||12 Years Old
||30 Years Old
||King of Kings
||In the Temple
It is estimated that there are about 425 prophecies about the Messiah in the Bible.
In my opinion, some of them do not appear to be direct prophecies, and in other places (like the Psalms) I find clear prophecies
about the Messiah in writings not belonging to the known prophets.
"Nothing ... will be able to separate us from the Love of God, which is in Christ Jesus"
Search me, God. See if there is some evil in me and set me free. Thank you.
Unlike "normal" prophecies like Daniel and Revelation and in a few other Old Testament passages,
most of the Messianic Prophecies are not introduced with such fanfare.
The prophet does not say that he is in vision. The imagery is not filled with symbolism and strange animals.
Because of this, critics maintain that we are just taking scriptures out of context, so those things that have a local
application are made into something more significant.
I agree with this assessment in a few cases, what sometimes is listed as a prophecy seems to be just
believers quoting and using scriptures the same way we do today.
They make the experiences and promises personal to them.
When this happens, and the underlying story has no other Messianic significance, then I will agree that it is suspect.
Israel Lived The Prophecy.
The big difference with the Messianic passages and other prophecies is that Israel daily
lived out the prophecies of the Messiah, His life, His work and His significance to human history.
Their whole existence was a prophecy in action. The temple services and the feasts were a living prophecy.
The Messiah's future work was woven into the everyday fabric of the Hebrew life.
Therefore, it is understandable that much of the prophecies appear to be part of their everyday life.
God daily prepared all Israel for this event - and they missed it.
Ancient and modern Jews have several objections to His claim.
- Prostituting Mother. The question of the identity of His father always plagued Him.
- Residence. They wondered if anything good could come out of Nazareth.
- Miracles. Although He did astonishing miracles, they said that He must have done them through the power of Satan.
- Insurrection. He was stirring up trouble for the nation.
- Failed Messiah. He did not conquer the Romans.
Skeptics either deny the existence of Jesus, or they claim that there was a Passover plot by the disciples to claim that Jesus was resurrected.
People who do not want to believe this prophecy make several claims:
|The Passover Plot
A Mathematical Impossibility
It is estimated that there were 250 million people alive in the world the year Jesus died.
This means that one male out of the 250 million people would have had to die that year by crucifixion,
be of Jewish descent from King David, be born in Bethlehem, have been a teacher using parables, healed others and performed miracles.
He would have had to ride into Jerusalem on a donkey, been rejected by the leaders and then died four days later with no broken bones but with pierced feet, hands and side during absolute darkness.
This individual would have had to die during one unique predicted week.
The probability of all of this happening to one single male, is 1 out of 2.54 X 10 28.
By using the modern science of probability in reference to eight
prophecies, we find that the chance that any man might have lived down to the
present time and fulfilled all eight prophecies is 1 in 1017.
That is the equivalent of covering the state of Texas with specially marked silver dollars two feet deep (61 cm) and having a blindfolded man finding one special coin.
The chance that any one man fulfilled all 48 prophecies is 1 in 10157.
If the estimated number of electrons in the universe is around 1079 then Jesus was a mathematical impossibility.
He was a miracle!
He is the Messiah.
From the book, Science Speaks by mathematician and scientist, Peter Stoner
- Christians take any quotations out of context and apply it to Jesus.
- The disciples arranged certain events to make it appear that Jesus fulfilled prophecy.
For example, they are accused of stealing the body to fake a resurrection story.
- Jesus did not die - He lost a lot of blood and fainted
- The disciples stole the body
- The women went to the wrong tomb
- Passover plot proposed by Hugh Schoenfield
Jesus took into His confidence a young Joseph of Arimathea. Knowing the Old Testament prophecies concerning the Messiah, Jesus ordered His life in such a way as to fulfill them. For example, Jesus arranged a feigned death on the cross by being administered a drug when the vinegar was offered. Then after He passed out from the drug, Joseph took His body to one of his tombs. When the effects of the drug wore off, Jesus appeared alive and revealed himself as the Messiah.
To arrive at this conclusion he rejected certain facts;
- They were guarding the body so that the disciples could not steal Him.
- Roman guards
- Roman seal on the tomb
- Large stone rolled in front of a solid rock tomb
- The body was prepared for burial
- The testimony of the disciples and 500 witnesses
- There is no evidence for his conclusions.
- Every single event on the cross fulfilled scripture.
While these could certainly happen, there are a number of events that neither Jesus nor the disciples could control
and to have all of these events happen in one man is not a coincidence.
To demonstrate this, we will look at prophecies that even the Jews regarded as Messianic and we will look at
activities of the people who rejected Jesus. These people could not be forced to behave in ways that would fulfill prophecy.
We will also look at the coincidences in terms of the mathematical definition of an impossible event.
Any event that has less than one chance in 1050 of occurring is impossible.
The Probability Of Jesus Fulfilling Prophecy In A Passover Plot
Probability attempts to define how likely an event will occur.
It is based on first knowing the total amount of objects that can be affected and then knowing how much are actually affected.
To calculate the probability of a series of events one needs to know how often it might occur with each separate event and then multiply the result of all probabilities.
| 8 ||1017 |
| 16 ||1045 |
| 24 ||1073 |
| 48 ||10157|
The probability that all the monkeys in Africa could run over to a single typewriter and, without error, retype all the books in the English language is 1 in 2 x 10110.
Those odds are better than the probability of Jesus fulfilling all Messianic prophecies.
The probabilities discussed below are based on a series of only eight predictions occurring in a population of 1011 people (the total population who ever lived on the earth):
The total composite probability for eight events is 1x1028 are calculated as follows:
= (1/a * 1/b * 1/c * 1/d * 1/e * 1/f * 1/g * 1/h) / total population
= (1/200,000 * 1/100 * 1/1,000 * 1/1,000 * 1/1,000 * 1/1,000 * 1/10,000 * 1/100,000) / 1011
= 1028 / 1011 = 1017
I am unable to determine if these odds are correct by examining their methodology, so I have to determine if they are reasonable.
The Population Mathematics
First, I have to establish some population figures that are common to most calculations.
I will make every effort not to make my case better by choosing options that will give a lower probability.
So in every difficult case I will choose a model that will make the probability more common.
- 333+ Prophecies. The question is, how many Messianic prophecies are there?
The Christian rhetoric is misleading when we claim that there is over 300 prophecies.
We have found over 300 texts or symbols that point to a Messianic prophecy, but there are really only about 40 distinct prophecies that are repeatedly prophesied about in these 300+ sources.
In addition, teachinghearts has found many hundreds more texts and symbols that are Messianic and which are even more convincing than the traditional texts.
- Global Population. The calculations are based on a total human population since modern man appeared 50,000 years ago that has been accepted as 106 billion (1 x 1011).
I calculated 8 to 12 billion in 6000 years with very conservative parameters.
- Global Population (1 AD). There is a concensus that the population in 1 AD was between 200 to 300 million people, and the population under Augustus was estimated as 15% or 30 to 45 million and was 65 million by the second century.
