Teachinghearts
Old Testament Prophecies

"Explore the Word. Change the World"
 Home  | Contact  | Become a Christian  | Lessons  | 700+ New Messianic Prophecies  | Modern Science In The Bible

Exodus Babylon Mark of God Four Horsemen Pentecost Other Nations Armageddon Jerusalem
Old Testament Ezekiel Isaiah Jeremiah Minor Prophets Joel Zechariah
Other Prophecies Messianic Revelation Daniel Study Plan History View New Testament

The Patriarchs
As we study the Old testament we realize that the lives and decisions of our forefathers were used by God to teach us about faith and as a pattern of prophetic events.
Old Testament PatternNew Testament Parallel
Event Detail Event Detail
Sin Begins A snake tempts the woman to eat forbidden fruit Idolatry A snake tempts the church (woman) to change the law of God, a forbidden action
Cain and Abel Cain murders Abel over religion. Cain broke the law by creating his own offering Martyrs The wicked murder the righteous over religion. The wicked create their own system of religion
Noah Noah warns the world for 120 years that the earth will be destroyed by a flood Remnant They warn the world that the earth will be destroyed by fire
Flood Noah waits seven days in the ark for the Flood that destroys the earth Second Coming The righteous wait seven days in booths for the end of the world
Son Sacrificed Abraham attempts to sacrifice Isaac to prove that He loved God Crucifixion God sacrificed His Son because He loved the world
Drought Elijah. No rain for 3.5 years (1260 days). Jezebel corrupts Israel Dark Ages Papacy corrupted religion for 1260 years
Egypt Israel. Slaves in Egypt for 400 to 430 years Christ Slaves to sin for 4000 years until Christ was 30
Exodus Israel leaves Egypt to go to the Promised Land and crosses the Red Sea Rapture Christ leaves the earth to go back to heaven
The church leaves the earth to go back to heaven, crossing over the Sea of Glass
Babylon Israel is rescued from Babylon by the kings from the east Babylon the Great The righteous are rescued from Babylon the Great by Christ who comes from the east

The Plagues Of Egypt
The plagues were an attack on Pharaoh (the god on earth) and all the Egyptian gods. God took power over every region that they claimed to rule and turned it against them so that it ultimately destroyed them. So, from the perspective of the Egyptians either their gods were powerless or their gods destroyed them.

  1. The First Three. These plagues fell on everyone. The magicians were able to duplicate the first two plagues (Exodus 8: 18-19).
  2. The Last Seven. These plagues fell on the Egyptians only. (Exodus 8: 22)

We do not know how long these plagues lasted or when they started. We know that they ended on Nisan 14.

The Ten Plagues
# Miracles /Plague Target Place Date Exodus Comment
- Rod to snakePharaoh, magicians Pharaoh hardens Palace - 7: 8-13Magicians copied this and next 2 plagues
1 BloodNatural waters, reservoirs Pharaoh hardens All Egypt including Goshen 7 days7:19-22Probably occurred in the inundation season when the Nile overflowed its banks. But it could have contaminated their resovoirs when water was low
2 FrogsNatural watersPharaoh hardens -8:5-15
3 GnatsDust Pharaoh hardens Tishri 1?8:16-19Magicians could not copy this miracle
4 InsectsHouses and land Pharaoh hardens Egyptians Only Tishri 10?8:27-32Moses sacrificed 3 days away
5 Sores on animalsAnimals Pharaoh hardens Tebeth?9:1-7These plagues occurred in the sowing season so that the plants emerged in time to be destroyed by the next plagues
6 Boils on man and animalsSoot in the air God hardens Shevat?9:8-12
7 Thunder, rain and hailSky, trees, houses Pharaoh hardens Adar?9:18-34Ruined the flax and barley. The flax was budding and barley in the ear
8 LocustsLand, plants God hardens Nisan10:1-20All remaining plants (Wheat and spelt)
9 DarknessSky, land God hardens Nisan 7-910:21-27It lasted three days probably (Nisan 7-9)
10Firstborn deadEgyptian homes God hardens Nisan 1412:29-14:4Nisan 10-14
Pharaoh hardens Pharaoh Hardened His Heart God hardens God Hardened Pharaoh's Heart
- 01 2 3 4 5 God hardens 6 7 God hardens 8 God hardens 9 God hardens 10-
Ab Elul Tishri Tebeth Shevat Adar Nisan (Abib) Iyar Sivan
- Snake Rain Frogs Gnats Insects Animal Plague Rain Locusts Darkness Death Exodus Sinai
- Copied by Magicians Warning God The Finger of God Exodus of Israel
- Three Plagues on All Seven Plagues Affected Egyptians Only
Low water Season (Harvest) Inundation Season (Winter) Emergence Season (Spring)

