for which God holds him responsible. He caused the sins but he cannot pay for them. So God puts them in his head so that he has a thousand years to contemplate all the mysery and every evil deed which he did, or inspired or caused.
"Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat: And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so he shall do for the tabernacle of the congregation, that remains among them in the middle of their uncleanness." "And he shall go out to the altar that is before the Lord, and make an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel.
Satan Hears the Legal Charges against Him. And when he has made an end of reconciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the live goat: And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness: And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities to a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness.
(Leviticus 16: 15,16, 18-22)

The Ram.
A ram was also offered as a burnt offering on this day. This prophecy used this positive image to describe Medo-Persia. Why does it do that?

It follows a trend in the prophecies of Medo-Persia rescuing the people of God. Although at some level this kingdom represents an oppressor of God's people, for some reason, God uses symbols associated with this empire to represent a positive role. Let us explore these other images.

Ram Ram (Lamb)Attacked by the Satanic goat that represented both the Greek and the Roman empires
Cyrus Conqueror chosen by GodCyrus is a type of Jesus who rescues Israel. The Persian empire rescued Israel from Babylon. It was also the only pagan empire that rebuilt the temple of God. The others destroyed it in some way
Cyrus and Darius Kings From the EastRevelation 16: 12. The church will be rescued by the kings from the east who dried up the Euphrates river. Israel was rescued by Medo-Persia which was east of Babylon

Hattamid: The Continual [Daily]
What is this "daily" or "continual" from Daniel 8: 11-13, Daniel 11:31, and in Daniel 12:11?
The terms "tamid" (continual) and "Hatamid or Hattamid" (THE Continual) refers to an offering that is constantly beng made. According to the Stonng's Concordance, the word "tamid" [continual] occurs 104 times and the word "hattamid" occurs 24 of those times, wa-tamid twice and tamid 78 times.

In fact every instance of the "daily" used in Daniel is accompanied by a prefix which is used only in Numbers 4: 7. This prefix is the definite article "The" and the word "sacrifice" is incorrectly supplied by translators.
Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him THE daily [HaTamid] sacrifice was taken away, and the place of the sanctuary was cast down. And an host was given him against THE daily [HaTamid] sacrifice was taken away by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered. Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning THE daily [HaTamid] sacrifice was taken away, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? (Daniel 8: 11-13)

In fact the little horn replaced two important Continuals, the Bread of the Presence and the Sabbath when it usurped the eternal Continual ministry of God's Witnesses and memorials.

The Little Horn
In the sanctuary service blood was collected from the sacrificed animal and placed on the horns of the furniture. This might be a prophecy that the horn is guilty of blood. So just as Yom Kippur transfers blame from the ram to the goat, it also transfers responsibility for blood (death and murder) to the little horn. Papal and Pagan Rome are responsible. However, a popular interpretation assigns the fulfillment of the little horn to the work of a Greek ruler named Antiochus Epiphanes.

The Explanation
The explanation of the prophecy is given in verses 19-27.
ProphecyExplained in Daniel 8Spiritual ParallelDestruction
Ram Medo-Persian EmpireJesus ChristThe Place.
Sanctuary trampled
ExplainedTwo Horns»Kings of Media and Persia»Human and Divine natures
GoatGreek EmpireFallen and corrupted Earth
ExplainedGreat Horn»First king (Alexander the Great)»Satan
ExplainedFour Horns»Breaks into four kingdoms»Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome
Little Horn Fierce King (Rome) Antichrist
ExplainedSanctuary Trampled»Rome burned the sanctuary in 70 AD»There was war in heaven
ExplainedGreat to heaven»Mighty but not by his own power»Has an army of evil angels
ExplainedMagnified to Prince of Princes»Stands up against Jesus Christ.
Claims to be god
»Covets the throne of God The People.
Host (Jews, Christ and Christians) trampled
ExplainedCast down stars»Destroys the mighty and holy people»One third of the angels fell
ExplainedThe host was given to it with the daily »Host. The mighty and holy people»He got the earth and people
Explained »Daily. Papal Rome assumed the role of priest and intercessor»He became our constant and continual accuser Laws, High Priest and Offering.
Laws trampled. High Priest killed like an animal
ExplainedRemoved the continual from the Commander»His policy causes craft and deceit to succeed. Sacrifices stopped in the sanctuary »He deceived Adam and Eve. Humans turned away from God
ExplainedMagnifies Himself »Removes laws, changes times and laws, Sabbath. Claims duties of God»He gave the curses. Changes time from 40 to 42 and 28 to 30
ExplainedSanctuary RestoredHe will be broken without hand (human agency) Defeated by God
Unexplained2300 days Not Explained
Then I, Daniel, was exhausted and sick for days. Then I got up and carried on the King's business; but I was astounded at the vision, And there was none to explain it. (Daniel 8: 27)
How could Daniel say that the vision was not explained? If you review verses 19 to 27 you will see that the only thing that was not explained was the 2300 days. In the next vision in chapter nine, the angel returns to explain a vision about time.