Total citizens in Rome were estimated at 4,937,000 in 14 AD and at 7 million in 47 AD.
- Israel Population (31 AD). About 5-6 million lived in Judaea. One million died in the siege in 70AD.
Israel's population in 2009 is estimated at a total of 7,233,701 with a growth rate of 1.671%. The largest population of Jews outside Israel currently is estimated to be about 6 million.
» Judah Population. The Messiah must be a male from the tribe of Judah.
After the Assyrian captivity, the people who remained on the land were from Judah, Benjamin and some Levites. Probably some of the other tribes were there too through intermarriage or if they escaped the Assyrian siege.
According to the Torah, at the beginning of the exodus the percentage of males over 20 from Judah was about 74,600/603,550, not including the Levites (Numbers 1).
This was about 12.4% of the population. Benjamin was 5.9%
At the end of the exodus the percentage of males over 20 from Judah was 12.7% (76,500/601730) (Numbers 26). Benjamin was 7.8% and their tribe was almost wiped out years later.
Therefore, the vast majority of the population of Jews in 31 AD were from the tribe of Judah.
Therefore, we will assume that any male selected is qualified, otherwise the odds would decrease further.
- Kings and Rulers. There was one female ruler who took the throne by murder.
We will assume that all rulers are male since that was the tradition until recently.
- United States Population.
Total USA population in 2002 was 280,562,489 and was about 300 million in 2006.
This is the approximate population of the world in 1 AD so we can use it as a model.
- Prison Population. We will use the United States as the standard since they have the highest incarceration rates and our present population is the same as the global population at the time of Christ.
I believe that this treatment is fair because a worst case scenario makes the events more probable and less of a miracle. This should help the critics.
- United States.
The United States has 5% of the world's population and 23.6% of the world's prison population.
It has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world at 738 persons in prison or jail per 100,000 (as of 2005).
In contrast, an estimate for all forms of imprisonment in China assessed the incarceration rate at 218 prisoners per 100,000 population in 2008.
- Criminal Records. Over 7.2 million persons on probation or parole or incarcerated in jail or prison at the end of 2006.
About 3.2% of the U.S. adult population, or 1 in every 31 adults, were incarcerated or on probation or parole at the end of 2006
- Death Row. 3279 people were on death row in the United States in 2009 out of 300 million (1:91500).
271 million in 1998 with 3452 on death row (1:78500).
201 million in 1968 and 517 on death row (1:388780).
- Gender. In 2002, 93.2% of prisoners were male. The male incarceration rate is roughly seven times the female incarceration rate. So we will assume that all prisoners are male.
- Mentally Impaired.
We need to know what percentage of the free population could be mentally ill.
The rate of reported mental health disorders in the state prison population is five times greater (56.2 percent) than in the general adult population (11 percent).
The rate of mental health convicts quadrupled since 1998, because the definition was broadened to include depression. So now the rate is over 50% of incarcerated convicts are mentally impaired.
This overestimates the problem of those who are truly mentally and functionally disabled through some chemical or biological defect, not because of the conditions of prison.
- Innocent Condemned to Death.
In 2003 alone, 10 wrongfully convicted defendants were released from death row.
69 men in 25 years were exonerated by DNA evidence (Cold Case).
Since 1973, over 130 people have been released from death rows throughout the country due to evidence of their wrongful convictions.
So in the best case 10 people condemned to death are released each year, but on average it is 3 each year.
- Low Intelligence.
2.2% of the population is below an IQ of 70. 6.7% have borderline intelligence (70-79).
- Male Population. The Messiah must be a male. The number of females is slightly higher than males, but we will assume that 50% are males except where a particular population is mostly male.
Although the definitions are based on "one person in the world", it should really be "one man in the world".
The probabilities were based on the first eight prophecies.
I was unable to determine how to verify some of these statistics, so I included other prophecies that could be substituted.
- Bethlehem (Micah 5: 2) (1:200,000). One person in the World been born in Bethlehem.
|#||Item||Odds||31 AD||All Years|
|1||Bethlehem||1:200,000||1500 ||5 x 106|
|2||King on a Donkey||1:100||3,000,000 ||1 x 109|
|3||30 Shekels||1:1,000||300,000 ||1 x 108|
|4||Passive Defense||1:1,000||300,000 ||1 x 108|
|5||Thieves and Rich||1:1,000||300,000 ||1 x 108|
|6||Crucified||1:10,000||30,000 ||1 x 107|
|7||Hands Pierced||1:1,000||300,000 ||1 x 108|
|8||Potter's Field||1:100,000||3000 ||1 x 106|
» Bethlehem Population (1:220,000).
It was a small town that supposedly had only a population of 300 - 1,000 people at the time of Christ.
At a global population of 200-300 million that is a ratio of 1:200,000 - 1:300,000.
In 2006 the population is Bethlehem was 29,930 and the global population was 6,564,356,742. That is 1: 219,324 people.
After 1948, the population of the Bethlehem area increased to 50,000 when refugees flocked to the area.
The global population was 2,556,000,053 in 1950. So even at its highest population, 1:51000 people in the world lived in Bethlehem.
I selected this example because at the time Jesus was born there was a mild refugee problem as people returned to the area to register for taxes.
However, the refugee problem at the birth of Christ was caused by those already born in Bethlehem, returning to Bethlehem.
So we would be including people for which we have already accounted.
These values are reasonable.
- King On A Donkey (Zechariah 9: 9) (1:100). One person rode into Jerusalem, riding a foal of a donkey, claiming to be king of the Jews.
» Candidates for King (1:300,000).
In the ancient times animals were the means of transportation. The donkey, a camel, elephant and horse were the models of cars of their day, the donkey was the cheapest model, the "people's car". So it is not unusual for a person of high esteem to use one.
In the economy of Rome a donkey was worth 127 denarii between 1 and 79 AD. This was about a year's salary.
An unskilled laborer earned 140 denarii per year while a soldier earned 225 denarii.
Let us take the donkey out of the equation by assuming that any king can afford one and any charismatic poor man claiming to be king would borrow one from a rich follower and any lunatic would steal one.
We will also assume that all kings would ride a donkey through the east gate as part of the inauguration ceremony.
Therefore, the remaining question is how many people could make a serious claim to be king of Israel and be believed by the majority of the people?
» Total Kings of Israel. We concluded that only the following would make successful claims to be king even though most are not from the tribe of Judah.
This is a total of 914 possible claimants from the exodus to the present time.
Even if we compared that to the population in 31 AD that would be 1: 300,000 and the odds are more astronomical when compared to total global population.
To arrive at an odds of 1 in 100, then 3 million people would have to make that claim.
Even if one person every year made a successful claim that woul be 6000:10,000,000,000 or 1:1,700,000
- All Legitimate Kings (43). 3 + 20 Judah (933-586) + 20 Israel (930-722)
- All Illegitimate Kings (14). 8 Herodians (37BC-70AD) + 10 Hasmoneans (168BC-37BC)
- High Priest (52). 82 since Aaron. 52 after Babylon. This prophecy was made in the Persian occupation.