We can only date the tenth plague with certainty. I am guessing when the others occurred based on the symbolic meaning of the feasts. Because the plagues were so devastating, I also assumed that the plague occurred in a very short time. Based on the Seven Last Plagues I assumed that the maximum amount of time was one year and based on the feasts, I assumed that the minimum time was seven months.
So there may have been an average of about two weeks between each plague. The plagues probably started six months earlier in Tishri, the month judgment begins. The third plague may have been on Yom Kippur when God made a distinction between Israel and Egypt. Then the seven last plagues began on Tabernacles to signify that God protected them.
It is also possible that the plagues started in the innundation season and all ten plagues were completed in 18 weeks.
» The Warning Plague (Tishri 1). The third plague was a transition. It was the first miracle that could not be copied by the magicians and the last plague that fell on all people. After this God made a distinction between the Jews and Egyptians. It probably occurred on Tishri 1, the day when the world is called to judgment.
» In the Valley of Decision. At some point in the future, after the world has brought forth their competing argument, the world will have a test that is clearly the finger of God. After this, the righteous will be separated from the wicked.
» The Fourth Plague (Yom Kippur). When Moses sacrificed three days away, it was most likely the tenth of the month. This equivalent of Yom Kippur (Tishri 10) and when the Passover lamb was selected (Nisan 10). After this the Jews would be the selected nation. When He returned three days later, it was possibly the fourteenth to prepare for the Sabbath on the fifteenth. It was time for the exodus separation. The time for Tabernacles (Tishri 15), the parallel to Passover (Nisan 14).

The Hardening Of Pharaoh's Heart
Critics say that it was unjust for God to harden Pharaoh's heart so that he would sin and then punish him for decisions out of his control. Those who defend God point to a scenario under which God is not at fault. Through their own decisions, people either become like wax or clay. God is the sun who shines on both. The same rays will melt wax but harden the clay. So God was able to harden Pharaoh's heart because Pharoah had an unyielding heart.
Let us look at the sequence of events from another perspective which demonstrates God's dealings with the wicked. It demonstrates that when God hardens His own heart that the wicked are sealed in their own evil decisions. Even when God softens His heart the wicked spurn His gestures of mercy.
Pharaoh hardens We Harden Our Hearts God hardens Wicked Killed Pharaoh hardens Satan Plots Revenge God hardens Wicked Annihilated
6000 Years of Rebellion Second Coming Millennium Judgment Armageddon Darkness Second Death

The Ten Plagues of Egypt
An attack On The Egyptian Gods. (Numbers 33: 4)

These plagues fell on everyone.
Osiris
Osiris
  1. Blood from the Nile: Khnum, Sothis and Hapy. Khnum is giver of the Nile and creator of man. Sothis and Hapy were gods of flood waters
  2. Frogs from the Nile: Heket. Symbolized by a frog.
  3. Flies from the dust:
    Aker . Earth god
These plagues fell on the Egyptians.
Hapy
Hapy
  1. Insects destroyed crops: Seth, Osiris, Thermuthis
    Seth. Desert, earth, storms and crops.
    Osiris. Vegetation
    Thermutis. Harvest
  2. Disease killed animals:
    Isis. Healing.
    Hathor. Cow
  3. Sores on the people from dust in the air: Nut, Isis
    Nut. Sky Goddess.
    Isis. Life and healing
  4. Hail: Nut and Horus. Sky gods.
  5. Locusts: Khepri, Selket . Symbolized by insects (beetle and scorpion).
  6. Darkness: Re, Atum, Mut, Khepri . Sun gods.
  7. Death of First born: Bes, Osiris, Selket, Thoth. Protection, life and death, full moon.
Pharaoh was worshipped as a god.

The Exodus
The experience of Israel in Egypt is a copy of our journey from sin to righteous.

Slavery In Egypt
God compared slavery in Egypt to slavery in sin.
When He gave the ten commandments, God specifically mentions two things that made Him worthy to be worshipped.

  1. He rescued them from slavery in Egypt and from sin.
  2. He was the creator.

Moses And Aaron
God sent two witnesses to urge Pharaoh to let the people go. God specifically wanted them to go so that they could observe a Sabbath with Him.
Moses lived to be 120 and his life was divided into a set of three periods of forty years.

  1. Egyptian Education. He grew up and was educated as a son of Pharaoh until he had to run after he killed an Egyptian who was beating an Israelite.
  2. Shepherd. He spent the next forty years tending sheep. He was being tested and trained as God's leader.
  3. Exodus. He spent his last forty years leading the rebellious people from Egypt to Canaan.

Fifty Journeys From Slavery In Sin To Jubilee
Camping in the Wilderness Numbers 33
#Camp Site Comment
1Ramses First Passover. Nisan 1
2Succoth First booths
Left Egypt
3♣ Etham The edge of the wilderness
Israel Crosses the Red Sea
4Pi-hahiroth Cross Red sea
5 ♣ Marah After 3 days
6 Elim 12 springs and 70 palm trees
7 Red Sea -
8♣ Wilderness of Sin Iyar 15. Manna
9Dophkah -
10Alush -
11Rephidim Had no water. Fought Amalek
♣♠ Massah Moses strikes rock
12♣♠ Wilderness of Sinai Calf, ten Commandments
-♣♠ Taberah Fire from God
13♣♠ Kibroth-Hattaavah Ate quail meat. Plague
14♣ Hazeroth Miriam's leprosy
15♣ Rithmah Wilderness of Paran. Spies in Canaan
16Pharaoh hardens Rimmon-Perez Tried to take Canaan without God. Earthquake, plague, Aaron's rod test
17Libnah Sentenced to wander for forty years.