The People Of God
The place, people and laws of the sanctuary were trampled. How did this happen? We will explore why the people of God were handed over to the little horn.
It even magnified itself to be equal with the Commander of the host; and it removed the regular sacrifice from Him, and the place of His sanctuary was thrown down.
And on account of transgression, the host will be given over to the little horn along with the regular sacrifice [daily]; and it will fling truth to the ground and it will perform its will and prosper.
(Daniel 8: 11-12)
The record says that they were put under the rule of the little horn because they sinned. This is the curse being fulfilled. God handed them over to their enemies so that they would be ruled by their enemies. Each apostasy accomplished all desolations, but a major event in the global desolation was fulfilled when each group of people were handed over.

Type The Pattern: Jesus The Ram
This vision was also the pattern of future events. Jesus is the ram with two horns (human and divine). The higher horn came up at the end because the divine would reclaim the human at His resurrection. He was attacked and killed by the scapegoat Satan on Passover 31 AD, the beginning of the day of atonement. That scapegoat has prospered for 2000 years through the little horn power. At the end of time the day of atonement events will conclude when the scapegoat appears alive before the people in the false second coming. Then his original fate will be imposed as he is banished during the millennium.

Law Spiritual Warfare: The Destruction Of The Sanctuary (Numbers 10)
Numbers 10 is the law about the disassembly of the sanctuary and people during the exodus. Our exodus began after the crucifixion with Christ leading as our High Priest. This prophecy suggests that because of transgression we were handed over to the little horn of the scapegoat who usurped the place of Christ and tore down the true sanctuary on the day of atonement. These are the steps in transporting the sanctuary and people.
First, the priest leads the people.

Ark of the Covenant
The Goat Attacks The Little Horn Attacks Cloud Holy Objects Arrive Cloud Fire
Sanctuary Taken Down Fabric and roof
Sanctuary building
Sanctuary Restored Kohath: Holy Objects
Joseph Dan
Arrow Left Led By Christ (Priest-King) Sanctuary Destroyed Church Afflicted Sanctuary
Passover Ram Killed "Lord's Goat" Christ Killed Jews Afflicted Martyrs
Eastern Tribes 31 AD Southern Tribes 1798 1844 West (Pleasant Land) North

Rejection. Christ was rejected by both branches of the church. So each was turned over to Rome.

Transgression. When the people rejected the leadership of Christ and went astray, they were given up to the little horn because of transgression. Then the little horn destroyed everything (Daniel 8: 9-14).
And on account of transgression the host will be given over to the horn along with the regular sacrifice; and it will fling truth to the ground and perform its will and prosper. (Daniel 8: 12)

Law Spiritual Warfare: The Day Of Atonement
Daniel 8 has always been presented here as a Yom Kippur drama because of the symbolism of a broken sanctuary. Then I recently learned from the Talmud and others about Erev-Boker.

Repeat Repetition and Enlargement
Daniel has another vision about the same empires. At the time the vision was given, Babylon was about to be conquered by the Persians. Therefore, you will notice that this nation was no longer mentioned. It is no longer prophecy, it is history.
Again, let us take a look at the symbolism. They were important because of the audience and the specific details being introduced.

  1. Precious Metals. To Nebuchadnezzar, the symbolism of wealth would immediately help him to understand the value of each successive kingdom. It also reminded him of the pagan view of time. This cyclic time will be interrupted by the Rock.
  2. Wild Beasts. To the Jew, the symbolism of an attack on the nation by wild beasts would lead them to think of the curses of the covenant.
  3. Yom Kippur Animals. To the Jew, the symbolism of the ram and the goat would invoke images of Yom Kippur and the cleansing of the sanctuary. This fact is very significant because Daniel 8: 14 introduced the cleansing of the sanctuary. This prophecy describes the attack on the sanctuary during Yom Kippur.
PowerDaniel 2Daniel 4Daniel 7Daniel 8Additional Information
Metal ManTreeWild BeastsYom Kippur
BabylonHead of goldLeaf, fruitLion-Not mentioned because Babylon is about to be conquered
Medo-PersiaChest of silverStump, axeBear RamTwo horns one is higher than the other. Same as the bear with one side higher than the other. The higher horn came up last is a new detail
Two Arms Two sides - one higherTwo Horns - one higher
GreeceBelly and thighs of brassBrass bandLeopard GoatThe Goat came from the west. Had a great horn which was later broken into four horns at a time when he was very strong
Four headsFour horns
Rome (Pagan)Legs of ironIron bandTerrible beast Little
HorizontalThe terrible nature. The two phased attack
Rome (Papal)Little hornVertical A religious power with a big mouth
Europe Ten toes (Iron and clay feet)Roots in clayTen horns Little hornNot mentioned because it is the little horn that becomes significant in the rest of the prophecy - not the ten horns
Kingdom of GodRockHoly OnesJudgmentSanctuary cleansedA judgment scene - specifically Yom Kippur

Study to show yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. 2 Timothy 2: 15 Time: 60 minutes
Print: 10 pages
Copyright     Updated : January 29, 2005. September 2009
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor:
Holy Spirit taught me the sanctuary and Yom Kippur symbols and the disassembly of the sanctuary in the prophecy.
All images were created by Laverna Patterson and are the property of teachinghearts.