- Sanhedrin (32). Leaders up to the ninth century.
- Geon Yaacov (40). Leaders up to 1516.
- The Chief Rabbinate (41). Rabbis took over from the Sanhedrin until 1918.
- The Va'Ad Le'Umi (4). (1918-1948) British Mandate leaders
- Modern Prime Ministers (12). (1948-2010) Israeli leaders were mostly elected.
- Messiah (1). Jesus Christ
- False Messiahs (128). We know of at least 28 claimants from 31-1994, plus several during the crusades.
- Charismatic Lunatics (200). How many charismatic lunatics? We know of no claimants before Christ. Let us assume that ten men could successfully make this claim every century. Then there would be 200.
- Foreign Occupiers Up to 31 AD (52). + 6 Babylon + 14 Persia + 27 Greece + 5 Rome up to Tiberius.
- Foreign Occupiers After 37-1948 AD (96). Before 1918 much of the world was ruled by monarchies, not by popular vote. These dynasties lasted longer. Assume that the average monarchy lasts 20 years.
» Judah (1:100).
If Israel is mostly the tribes of Judah and fewer from Benjamin at the time of Christ, then at the most half of the population is male and a candidate Messiah, even though over half of them may be young children.
Therefore 3 million out of a world population of 300 million are candidate kings.
It seems that the values were based on how many men could ride through the east gates on a donkey, not how many could have a reasonable chance of successfully making such a claim.
So their numbers were generous and more than reasonable and this particular claim is extremely rare.
- 30 Shekels (Zechariah 11: 12) (1:1000). One person paid thirty pieces of silver to turn someone in to the authorities.
» 30 Shekels (103 Denarii). Since this is half the annual salary of an unskilled labourer, then the only people who could afford this bribe are the rich or an influential club.
Bribes are common, but how common is it to bribe the authorities to execute a popular and an innocent man? An anonymous ssassination would be the preferred method.
These statistics assume that 0.001% of the population at that time had the money and the influence to bribe the authorities.
To arrive at a ratio of 1 in 1000, at least 5000 to 6000 Jews would have been able to accomplish this task and they must be able to include the high priest and the Sanhedrin in their plot.
The Sanhedrin was about 72 people. The process of ascension to the high priest position was corrupted. It was now a position appointed by the Romans.
The high turnover rate created many former high priests and members of this council.
Even with 10 previous bodies, there would be 1000 influential men who could be bribed to influence the rest.
So I believe the odds are reasonable.
- Passive Defense (Isaiah 53: 7) (1:1000). A person charged and been innocent and not defended himself.
» Defenseless People. Which innocent person would never defend himself when given the opportunity to appear in court?
The other fact is that nobody else would defend Him according to the prophecy.
The best answer is the mentally and functionally impaired, children, someone who is being rewarded for doing the time for another, one who received a serious brain injury while incarcerated and the Messiah.
Even martyrs would defend themselves.
So the question is, how many mentally handicapped and developmentally disabled people exist and how many are incapable of understanding the court proceedings, yet be charismatic enough to have such a wide appeal? This seems impossible.
So the only alternative remaining is a candidate Messiah whose treatment in captivity left him so mentally injured at the time of the trial that he was mentally unable to defend himself or whose reputation was so damaged that he was socially unable to gather people who would assist in his defense.
The original odds said that 1:100 were candidates and 1:10,000 were crucified. So the combined odds are 1:100,000.
My odds concluded that 1:300,000 are candidates and 1:20,000 crucified. This is 1:6,000,000 combined.
So the odds that this would happen to someone who was beloved just four days earlier has to be much more than 1:1000, so they are more than reasonable.
- Thieves And Rich (Isaiah 53: 9) (1:1000). Jesus was crucified between two thieves, but was buried in the tomb of one of the richest men.
» Helped by the Rich.
The odds that two criminals would be crucified in Rome are very high.
So let us define the real problem in terms of a rich person being crucified. Who could belong to this group?
Personally, I would assume that even less people would receive this honor, so 1:1000 sounds reasonable.
- Rich Man.
If one buried with the rich is assumed to be rich, then the question is could a rich man be crucified?
The odds that a rich Roman would be crucified are very low because Roman citizens could not be crucified.
However, rich Jews could be crucified.
There were 5-6 million Jews in a Roman population of 30-45 million and a global population of 200-300 million.
If 1% of the Jewish population were rich then the odds are 1:5000 in the world and 1:750 in Rome.
This needs to be compared to the odds that a rich person would be a common criminal.
Even in the US the overall incarceration rate in the population is less than 1% with a 3.2% rate for all who have ever been through the penal system.
So if 10% of the rich were convicted as common criminals then the odds would be 1:50000 and 1:7500.
- A Poor Criminal with Rich Friends or Rich Relatives. What are the odds that such a publically hated figure would be helped by a rich, influential person by giving him such a valuable piece of land?
The odds that a rich person would give up so much for a poor criminal might be even less than the odds of a rich person going to prison for criminal behavior.
- Crucified (Psalm 22: 16) (1:10,000). Died from crucifixion. Deaths are not usually accompanied by pierced hands.
» Crucified (1:20,000).
Crucifixion was practiced between the sixth century BC and the fourth century AD until 337 when Emperor Constantine 1 abolished it.
How many were executed by crucifixion during that 1000 years (365000 days)?
The worst case of crucifixions may have been during the slave revolt by Spartacus.
6,000 followers were crucified in 71 BC.
This is an average of 16 per day.
So in the worst case, 5,840,000 million people could have been executed during the 1000 years.
Although few crucifixions were done afterwards, we will assume that there were none in the years before or after because we applied the worse case scenario to every year.
So if the total population that ever lived were 100 billion. then 1:171,232 were crucified.
I assume only 12 billion lived in the 6000 years. So 1:20,000 were crucified.
In the year Jesus died, 200-300 million lived that is 1:33,000 to 1:50,000
So 1:10,000 is reasonable, because it assumes that in a population of 300 million, like the United States that we executed 30,000. We have not had that many total men on death row in 100 years, much less so many executions.
- Hands Pierced (Zechariah 13: 6) (1:1000). One person has been wounded in their hands.
Substituted. This seems to be almost the same prophecy as dying from crucifixion so I will substitute it.
- Potter's Field (Zechariah 11: 13) (1:100,000). The money paid to betray Jesus would be returned to the priests and used to buy a potter's field.
Substituted. I have no idea how to check these odds, so I will substitute another prophecy.
» Substitute Prophecies
I am totally responsible for the logic supporting these statistics. I will use these to substitute for the previous statistics that I did not know how to verify.
- Earthquake (1:1800 Days).
When Jesus died, two powerful earthquakes split the rocks at His death and resurrection.
Scientists insist that the frequency of earthquakes is not increasing. So, looking at the years since they started measuring we will take the worst year and choose earthquakes of 6.0 and above.