The part of the journey should have taken eleven days. (Deuteronomy 1: 2)
18Rissah
19Kehelathah
20Mount Shepher
21Haradah
22Makheloth
23Tahath
24Terah
25Mithkah
26Hashmonah
27Moseroth
28Bene-Jaakan
29Hor-Haggidgad
30Jotbathah
31Abronah
32Ezion-Geber
33♠ Kadesh-Barnea
(Wilderness of Zin)
(Meribah)
Miriam died. No water. Water from the rock. Moses sins. Strikes rock twice.
34Mount Hor (Edom) Aaron died
35Zalmonah -
36Punon Fiery snakes
37Oboth -
38Iyim (Iye-Abarim) Border of Moab
39Dibon-Gad -
40Almon-Diblathaim -
41Abarim Mountains Before Nebo
42Pharaoh hardens Abel-Shittim Jordan River. Baalam curses Israel. Census
Israel enters the Promised Land.
Crosses the Jordan River
43Babylon Israel is occupied or taken captive because they sinned
44Medo-Persia
45Greece
46Rome
47Papal Rome The church is given over because of sin
48Communism
49Babylon the Great Persecution
Global Israel enters the Promised Land
and Leaves the Land of Sin.
Crosses the Sea of Glass
50New Jerusalem Heaven
♠ They tested God in these five places. Deuteronomy 9: 13-24
♣ They complained and tested God ten times. Numbers 14: 22
Pharaoh hardens Other rebellion
The places on the exodus journey are recorded in Numbers 33, Numbers 11 and Exodus 16-17.
Exodus

In Numbers 33, Moses recorded 42 official campsites where Israel stayed. They would only begin their journey if God moved in the pillar of clouds.
There are 42 of these journeys recorded from Egypt to their crossing into the promised land after forty years. These numbers are similar to the 42 prophetic months that the church of God would spend in the wilderness under the control of the church.

After they reached the promised land, there were seven powers that dominated them. This is described in prophecy as the seven headed beast. This makes 49 journeys. This number is representative of the last year before the jubilee. Our fiftieth journey will be across the Sea of Glass into the New Jerusalem.
This is the last exodus.

In all these crossings God miraculously parted the waters.
  • Red Sea. (Exodus 14: 21-22)
  • Jordan River. (Joshua 3: 15-17)
  • Sea Of Glass. The sky splits and rolls up like a scroll (Revelation 6: 14). This is significant because in the description of the creation God describes the universe as being between a layer of water.

The Seven Trumpets Of Jericho
Jericho was a part of the Promised Land that was occupied. God took the land in a strange process of blowing trumpets. It was on the day that they would obtain victory that they blew the trumpets seven times. These are like the seven last trumpets before the walls of Babylon fall and we take possession of the eternal Promised Land and the New Jerusalem. In this case the evil nations build a wall to keep God and His children out of the city. In the final days the evil nations build a wall to keep us out of the city where God is.

  1. Weekday. They marched around the city once in silence and then blew the trumpets.
  2. Sabbath. They marched around the city seven times in silence and then blew the trumpets. After this the walls fell down.

The Final Message And The Death Of Moses. Before his death Moses gave a final message to the people. Israel was on the borders of the Promised Land for the second time. As part of entering the land they went through the following events.

  • Numbering. The people were numbered so that they could receive their inheritance. The inheritance was divided as follows.
    • 2½ Tribes. Reuben, Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh stayed on one side of the Jordan.
    • 9½ Tribes. The other nine tribes and the remaining half of Manasseh moved across the Jordan.
    144,000 are numbered before we cross over the sea of glass into the New Jerusalem.
  • Revenge. They took revenge on the Midianites who led them into idolatry.
  • A Song with a Message. Moses gave a farewell song in which he urged the people to obey God.
    The words are structured after the message of the three angels in Revelation 14. After they obey the message they cross over the sea of glass and enter the Promised Land.
  • Second Reading of the Law. Joshua repeated the laws, the blessings and curses that they received at Sinai. The people were repeating the covenant promise. This is like the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles.

The Intercessor System
The people chose a human intercessor system instead of going up to meet God face to face. Christ became their human intercessor as the God who came down in human form to meet humans face to face instead.
The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him. This is according to all that your asked of the Lord your Hod in Horeb on the day of the assembly saying, "Let me not hear again the voice of the Lord God, let me not see His great fire anymore, or I will die." The Lord said to me, "They have spoken well." I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. (Deuteronomy 18: 15-19)
An intercessor was chosen because they were afraid of God.
The Lord spoke to you face to face at the mountain from the midst of fire, while I was standing between the Lord and you at that time, to declare to you the word of the Lord, for you were afraid because of the fire and did not go up the mountain. (Deuteronomy 5: 4-5)
The Inheritance
The Tribes
Joseph received a double portion as promised, through Ephraim and Manasseh. (Genesis 48: 22)

It seems that they were also invited to go up the mountain but begged Moses to go instead.

Canaan - The Promised Land
This is the land flowing with milk and honey. The land that Abraham saw by faith and walked through as a stranger. His descendants finally inherited the land.
At the center of the land is Jerusalem. In the center is the temple. At the center is the Most Holy Place where God lived.

The Divided Kingdom
After the death of King Solomon, the nation was divided into two kingdoms.

  1. Northern. The ten tribes who were eventually captured by the Assyrians.
  2. Southern. The two tribes of Benjamin and Judah and the Levites. They were later captured by Babylon.