In the ten years between 2000-2009 there were 1587 events. that is an average of 160 per year. This is 9,522,000 events in 6000 years (2,191,500 days).
How many would be experienced within the few square miles that is Israel?
The USA is larger and more active and it had 62 earthquakes of 6.0 and above within the same ten years. That is 6 per year or a 1:60 chance that an earthquake will occur in the United States on any day.
Israel is 24650 square miles. If we assume that all the USA quakes are in the 750,000 square miles in Alaska and California. Then the odds of suffering damage from the quake in a place 30 times smaller on any single day is 1:1800.
- Darkness Over The Land (1:4000 Days) or (1:1,460,000 Days).
Solar eclipses and nuclear winters are the only known events that produce darkness over the land.
But solar eclipses do not last for three hours.
I can prove that the darkness during the crucifixion was not a solar eclipse because the crucifixion occurred during a full moon and solar eclipses can only occur during a new moon.
So we will ignore the obvious miracle and use statistics based on the known causes of darkness.
In any given year there are only 12 solar eclipses possible. Most of these can only be observed over the ocean and it is a rare event to see one over land and even rarer to see it in one particular place.
Between 1998 and 2020 there were 33 solar eclipses world wide, 14 were total. Only two were visible over Israel within that period. This is a ratio of 2 in 7305 days or 1:3700.
Between 1900 and 2200 only 17 eclipses will be visible over the larger area of Britain, 14 are total. That is 17 in 109575 or 1:6500.
Because the eclipse was not caused by any known event it is even rarer, occuring once in 4000 years or 1:1,460,000 days. Since it has not occurred again it is now 1:6000 years or 1:2,190,000 days
» Update. While double checking in 2014 I found sources which said that there could only be a maximum of seven eclipses per year (4 solar and 3 lunar, or 5 solar and 2 lunar) (Fred Espenak).
In addition, while half the world will see a lunar eclipse, a total eclipse will only be seen in a few miles. The odds of seeing a totality an any given location is once in 360 years (Fred Whipple).
These figures makes it even rarer. So between the creation and the crucifixion 4000 years later, Jerusalem should have experienced 11 totalities (1:132,727).
However with 4 to 5 solar eclipses per year on the planet, this would be a total of 16,000 to 20,000 eclipses in the same period.
A Plot From Birth
To begin, Jesus and His parents were poor.
To say there was a plot would mean that from His birth, His parents would have had to engineer a series of events
to give the Child the life experiences and credentials needed to fulfill the prophecy.
It was also obvious that Mary carried the stain of an apparent out-of-wedlock pregnancy. She was called a prostitute and He was called a bastard who did not know His father and a niddah (conceived in the filth of menstruation)
So it seems incredible that these parents would have engineered this type of life for this kind of baby.
The odds were against them.
In addition, this child would have to grow up and meet the expectations of His parents and then proceed to fulfill
the works attributed to the Messiah. A plot from birth? Not likely!
Key Messianic Prophecies.
Although it seems foolish that his parents could engineer these events for their illegitimate baby,
they would have to make sure that the following events occurred.
These are listed because they are basic requirements that Jesus met that were not under His control or that of His disciples:
Basic Messianic Prophecies.
- Lineage. He was from the correct lineage through both Mary and Joseph
- Residence. He lived in all the 3 places attributed to the Messiah (Bethlehem, Egypt and Nazareth).
Out of all the hundreds of little towns in Israel, Micah identified the name of the town of Bethlehem as His birth place around 722 BC (Micah 5:2).
Messianic Prophecies Fulfilled By His Enemies.
He could not engineer these actions, because they were the actions of others who were His enemies.
So, it was in their best interest to not behave in ways that would fulfill prophecy.
And these were not prophetic facts that we have created after the fact - these were accepted by the Jews at that time.
- Murder of Children by Herod. Herod ordered this slaughter to kill the new king whom he thought would be a rival to his throne.
- Crucifixion. He was crucified on a Roman cross
- No Broken Bones. It was unusual for the legs of a crucified person to not be broken.
- Nailed Hands and Feet. His hands and feet were nailed. The method of crucifixion was unknown at the time of the prophecy. Yet hundreds of years before, the prophet testified to this method of death.
|Important Messianic Prophecies |
Daniel 9 - Baptism and Crucifixion
Daniel 11 - Death during Roman rule
Genesis 22 - (Abraham and Isaac)
The Sanctuary and Feast systems
Isaiah 7 - Born of a Virgin
Isaiah 9 - Light of the world
Isaiah 40 - The Coming of the LORD
Isaiah 49 - The Role of Christ
Isaiah 53 - Suffering Messiah
Psalm 22 - The Crucifixion
Psalm 41 - Betrayed by a friend
Psalm 69 - Events at the Cross
Psalm 16 - Guided by God
Zechariah 9 - King rides a donkey
Zechariah 11 - Sold for 30 shekels
Zechariah 12 - Accepted by the Jews
Zechariah 13 - The Day of the Lord
- Rejected. The Jewish nation rejected Him four days after they were ready to crown Him king.
- Vinegar. He was given vinegar to drink instead of water.
- Gambled for His clothes. The Roman soldiers gambled for His clothes.
- 30 Pieces of Silver. Jesus was betrayed for this amount of money. It was the price of a slave.
- Passover Death. Jesus died on the day and hour of Passover. This was not an ordinary Passover season.
This Passover coincided with the Sabbath - making it a High Sabbath.
- Violence and Torture. He was beaten by the Romans and slapped in the Sanhedrin.
- People Spit on Him. Everyone spit on Him and hurled verbal abuses.
Messianic Time Prophecies.
He could not engineer these actions, because they were time prophecies not subject to any human control.
- 490 Years. He would be alive around 483-486 years after the Babylonian captivity.
- Life. He would be alive and He would die during the Roman empire.
- The Raiser of Taxes. Augustus Caesar. He would be alive under this ruler.
- A Vile Person. Tiberius Caesar. He would be alive under this ruler.
- Gentiles Accepted Him. His movement has spread around the world. By the year 2001, 2 billion people (or one third of the World's population) were Christians.
- Judah. He would be sent when the tribe of Judah still existed. This must be before 136 AD when the nation was scattered.
Ten other tribes had vanished after the Assyrian captivity in 722 BC.
Supernatural Messianic Prophecies.
These events could not be controlled by His disciples because they were actions of nature above human control.
- Miracles. He performed many supernatural miracles never before seen. Jesiwh records accused Him of sorcery.
- Darkness over the Land. There was darkness while He was on the cross.
- Veil in the Temple Torn. At His death the 30 feet long (810 cm) heavy curtain in the sanctuary was ripped from top to bottom.
- Virgin Birth.
If a claim of a virgin birth had happened then one of two situations would have occurred.
- Believed. This child would have been seen as a miracle and his mother would have been famous.
- Not Believed. This child would have gone through life labelled as a bastard and his mother a whore.
Critics do not believe this and apparently, the neighborhood did not believe Mary either, but His life fits this profile.
- Earthquake. There was an earthquake when He died and at His resurrection.
The Law As Messianic Prophecies.
He obeyed all the laws during this period.
- Sacrifice for Sin. He would be offered as a sacrifice in exchange for sin.
- Burden of Sin. He would bear the burden of sin, like a guilty man.
- Carcass in the North of the City. He would be disposed of in the north of the city.
- He is the Sanctuary. He is all the parts of the sanctuary and all pieces of the offering.
Messianic Prophecies That Could Be Engineered.
Skeptics claimed that the writers lied about the events or that Jesus and the disciples engineered events to fit the profile of the Messiah.
Supporters claim that there are 333 or more prophecies that point to Jesus.
In fact it is over 300 texts, but fewer distinct or core prophetic events.
Out of these there are only a few that He could control and even these were fulfilled in the context of His enemies' actions.
So here are a list of prophecies that He could have manipulated and in some cases He acted to fulfill the events.
- Rides into Jerusalem on a Donkey. He arranged for the donkey, but nobody forced the people to greet Him as king and complete the prophecy.
This prophecy has a second requirement. He must be rejected by the people!
So how did He engineer the adoration and the rejection in four days?
They rejected Him for saying He was the Son of God, yet these facts were known before He was hailed as king.
Nothing He did during that week caused the general public to reject Him.
He did not engineer the acceptance and rejection.
- Drink Vinegar. His declaration that He was thirsty prompted them to give Him vinegar.
Since He was nailed on the cross He had no control over what they would do nor make them give Him vinegar.
However, we showed in one of our lessons that He probably saw a set of prophetic symbols being played out on the cross and realized that one symbol was missing. He needed to drink stale wine to complete the curse on the sanctuary. It also fulfilled Psalm 69: 21.
So He said, "I am thirsty" and let providence determine what they would give Him to drink.
- Character and Emotions. He could fake the emotions and behavior attributed to the Messiah.
- Suffered. He could have behaved badly or in such a way that it was guaranteed that He would be rejected and crucified.
However, nobody was looking for a suffering Messiah, not even His disciples.
So if He was a fraud, then He was not a particularly bright one. He was fulfilling prophecy that nobody believed in or wanted to believe. They were looking for a conquering king, not someone who would die as a common criminal.
- Parables. He certainly could have structured His messages to conform to this style of giving information.
- Created Prophecies. Critics claim that we create prophecies where none existed. For example, Jesus quoted Psalms as writings which were a source of comfort, not because David was writing words that the Messiah would say in the future.
We view them as prophecies because Jesus said that David prophesied about Him.
Prophecy As a Road Map.
Is it cheating to do things that fulfill prophecy? No. Especially if it is a legitimate desire.
If you realize what prophecy accomplishes then you will understand His actions.
Prophecy is given as a sign of what will happen to you and what choices you should make.
Prophecy also fulfills the law. So the representitive of God who is an object of prophecy may be fulfilling the law, not necessarily trying to fulfill a prophecy.
In addition, to be the object of the prophecy you must fulfill all requirements or be the only one who could possibly complete all requirements.
Out of the dozens of distinct Messianic actions, there were few that He could control. This does not diminish the fact that He was the fulfillment.
In fact, He had to choose to submit to the most horrendous requirements of the prophecy and the law.
- Joseph. He had a prophetic dream about his future. He had to have faith in this glorious future in order to survive the years of slavery and imprisonment.
The lesson is that a prophecy can guide your faith and hope.
- Jesus. The Torah was littered with prophecies and laws about Him. He acted to obey these laws as the SHEMA demanded.
He must put aside His own desires and do the will of God. This was to submit graciously to unjust suffering and death.
So His action were to submit, not to enrage people to the point of sinning in order to fulfill the prophecy.
This is why He was silent at the trial. He submitted peacefully to the arrest, but their subsequent actions were poured out on a compliant and peaceful Man. He did not incite them to fulfill the prophecies.
The Torah also promised that God would guide Him and tell Him which way to go.
So He rode a donkey through the east gates of Jerusalem and said that He was thirsty just before He died.
New Messianic Prophecies.
Besides adding to the knowledge about some of the traditionally accepted prophecies, we at Teachinghearts.org have discovered about 700 new prophecies as a direct revelation from God through the supernatural gift of knowledge.
These prophecies are in the Torah, the lives of the patriarchs and the Jewish traditions and in nature.
The most important lesson learned was to negotiate this image of Christ that was both positive and negative.
Previously, people have made swiss cheese out of prophecies by picking and choosing obvious texts but rejecting those that seemed to contradict by labelling the Messiah as a sinner.
- The Curse.
One major contribution is realizing how Jesus Christ became the curse and what the terms of the curse dictated what He would suffer.
- The Messiah as a Meal (Cannibalism). We must consume the Messiah to be saved.
» Spitting, Chewing, Gnashing, Swallowing, In The Bowels. From this curse we get these symbols.
- Besieged. Jesus is surrounded and captured. He is the war trophy, the prisoner, the meal at a Passover seder and the prey eaten by a pack of ravenous animals.
- Earthquake. I first found this curse in the seven last plagues before I found its source in the Torah.
- Temple. The Messiah is a temple that would be destroyed in a specific order.
The River of Life, Tree of Life, Budding almond tree, jar of Manna, Ten Commandments, Ark of the covenant, angels on the ark, the curtain, the hooks on the curtain, the altar of incense, table of shewbread, menorah, wine, bread, laver, altar of sacrifice and the priest in all his garments are all prophecies.
- Six Signs of the Curse From Eden (Genesis 3). Cursed ground, thorns, hard labor, submission, pain in chldbirth, enmity, crawling on the ground and eating dust are all signs.
- Signs of the Curse From The Torah (Leviticus 26, Deuteronomy 28).
- Death by Crucifixion. We also proved death by crucifixion by pointing out new prophecies that highlight how His body would be displayed.
- Lifted Up With Arms Spread. This position on the cross was prophesied in many ways.
- Spotted and Striped Appearance. His body would be covered in red and blue marks and spots.
- Four Holes in His Body. Many laws said that He would have four holes in the four corners of His body.
- Holes in His Body As A Spring. Five holes bled blood or water.
- A Tree. Hung on a tree, man walking like a tree, spread up and hung up like a tree.
- Pierced. Many different symbols and Jewish tradition other than Psalms, point to his being pierced.
- Nails. At least two prophecies point to being pierced by a nail or a peg.
- The Messiah is the Sin Offering. One of our major contributions is seeing Jesus as the sinless sin offering who carried a curse.
- The Serpent on the Pole. We have a different interpretation than the traditional one. Christ became sin on the cross when He took responsibility for our sins and He looked like the greatest sinner - the serpent.
Traditionally, people never dared to say that Christ was the serpent because that was a symbol of Satan.
So the best interpretations said that when Christ was lifted up on the cross, it would be the death of Satan.
- Donkey. Christ was burdened with our sins and appeared unclean to us.
- Separated from Mother. He would be separated from His mother before He became the sin offering.
He would also be separated from His mother Israel before He became the sin offering.