The Twelve Sons Of Israel
The children of Israel were given names by their mothers that represented their trials or hope for their sons (Genesis 29, 30 and 35). By the time she had her fourth son, Leah stopped naming her sons with the hope she had for her husband's love. She started thanking God. After that she again named her sons with her struggles and anguish. Judah became the son through whom the Messiah was born.
As he was dying, Israel blessed each son that was based on a prophecy of their future (Genesis 48-49).
Assemble yourselves that I may tell you what will befall you in the days to come. (Genesis 49: 1)
The history of the children of Israel does not appear to fulfill their destiny according to the words of Jacob. Manasseh was the largest tribe. However, the meaning can be seen if you compare these words to the destiny of the Messiah and the destiny of the nations in the New Jerusalem.

These describe the experience of Christ during His final week.
If they could apply to the end of time, the descriptions probably refer to the fate of different groups of people as they respond to the persecution. Their response may determine to which tribe God assigns them.
The Twelve Sons of Israel
#Name Meaning Character Destiny
1 Reuben See my afflictions Adultery He will not have preeminence SupportNew Jerusalem Tribe
2 Simeon Hated, unloved Violent and cruel Dispersed and scattered Refugees and
Missionaries
New Jerusalem Tribe
3 Levi Attached New Jerusalem Tribe
4 Judah Praise the Lord Like a lion He will be a king who defeats his enemies AdministrationNew Jerusalem Tribe
5 Dan Judged A serpent He will judge Israel Man of Sin -
6 Naphtali Wrestled, prevailedA loose deer Says beautiful words. Bears beautiful fawns IntercessorNew Jerusalem Tribe
7 Gad With fortune Fighter He will be raided but he will fight back WarriorNew Jerusalem Tribe
8 Asher Happy Fat Bread He will have plenty of good food (life) HospitalityNew Jerusalem Tribe
9 Issachar WagesA strong donkey Will be a slave HelpsNew Jerusalem Tribe
10 Zebulun Honor, a good gift Safe harbor He will live by the sea. A safe harbor TeachersNew Jerusalem Tribe
11 Joseph Reproach removed.
Add another son
Firm, agile A fruitful bough, distinguished among his brothersEvangelists New Jerusalem Tribe
Manasseh Making to forget Great nation He will become a great nation -New Jerusalem Tribe
Ephraim Fruitful Greater nation He will be a greater nation than his brother - -
12 Benjamin Son of the right hand Ravenous wolf He captures his prey but shares the wealth Watch menNew Jerusalem Tribe
New Jerusalem Tribe These tribes are in the New Jerusalem. Ephraim may be a part of Joseph but Dan is definitely missing

Some will spread the gospel, others will be dispossessed and become refugees. Joseph still receives a double portion, but he takes the portion of his younger son Ephraim. Ephraim may be a larger tribe than his brother simply because he is not a separate tribe but his tribe is joined with His father. This makes Joseph a double tribe who also has a double portion among the twelve tribes through his other son, Manasseh.

The Law Of The First Born
He shall acknowledge the first born ... by giving him a double portion of all that he has, for he is the beginning of his strength; to him belongs the right of the firstborn. (Deuteronomy 21: 17)
The law of the first born is consistently not applied in the case of where the line of the Messiah would come. For the Messiah, it was more than an issue of who was born first.
The Ancestors of Jesus
#Father First Born Other Son Son's Wife Problem or Praise
1 Abraham Ishmael ★ Isaac Rebekah Ishmael was not the son born through the promise. He was born through his father's efforts, not God's miracle.
2 Isaac Esau ★ Jacob Leah Esau treated his birthright as insignificant. But Jacob fought for it
3 Jacob Reuben ★ Judah Tamar Reuben showed disrespect for his father and he had no self control. Tamar played the harlot because Judah sinned
8 Nahshon ★ Salma none Rahab Rahab was a prostitute in Jericho who helped Israel
9 Boaz ★ Obed none Ruth Ruth was a widower and a foreigner from Moab, but she was loyal
11 Jesse Eliab ★ David Bathsheba David was courageous, but committed adultery with Bathsheba
12 David Amnon ★ Solomon - Solomon desired wisdom
Jesus was the only first born who deserved the inheritance because He was faithful in every respect. His birth was the result of a miracle from God. He embraced His destiny and came to vindicate the name of His Father.
Jesus also emerged from a long line of women who were prostitutes or adulterers or Gentile rejects. But their one outstanding quality is that they did the will of God and protected the people of God. But God, Jesus, would be born of a woman who sinned or who was hated and He would love a woman who played the harlot.

The God Of The Old And New Testament
Jesus said that He came to reveal the Father to the world. Yet, the lie still circulates that the God Who reveals Himself in the Old Testament is a vengeful and nasty person Who delights in punishment. This is simply a defamation of His character. The problem with the Old Testament is not God, it was the imperfect people whose 4,000 years of tabloid behavior has been splashed across the headlines of the Bible. The rose-colored glasses through which we view the New Testament is simply because it is only about the actions of God and it spans a very short time.
The one change that God made to restore His name in the New Testament is to reveal Christ and to take justice out of the hands of humans.
» A Kinder, Gentler God. The apparent change in the laws about "loving our neighbor" and "eye for an eye" are seen as the evidence that God has softened and are used as the evidence to support this myth about the angry God.