- Spit on Clay. Jesus prophesied about Himself. He is the clay Man that was spit on who would cure the blindness of Israel in two stages.
- The Animals. Another contribution of this site is showing how Jesus was represented by many animals, including the unclean.
After being taught that Jesus was the snake, it was easier to recognize why He was the woman, the donkey and the clay who was spit on.
- Clean Animals. All the clean sacrificial animals have always been recognized as pointing to Jesus.
- Snake. God first shiwed me the real meaning of Jesus as the snake around 2002.
The traditional explanation never made sense to me because nobody wanted to say that Jesus was seen as the snake.
In 2009, I heard a better explanation that Jesus killed the snake on the cross and so healed our sins.
It was a better explanation but it was not the whole truth.
Jesus became the snake who killed Satan and healed us.
- Donkey. He was seen as the unclean donkey who carried our burden of sin.
- The Female Offering. Jesus was portrayed as a female, because He had to submit like a cursed woman in order to accomplish His task.
- All The Law as Messianic Prophecy. Taking a cue from Christ's word in Luke 24: 44, I found prophecies in every book and more in the Psalms. I concluded that Jesus not only obeyed all the law, but that the law itself is a prophecy that is based on an eternal road map.
- Disassembling the Sanctuary. The order of preparation, disassembly, marching and reassembling.
- Sacrifices. The animals used and the procedures for butchering.
- Feasts. The three great feasts.
- Agriculture. Seed, planting, ploughing and reaping.
- Other Laws. Every law was written to address the conditions under which God found us at sin and how we can be redeemed from the tyrant who took us as slaves and the changes and imperfections that came with our slavery.
- Jewish Traditions as Messianic Prophecies.
These are Jewish traditions ignored by the church that neither Jesus, the disciples nor the church identified as being Messianic.
Yet, after almost 2000 years God is suddenly revealing the prophetic nature of this material that has been the sole property of the Jews for all these years.
- Seder (The Order). This service is not in the order of the exodus events. It is in the order of the crucifixion events.
- Holiday Torah Readings. The special readings for the feast days are prophetic, but Exodus 22: 24 - 23: 19 stands out as one of the readings done during Passover.
Why would the Jews read about avoiding bribes and hiring false witnesses and perverting justice during Passover? This activity is not related to the exodus. Yet it was the crime that the priests committed when they condemned Jesus to death.
God had been warning them for centuries not to commit this crime during Passover (Pesach).
- The Twelve Tribes (Besieged). The layout of the tribes around the Mishkan were designed to tell the story about what would happen to Jesus Christ in the last week of His life.
» In the Path of The Ancestors.
We show that the life experiences of the patriarchs were meant to be an inspiration of faith.
However, we went one step further to show that these experiences were not random events. They were patterned after a specific set of similar experiences designed like the layout of the campsite of the twelve tribes.
Because of this engineered or designed nature of these afflictions, we conclude that they are prophecies not random life events.
- Five Signs of Judaism. They paint a prophetic picture of the destiny of the Messiah as He willingly obeyed the law and submitted to death.
His outer human body was cut off or circumcised and buried like the foreskin. His body was hung on a post like the mezuzah. He had four holes in His body like the tzitzit. Like the teffilin, He was strapped to the cross with His hands bound and His forehead wrapped by a crown of thorns.
- Jewish History.
Jewish records in the Talmud report strange events during the forty years between the crucifixion and the destruction of the temple that signifies supernaturally that the temple services had changed.
Every night the temple doors opened and the eternal flame of the menorah light was extinguished. On Yom Kippur the lot that indicated the Lord's goat, always came in the same hand and was never governed by chance since.
- The Ancient Hebrew Script (IVRI). It prophesies about Jesus Christ and the Feast of Tabernacles.
- Laws of Science. The other amazing thing that God taught me is how the symbols of the Plan of Salvation are written into the laws of nature.
- The Colors of the Rainbow. They symbolize the series of works that must be done to perfect human.
- Clean Animal. The structure and behavior of these animals represent what happened to Christ.
- Pure Science in the Sanctuary. Finally, God showed me the evidence of modern science in the Old Testament.
They reveal that all laws are first based on spiritual laws and that salvation is the recreation of the human race.
The torah contains the pattern of the Periodic Table, a better model of particle physics than the Standard Model, electromagnetism, the science behind the formation of rainbows, sleep, genes, DNA replication and many more topics.
Critics make many claims about the authenticity of the Bible stories, casting dispersions on everything without even considering the details of the story.
Their position is that it is all myths and fables and they will not bother with the mythical details.
The Critics: Fictional Events And People
Their position is that any historical stories or artifacts in the Judeo-Christian tradition are irrelevant and insignificant.
However, they do not subject the same level of scrutiny and skepticism to other historical documents, showing a bias against any claims of Christianity and Judaism
- Crossing The Red Sea. They claim that the Israelites crossed a marsh that was only six inches of water.
So they either ignore the claim of the drowning of an entire army of thousands of men, with horses and chariots, or believe that the army drowned in six inches of water.
It would be more intellectually honest to claim that the story never happened than to claim that parts of the story happened in this manner and leaving the rest as an absurd gargantuan lie to be ridiculed.
- Army Drowned. It is possible for anyone to drown in two inches of water if they fall face forward and are incapacitated and no help is around. But how can an entire army with horses and chariots drown in six inches of water?
Even an army of midgets, ponies, tricycles and babies could not be covered by six inches of water.
- Wall of Water. They ignore this detail. The story claims that the water was heaped up like walls, towering around them and covering the army (Exodus 14: 27-29).
- Miracles of Jesus.
They claim that He never performed any miracles because His magic tricks were of such poor quality that they were not better than other charlatans because they did not convince the people.
They claim that the miracles were frequently performed "in private, sometimes in the night, and often under the injunction of secrecy".
- Public Miracles. In making these blanket statements they ignored all the public miracles and the many people and whole towns that saw His works and believed Him. They also rejected the eye witness testimony of the disciples as biased and as part of the overall plot by con men.
- Tell No Man. In the instances where Jesus asked people not to tell anyone about the particular miracle, they ignored the possible reasons why.
He did not want the people to see Him as the conquering Messiah because He came to suffer rejection. Therefore, He told his disciples not to tell people that He was the Messiah or Son of God, choosing to be called the Son of Man.
So He did not want them to talk about His transfiguration.
He did not want the leper to talk about his cure until he had seen a priest as the law required.
He might not want miracles, such as healing on the Sabbath to be published, because they may cause difficulty for him.
- History of Miracles.
Critics assume that such display of miracles would be automatically honored.
The people constantly tried to stone Moses, even three days after the Red Sea miracle.
They ignore the history which showed that a lack of belief is not always the quality and public nature of the miracle, but the fault of the mob.
They ignored the fact that great miracles did not cause the people to obey or treat the miracle worker with respect because they also reject these stories.
- Mistakes, Trial and Error.
In the healing of the blind man, critics claimed that Jesus has to try twice to get it right, insinuating that He made a mistake.
However, in certain healings, Jesus was demonstrating how He would heal the blindness of the nation of Israel.
At first, they would not see Him clearly. However, after He sends the Holy Spirit to wash away their sins and wake them up, then they will recognize Him clearly.
- Death of Jesus. Jesus faked His death on the cross and was rescuscitated later.
They ignore the evidence that the Romans declared Him dead and shoved a sword through His heart, making rescuscitation unlikely even if they had modern technology.
» Vinegar Analgesic. He also used vinegar as an anesthetic. Crucifixion is supposedly the worst possible pain, if vinegar could have relieved this level of suffering we would be using it as a pain killer.
» Simon of Cyrene.
Gnostics and Islam claim that Simon died instead of Jesus.
So I say where are all the people who wanted Him to die who were standing near the cross. Were they fooled?
I am surprised at Islam because they claim to accept Jesus as a prophet and claim respect for the Book.
Yet they will also claim that the Jews rewrote the Old Testament to make Isaac the promisd son, not Ishmael.
» Wrong Tomb.
Critics claim that they went to the wrong tomb because the Bible proves it when they were told
He is not here ...
(Matthew 28: 6)
But the rest of the verse actually explains that it was His tomb but He had been resurrected.
He is Alive!
He is not here, for He has risen, just as He said. Come, see the place where He was lying.
(Matthew 28: 6)
So the critics were grossly dishonest, quoting half a verse and ignoring the entire story.
They must be writing to an audience that hates the Bible and will not do any basic fact checking.
- Resurrection of Jesus. Every Darwin believing atheist and most people do not believe in the resurrection.
And if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain.
(1 Corinthians 15: 14)
» The Shroud Of Turin.
Proponents claim that this is the burial cloth of Christ, especially since it appears to have the image of a person who suffered from the wounds of a beating and crucifixion imprinted on the cloth.
Scientists have carbon dated this object between 1260 and 1390 AD.
However, there is a new twist on the denial of the resurrection.
A former atheist/agnostic claims to have come to the faith because of this.
He claims that Mary and Paul and the other witnesses never saw a resurrected Christ. Instead, they saw this glorious shroud.
So he would rather believe that a shroud talked to Paul, showed Thomas its wounds, cooked fish for the disciples by the sea of Galilee and rose up into clouds like Alladin's magic carpet.
He is ignoring both the biblical and scientific evidence and would rather place belief in an object that we cannot be sure existed before 1353-57 AD.
- Over 500 Eyewitnesses.
1 Corinthians 15: 5-8. They ignore this evidence.
One evidence that He might have been seen alive is the fact that His enemies had to make up stories to explain away the fact that He was seen alive and His body had disappeared.
- Existence of Jesus. They claim that He did not exist and that historical references to Him were planted by Christians.
This is simply desperate nonsense submitted by fools.
No one has ever credibly suggested that any major founder of a religion has never existed and Christianity is the most wide spread religion.
Despite the death fatwahs, nobody could reasonably claim that Muhammad never existed.
They never say that about Buddah, Confucious or all the others.
Even the enemies of Jesus, the Jews, acknowledge that He existed but disparage His reputation.
It is impossible to reason with somone who is determined to say that all your evidence is fabricated without providing proof of fabrication.
Yet, they accept the historical records of many ancient authors without question and ignore the writings of the Jews who never seem to whitewash history.
We have tens times more written historical evidence from many sources that verifies the history of the Bible than we have for any other ancient person or event and the critics accept the history written by these few sources.
If we cannot prove the existence of David or Jesus by the historical records in the scriptures, then the same critics cannot place any confidence in any of the writings of ancient historians. They must claim that all history is myth.
They ignore any claims of prophecy or ability to foretell the future.
Any claims of prophetic writings are attributed to lies fabricated after the fact by writers attributing the statements to earlier prophets or to lying prophets and events after the fact.
The Critics: Out of Context
Critics say that we take isolated verses out of context and even out of their historical fulfillment and designated them as Messianic.
We have been taught how to recognize Messianic prophecy through the example of Jesus and His disciples.
Jesus and the disciples set the following prescedents which are all based on the law.
- The Law of Sacrifices.
Paul and the writer of the book of Hebrews makes it very clear that Jesus came to fulfill the covenant as the High Priest and the sacrifice.
Jesus Is The Sin Offering.
For he has made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.
(2 Corinthians 5: 21 KJV)
Since each law is written as a brief, self-contained statement among a list of laws, it is legitimate to take each law and apply it to the life of Jesus, while ignoring its surrounding context.
- The Law of Curses.
The curses are the laws that prophesy about the suffering of Jesus.
Jesus Bears The Curse.
Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangs on a tree.
(Galatians 3: 13 KJV)
It is also legitimate to apply the law about each individual curse in a list as a prophecy.
Much of their criticism seems to be based on using Psalms as prophecies.
Jesus said that the Psalms prophesied about Him.
Messianic Prophecy Sources.
And he said unto them, These are the words which I spoke unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
(Luke 24: 44 KJV)
In addition, even the Bible states that the singers were prophets. So the Psalms as a legitimate source of prophecy are not an invention of Jesus and the disciples but are based on the law and the gifts of God.
Prophesying By Poetry And Music.
Moreover David and the captains of the host separated to the service of the sons of Asaph, and of Heman, and of Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals: and the number of the workmen according to their service was:
(1 Chronicles 25: 1 KJV)
Only the Torah appears to have more Messianc prophecies than the Psalms.
While the Torah focuses on prophecies related to the covenant and the law and the scope of the mission, and the prophets focus on the Man who would complete the covenant, and Job focuses on the unfairness of the judgment and suffering, the Psalms focus on the emotions of the day of the crucifixion.
» The Scope Of The Prophecies.
I could not justify the selection of individual verses in Psalms as a prophecy so I examined the rest of the verses and discovered why they have been traditionally ignored as Messianic.
The verses that are ignored, portray the agony of Jesus as the one who bore sin and looked like a sinner in need of forgiveness.
- Forsaken by God Because of Sins (Matthew 27: 46). Psalm 22:1
- Thirst During Crucifixion (John 19: 28). Psalm 22:15
- Arrested By A Band of Evil Men (Matthew 26: 54). Psalm 22: 16
- Gamble For His Clothes (John 19: 23-24). Psalm 22:18
- Despised, Rejected, Mocked and Insulted All Day (Matthew 27: 31, 39-44). Psalm 22:7-8
- People Look At The Pierced Christ (John 19: 33-34). Psalm 22:16, Zechariah 12:10, Isaiah 53:5
- Betrayer Cut Off (Acts 1: 18-20). Psalm 69:25-28; 109:6-13
- Teach In Parables (Matthew 13: 35). Psalm 78:2
- Praised by Children (Matthew 21: 16). Psalm 8:2
- Rejected By Rulers (Matthew 21: 42). Psalm 118:22
- Sitting On The Right Hand (Matthew 22: 44). Psalm 110:1; Psalm 80:17
- No Broken Bones (John 19: 31-36). Psalm 34:20, Numbers 9:12, Exodus 12:46
- Plot by Rulers (Acts 4: 25-28). Psalm 2:1-2
- Only One Lost (Acts 1: 18). Psalm 41: 9; 55:15
By that time God has already taught me that it was legitimate to see how Jesus would be viewed negatively as the sin-bearer who was sinless.