So the difference between the Old and New Testament is that we have a perfect sacrifice, a perfect High Priest and a perfect system of divine justice. God has removed the imperfect animals, human priests and human justice system. They no longer have the directive to represent what He will do to solve the problem of sin because they corrupted His message. Jesus Christ is that perfect message and that perfect example. That is why He is the Word of God.

Curses And Marks

The Curse And Mark On Cain
Behold You have driven me this day from the face of the ground; and from Your face I will be hidden, and I will be a vagrant and a wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me." So the Lord said to him, "Therefore whoever kills Cain, vengeance will be taken on him seven fold". And the Lord appointed a sign for Cain, so that no one finding him would slay him. (Genesis 4: 14-15)
In every analysis of this event that I have ever seen, everyone has commented on the negative aspects of this story. Many speculate on the nature of this sign. Some claim that this was the black skin and all talk about this mark as a sign of punishment.
But when you look at what was accomplished and compare it to a similar law in Judaism you fin the mercy of God was protecting the man killer or murderer.
» The Punishment of Cain. Instead of being a farmer, he was sentenced to be a nomad who was unable to make the earth produce his needs. He was probably the first tent dweller.
» The City of Refuge. In Cain, God established the earth as a city of refuge. Here, no revenge can be taken on the sinner as long as he stayed in the city. Then, at the death of the high priest, he was free. Numbers 35: 12, 24,25,28. In the Plan of Salvation, the earth is the city of refuge, we were confined to the earth and Jesus Christ is the High Priest. At the death of Jesus we were set free. So we have the same High Priest, city and plan as Cain, but what is this mark on Cain?
» The Mark of Cain. It is purely racism that makes people speculate that a sign of great punishment and rejection would be the black skin. It could just as easily have been white skin or blue eyes or curly hair or six fingers or a limp. But since the sin and sign were specifically for Cain it should not apply to his children and therefore should not be a sign of genetic origin. We do not know what the sign is, but the sign is something that protected him and made him live.
In the end the beast applies a sign that allows us to be murdered, at the same time God applies a sign on our hand and forehead that will make us live. These signs are not merely static physical marks but active behaviors. Perhaps the sign for Cain is an act of contrition or acknowledgement of God. If Cain worshipped God and has not rejected Him, therefore Cain has repented and returned to the fold and deserves to live.

The Mark Of God
In ancient Israel, judgment was preceded by separating the good from the evil. A mark was placed on the people of God. With this mark the people of God were saved while His enemies were destroyed.
At least two times in the history of Israel, a mark was used to identify the people of God. It is interesting to note that the seal of God is applied in the forehead. This means that the mental acceptance of God (faith) was more important than the works.

The mark of the beast is applied both to those who believe and act on the beliefs and it is applied in the same place Israel tied the law to their bodies.

The First Passover - The Mark On The House
Before the final plague was sent to Egypt, the people followed a ritual that would protect them from the destroying angel. A lamb was killed and its blood was placed on the doorposts and lintels (this is equivalent to the arms and the head of the door). (Exodus 12). The house was marked instead of the people. This protected everyone inside.
Moreover, they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two door posts and on the lintel of the houses in which they eat it.
The blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you live; and when I see the blood I will pass over you, and no plague will come on you to destroy you when I strike the land was Egypt.
(Exodus 12: 7, 13)

The Prophecy Of Ezekiel - The Mark On The People
Look, six men came from the direction of the upper gate which faces north, each with his shattering weapon in his hand; and among them was a certain man in linen with a writing case at his loins. And they went in and stood beside the bronze altar. Then the glory of the God of Israel went up from the cherub on which it had been, to the threshold of the temple. And He called to the man clothed in linen at whose loins was the writing case. Go through the midst of the city, even through the midst of Jerusalem, and put a mark on the foreheads of the men who sigh and groan over all the abominations which are being committed in its midst. But to the others He said in my hearing, "Go through the city after him and strike; do not let your eye have any pity and do not spare". "Utterly slay old men, young men, maidens, little children and women, but do not touch any man on whom is the mark; and you shall start from My sanctuary", So they started with the elders who were before the temple. (Ezekiel 9: 2-6)
This prophecy contains more details about the process.

  1. Seven heavenly messengers. They were used to carry out the judgments. One marked the people of God, then the remaining six destroyed those without the mark.
  2. Judgment starts in the house of God. God first started with the priests and leaders who represented Him.
  3. The Righteous. They were chosen because they were against the idolatry and sins being committed against God.

New Testament Parallels: The Mark Of The Beast
In Revelation, the beast completes his corruption of the activities of God and also marks his followers in the same location that God marks His people.
But he accepts those who are marked in either the right hand or the forehead. He is unconcerned about whether or not you believe or if you just follow the crowd and act.
In Zephaniah God rejects those who do not choose.
... I will punish the men who are arrogant in spirit, who say in their hearts, "the Lord will not do good or evil". (Zephaniah 1: 12)

Even God marks Himself so that He does not forget us.
Look, I have inscribed you in the palms of my hands; Your walls are continually before Me. (Isaiah 49: 16)

The Mark Passover Ezekiel Law keeper Seal of God God Mark of the Beast
Item marked Door Person Person Person God Person
Top Lintel Forehead Forehead Forehead Eyes Forehead
Arms Doorpost   . Hand  :. Hands Hand
Text Exodus 12: 7 Ezekiel 9: 4 Deuteronomy 6: 8 Revelation 7: 3 Isaiah 49: 16 Revelation 13: 16

Other Prophecies
Many prophecies to Israel seem to have both a local and a global fulfillment. What is clear is that Daniel and John use many of these same images to describe the global prophecies.
The prophecies seem to have a dual fulfillment not because they can be made to mean anything, but because God uses a pattern or a formula for his response to apostasy and rescue.

Generally, the prophecies have a local fulfillment because it is a localized response by God to the broken covenant - a series of curses then a long period of judgment by captivity in a foreign nation.

But the prophet looks to the future when there will be a final end to this cycle of betrayal and punishment.
God looks forward to this also by stating that the new covenant will bring a new heart that will obey Him.

The Four Horsemen
Now I lifted up my eyes again and looked and saw, four chariots were coming fort from between the two mountains; and the mountains were bronze mountains. With the first chariot were red horses, with the second chariot black horses, With the third chariot white horses, and with the fourth chariot dappled horses. Then I spoke and said to the angel who was speaking with me, "what are these my lord?" The angel replied to me, "These are the four spirits of heaven, going forth after standing before the Lord of all the earth. (Zechariah 6: 1-5)

Joel 2: 1-4 - War horses bring fiery judgment on the day of the Lord.
Zechariah 1: 8-10 suggests that these horses are sent by God to patrol the earth and execute judgments.
Zechariah 6 describes four different horses that patrol the north and south.

  1. Red. The direction is unknown (probably north).
  2. Black. He patrols the north.
  3. White. He patrols the north.
  4. Grey. He patrols the south.

Daniel saw the final powers as being the King of the North and the King of the South.

Pentecost: The Outpouring Of The Holy Spirit
Joel predicts an outpouring of the spirit in the last days that will have many prophesying, having visions and dreams.
The purpose seems to be centered around a knowledge of the will of God - not miracles.
Before them the earth quakes, the heavens tremble, the sun and moon grow dark and the stars lose their brightness.
It will come about after this that I will pour out My spirit on all mankind; and your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions. Even on the male and female servants I will pour out My spirit in those days. I will display wonders in the sky and on the earth, blood, fire and columns of smoke. The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the great and awesome day of the Lord comes.
(Joel 2: 10, 28-31)

Astronomical Signs. There are many passages that describe signs in the sky before the day of the Lord.
Joel 2: 10; 3: 15-16; Joel 1: 15. Jeremiah 4: 23-28. Haggai 2: 6-7.
Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision. The sun and moon grow dark and the stars lose their brightness. (Joel 3: 14-15)

New Testament Parallels. Revelation has similar images.

  1. Four Horsemen. They are the first four of the seven seals, they execute judgments that are related to the curses.
    They bring war instead of peace, famine and death.
  2. The Holy Spirit. He was poured out at Pentecost and in the last days it will be used to carry out the message of the 3 angels.
  3. Astronomical Signs. Christ gave last day prophecies that refer to earthquakes, darkened sun, red moon and falling stars and the sixth seal of Revelations refers to the signs in the heavens. Revelation 6:12, Matthew 24: 29-30; Hebrews 12: 26-29.

Babylon
The captivity in Babylon was a direct result of the curses applied because of rebellion. Years before Israel was divided into a Northern (ten tribes of Israel) and a Southern kingdom (two tribes of Judah). The southern kingdom has already been carried off into captivity by Assyria 117 years earlier because it was the most rebellious. Now the Northern kingdom was being punished by Babylon.

The 70 Year Captivity In Babylon
Babylon besieged the city three times and captured some of the people and carried them off to slavery. The temple was destroyed during the third siege. This punishment was predicted by the prophet Jeremiah.
This whole land will be a desolation and a horror and these nations will serve the king of Babylon seventy years.
Then it will be when seventy years are completed I will punish the king of Babylon and that nation, declares the Lord, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans; and I will make it and everlasting desolation.
(Jeremiah 25: 11-12)

The Fall Of Babylon
Babylon fell to the Medes and Persians (a kingdom in the east). Cyrus was named in prophecy (Isaiah 45) 175 years before his birth. He defeated the kingdom of Babylon.
Babylon was a walled city with a river running under the walls. He defeated Babylon by stopping the flow of the Euphrates river and invading the city from under the barriers in the river that protected the city.
Suddenly Babylon had fallen and been broken; Wail over her! Bring balm for her pain; perhaps she may be healed. We applied healing to Babylon but she was not healed; Forsake her and let us each go to his own country, For her judgment has reached to heaven and towers up to the very skies. (Jeremiah 51: 8-9)

Now see here comes a troop of riders, horsemen in pairs and one said "Fallen, fallen is Babylon; an all the images of her gods are shattered on the ground. (Isaiah 21: 9)

But desert creatures will lie down there, and their houses will be full of owls; Ostriches also will live there, and shaggy goats will frolic there. Hyenas will howl in her fortified towers and Jakals in their luxurious palaces. Her time will also will soon come and her days will not be prolonged. (Isaiah 13: 21-22)

New Testament Parallels
Rome does the same thing as the nation of Babylon.

The Destiny Of Nations
Only the nations mentioned in Daniel and Revelation are discussed here.

The Global Implication
Babylon is prominent in the prophecies of Revelation although the original, physical country was to remain desolate. Therefore, end time Babylon must be a future nation that behaves like old Babylon.
In fact, God has caused the end time Babylon to conquer and control the old nation of Babylon (Iraq). At many levels, the United States became Babylon the Great. Similarly, all the old nations mentioned in prophecy must represent significant groups in the last days.

Therefore, we look to the promises made to Israel in a global sense. The prophecy in Zechariah 14 appears to be an end time prophecy of the second coming and the battle of Armageddon.
Ezekiel even makes it more plain by linking the destruction of Gog and Magog to the destruction of the rebellious nations at Armageddon. Look at the similarity.

Jerusalem
Jerusalem is at the center of many prophecies. What happens there is mirrored in the rest of the world. Several prophecies link the surrounding or siege of Jerusalem to the rescue of the people of God. This occupation of Jerusalem is called the abomination of desolation that stands in the Holy Place. Here are some examples.

New Testament Parallels
These particular nations were chosen because they are mentioned in the prophecies of the last days. Because the promises are now global since the crucifixion, we will look at the role of these nations to determine how that applies to their global roles.

The Nations

  1. Midian. The Midianites (Kenites) were descendants of Abraham through Keturah (Genesis 25: 1-4).
  2. Moab and Ammon. Moab was the son of Lot by incestuous union with his eldest daughter and Ammon was the son by his youngest daughter (Genesis 19: 37-38)
Nation Origin Represents Characteristics Future
Before the Second Coming
Israel Abraham's son Isaac People of God The remnant people of God (The church of Philadelphia) Salvation
Arabia Abraham's son Ishmael - At war with Israel and everyone
Moab Abraham's cousin Lot Those who come back to God Rich, arrogant, proud, naked and foolish

(The church of Laodicea)
Salvation
Ammon Those who come back to God Salvation
Edom Abraham's grandson Esau Those who come back to God Salvation
Babylon Other Traitors in the house of God. Those who corrupt the sanctuary and people of God. The Papacy (The King of the North) Destruction by God
Libya and Ethiopia Other Form an alliance against God The United States, Europe, the church and the Occult Cooperates with the King of the North
Egypt Other Those who worship false Gods Godless (Communism) Destroyed by the King of the North
Sodom Other Those who live for pleasure Immoral (secularism) Destruction
Amalek Other The Wicked Attack the righteous Destruction
After the Second Coming
Gog and Magog Wicked All nations at the battle of Armageddon under the rule of Satan. Attacks Israel Destruction
Israel Good The people of God under the rule of Christ. Righteous Salvation

Nations And Powers Before The Second Coming
The King Of The North. If the papacy is the King of the North, then we have the following activities among the end time groups:

  1. Babylon. It is the king of the north, that corrupting nation.
  2. Egypt. a godless system will fall because of him. When the church could not gain religious domination under communism, it took steps to bring down communism.
  3. Libya and Ethiopia. It will form an alliance with these. In the end there will be a union of three (dragon, beast and false prophet). The United States is one of these.
  4. Edom, Moab and Ammon escape. Many sincere people will leave in the call to come out of Babylon. They will escape the corruption of Babylon.
  5. Israel. The king of the north will "overflow and pass through". This is imagery of persecution. It will persecute those who refuse to be corrupted.
  6. Sodom. Immorality and godlessness (Egypt) will be prominent at the end. Sodom and Egypt are mentioned in Revelation. They will fall because of the witness of God's people, not just because of the king of the North.
  7. Persia. The nation of Iran. It caused ancient Babylon to fall and may cause Babylon the great to fall as a type of "the kings from the east".

Other countries are mentioned in many interpretations of prophecy but the connection is either missing or not clear. In some cases the connections are a topic of speculation because of the power of these nations and the signs of the times. But always remember that the power of a nation has nothing to do with its fate as a nation of prophecy. Instead, a nation is only mentioned in prophecy if they rule over the people of God when the time arrives for a fulfillment.

  1. Kings of the (North, South, East). The bible only mentions kings of the north, south and east. This has always been in reference to Israel. This has broadened the field of speculation about which nations are mentioned in prophecy. We have concluded that when these kings arise they could be from other nations that never existed in Biblical times, but when they fulfill prophecy they must possess the nations of which they are a type. So, when you recognize that a prophecy is being fulfilled, look at who is occupying the land at that time.
  2. All Nations. In the end all nations will be in apostasy and in active persecution of the righteous people, but individual powers will instigate the problem and bind others into unholy and immoral alliances.
  3. Russia. Evangelicals claim that they are the kings of the north because they are north of Israel. They also point to the sound of the words "Rosh and Meshech" and apply them to "Russia and Moscow". This king starts the battle of Armageddon in Israel.
  4. China. Other Evangelicals claim that they are the kings of the east because they are east of Israel, communist and a super power at a time when they expect prophecies to be fulfilled. Otherwise, nothing in history or symbol or type attributes any role to China except as one of the nations that will collapse in the end.
  5. Europe. The individual nations are not listed by name. But ten important nations are described as arising at the break up of the Roman empire and its fall. These are France, Italy, Germany, Britain, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal. Three of the ten were wiped out at the beginning and another three will replace them at the end.
  6. United States. They became the king of the north by occupying Babylon (Iraq). They are also mentioned in prophecy by description of their location at a certain point in history. So they are the "land from the earth" which "opened its mouth" to swallow up the people that were fleeing persecution in the Middle Ages and would later become a super power. The region describes the American Continent, but the specifics point to its only super power, the United States. Other prophecies depict its union with the papacy at the time that Babylon rises again. This occurred in 1981 and forever solidifies the United States as that power, because no other continent rescued Christians fleeing persecution in the Middle Ages and no other super power emerged on the American continent at any of these points and any other would be too late.

Nations And Powers After The Second Coming
Only two nations exist in prophecy after the Second Coming.

  1. Israel. The people of God (the saved). Their ruler is Jesus Christ.
  2. Gog and Magog. All the rebellious (the lost). Their ruler is Satan represented by the eighth head of the beast (Revelation 17: 11). He is also called Apollyon or Abaddon (Revelation 9: 11).

The Saved
All the restored nations are related to Abraham - the man of faith. Their sins were not bold defiance against God, it was internal self sufficiency.

The Lost
They are defined in terms of the great rebellious nations who repeatedly attacked Israel.

The Battle Of Armageddon
Even the names sound alike. In Ezekiel 39: 11 Gog will be buried in the valley of Hamon-Gog.
Event Zechariah 14 Ezekiel 38-39 Revelation Comment
Nations gathered Verse 1 38: 15-16 20: 8 Nations gathered to fight against Jerusalem
Great battle Verse 2,3 39: 4, 11 16: 16 Battle of Armageddon
Plague Verse 12, 15 38: 22 16 Seven last plagues
Astronomical signs Verse 6-7 No 6:12 Signs in the sun, moon and stars (the sixth seal)
Earthquake Verse 4-5 38: 19 6:12; 16: 18 Great earthquake (the sixth seal)
Lord Comes Verse 3, 5 No 15:20; 21: 2 Second and Third Coming (the seventh seal)
Mount of Olives Verse 4 No 21: 2 Location of the New Jerusalem
Curses end Verse 11 39: 29 22: 3 People will no longer rebel with a new heart
Fire and brimstone No 38: 22 22: 3 The death of Satan, his angels and the wicked
Feast of the birds No 39: 4, 17-18 22: 3 Cleansing the earth after the destruction of the wicked
Feast of Booths Verse 16 No 21: 3 People will live with God
Living waters Verse 8 No 22: 1 Waters flow out of the New Jerusalem from the throne of God

The battle of Armageddon is an interrupted war, it starts with the nations of the earth gathering to destroy the people of God - then God personally intervenes and destroys them.
Revelation completes the details that are not obvious in Zechariah. There are two comings, a thousand years apart and the New Jerusalem descends at he end. The Mount of Olives is split and a valley is created where the new city will be located.

Summary Of Similar Prophecies
Except for Daniel, all other Old Testament was concerned with the events on the "day of the Lord". This includes those events associated with the Battle of Armageddon. It starts with the attempt to kill the people of God just before the second coming and after the final judgment has been declared.
Prophecy Rome Messiah 1260 days Fall of Babylon Final Days Judgment Armageddon Heaven
Revelation Rome Messiah 1260 days United States Persecution Judgment Armageddon Heaven
Daniel Rome Messiah 1260 days United States Persecution Judgment Armageddon Heaven
Old TestamentBabylon Messiah 3½ years of drought Babylon Final battle Heaven
Feasts Sin Passover Summer drought Trumpets Yom Kippur Tabernacles
Sanctuary Outer Court Holy Place Most Holy Place

The events of the 1260 days and the alliance of the United States are not mentioned by name in the Old Testament prophecies because these nations did not exist. But the characteristics of the end time groups of people were described in terms of similar nations that existed in earlier times. The goal of the prophet was to show that one day God would bring judgment and peace forever.

Last day Events
Final Events Old Testament Revelation
Messiah Isaiah 11: 1-4 Revelation
The Apostasy Ezekiel 8 Revelation 7:3
Sealing Ezekiel 9 Revelation 7:3
Fall of Babylon Jeremiah 51; Isaiah 21; Isaiah 47: 1-11 Revelation 18
Fall of modern Babylon Isaiah 13 Revelation 18
The four horsemen Zechariah 6 Revelation 6
Astronomical signs Joel 2: 10; 3: 15-16; Joel 1: 15; Jeremiah 4: 23-28; Haggai 2: 6-7; Isaiah 13: 10 Revelation 6: 12; Matthew 24: 29-30; Hebrews 12: 26-29.
Earthquake Zechariah 14: 4-5; Ezekiel 38: 19 Revelation 6: 12
Second Coming Isaiah 11: 4, 11-14; 26 Revelation 14
Measurement of the temple Ezekiel 40-43 Revelation 11
Millennium Isaiah 14, 24 Revelation 20
Satan bound Isaiah 14: 18-21 Revelation 20: 1-3
Resurrection Ezekiel 37: 9-14; Isaiah 26 Revelation 20: 4-6
Second Resurrection Isaiah 14: 9 Revelation 20: 5
Battle of Armageddon Ezekiel 38-39; Zechariah 14 Revelation 19-20; 16: 16
Destruction of Satan Ezekiel 28; Isaiah 14: 9 Revelation 20: 10
New Earth Isaiah 11: 15-16; 12 Revelation 21

God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God.   Romans 8:28 Time: 90 minutes
Print: 17 pages
Copyright     Updated : February 2008
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (February 2008)
Credits: The information was obtained through personal Bible study and observations. See references for the 42 journeys in the wilderness