So this website does not ignore the surrounding texts and Jesus was not quoting Psalms that reflected His feelings. He gave David the privilege of experiencing His feelings and the words became prophetic. The scope of the prophecies include the entire chapter. They are all Messianic Psalms written as prophecies about Jesus by people whom God gave the priviledge of understanding the suffering of the future Messiah.
- The Experience Of The Patriarchs and Prophets.
Jesus said that He will mimic the experience of Job. He is not merely choosing Job at random.
As a matter of fact, all the people who mimic the life of Christ are actually following a pattern of experience written in the law.
We show this pattern in the lesson on the twelve tribes, then show how dozens of people in the Old Testament follow this pattern partially or totally.
A "Figurative" Fulfillment?
New Testament writers saw a significant similarity in the history of Israel and the experience of Jesus and called these events "fulfillments" of a Messianic prophecy.
This was in line with Jewish tradition at that time. They saw the Messiah as the ideal Israel who shared their significant historical experiences.
This type of fulfillment was recognized by Jesus and the disciples, but current tend to straddle the fence on these.
They recognize that the apostles used the word "fulfilled" but they do not recognize them as a "literal" fulfillment of Messianic prophecies but instead choose a lesser standard named "figurative" fulfillment as the disciples compared similar experiences.
These are some of the prophecies some have discarded as figurative, yet I can also find them in either the law or in the testimony of real prophets.
- Rise From The Dead On The Third Day (Matthew 12: 40; 28: 1-20). Jonah 1:17
This prophecy is predicted in the wavesheaf offering and in the sanctuary. More important, Jesus called the experience of Jonah a real prophecy that He fulfilled.
- From Capernaum (Matthew 4: 15-16).
Capernaum is the region of the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali. It fulfills the Messianic prophecy of Isaiah 9: 1-2.
- From Egypt (Matthew 2: 14-15).
Although some call this a figurative, it is actually a literal prophecy from Balaam about the Messiah.
In fact, this prophecy of Balaam can be used to show the interchangeable symbolism between the Messiah and Israel.
Out Of Egypt.
God brings him out of Egypt. He is for him like the horns of the wild ox.
(Numbers 24: 8)
Israel Out Of Egypt.
When Israel was a youth I loved him, and out of Egypt I called My son.
(Hosea 11: 1)
- Judas Guides Soldiers (Acts 1: 16). Psalm 41: 9 and Psalm 55:12-14.
Although this action is prophesied in the law, Acts specifically says that David prophesied about the arrest of Jesus.
- 30 Pieces Of Silver Buys A Potter's Field (Matthew 27: 3-10). Zechariah 11: 12-13
This is not taken out of context because 30 shekels of silver was the price at which they valued the LORD, not Zechariah.
The experience of Zecariah was the same as the Messiah. He pastured a flock that was doomed to slaughter and He broke the covenant and the unity.
- Massacre of Infants (Matthew 2: 16-18). Jeremiah 31:15
The disciples say that this was fulfilled at the birth of Jesus. However, this marvelous prophecy was also completely fulfilled at His death.
In the prophecy of the twelve tribes we explained how Rachel's children in the west were the only ones who were denied their inheritance and blessings.
These blessings were restored after great affliction.
- Virgin Birth (Matthew 1: 23). Isaiah 7:14
Critics say that this was fulfilled as a sign to Ahaz that Jerusalem will not be conquered.
Ahaz refused to ask for a sign and God made an unusual statement.
He did not say that the "LORD will give you a sign" as if the Lord will arrange for a sign.
He said that "the LORD Himself shall give a sign", indicating that the LORD will be the sign.
This sign is the birth of a son by a virgin.
So while the LORD might have given a local sign that has been forgotten, the prophecy itself magnified its scope. The child of the virgin will be the LORD.
The birth of Christ was the first time that the LORD gave His Son to be born to a virgin.
A Real Life Fulfillment.
Since Jesus said that the Psalms prophecied about Him and He legitimized the experiences that we classify as "figurative" and not real Messianic prophecies, I prefer to accept what Jesus and the apostles and the old Jewish traditions acknowledged.
These are real Messianic prophecies. They are testimonies from the past about what the Messiah would experience, just as the attempted sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham was meant to teach a lesson about the real sacrifice of Jesus and the agony of God the father.
Simply regurgitating a list of credentials and events does not capture the full experience of the Messiah.
Such prophecies by experience are the only way that God can make the prophets understand what He is feeling so that they can write about it from a depth of emotional knowledge that is believable.
This is why the New Testament writers tell us to count it as joy and a priviledge if God asks you to experience some of the undeserved and unjust suffering of the Messiah.
It is because you are being called to testify intelligently about Him.
- The Names and Titles Of Jesus.
Jesus had several titles by which He has been called by various people.
These names and titles were acquired because of the name given by family, description given by others, commanded by angels or due to the work He performed.
- Jesus or Yeshua (Savior). He shall save people from their sins. He was named after Joshua which means "savior or conqueror".
- Immanuel (God With Us). In the blessings God promises to live with us and Jesus fulfilled the promise.
God Walks Among Us.
Moreover, I will make My dwelling among you, and My soul will not reject you.
I will also walk among you and be your God, and you shall be My people.
(Leviticus 26: 11-12)
Critics say that He was never called this name in the Bible.
While it is true that we do not have a record of anyone using this name to address Jesus, it is very true that one of the charges that they brought against Him at His trial was the fact that He claimed to be God in human flesh.
So the prophecy about this name is about the role He acknowledged. He was God who came to dwell with us.
He is Immanuel.
- Nazarene (Insignificant Offshoot). This interesting prophecy is based on a play of words.
He came from Nazareth so the disciples said this fulfilled a prophecy that He would be called a Nazarene.
Amazingly, after His death the Jews to this day call Him the Nazarene, fulfilling this prophecy.
In the Old Testament He was never called a "Nazarene" but He was often called the "Branch".
The Hebrew word for Branch is "Netzer or Netser" which is the root word for Nazareth and Nazarene.
So the "Branch" came from a place called "Branch".
He was also called the "Bread". He was born in Bethlehem, which means "The house of Bread".
Amazingly, you can see how thoroughly God tried to identify the Messiah.
- Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Isaiah 9: 6 calls Him many names, including God.
Notice that some of these names will be acknowledged in His future, after His death.
- The Prophets.
- Die With Criminals (Matthew 27: 38). Isaiah 53:12
- Second Coming and Resurrection (Matthew 24: 30-31). Daniel 7: 9,13,27
- People Will Not Understand (Matthew 13: 14-15). Isaiah 6: 9-10
- Miraculous Healings (Matthew 11: 5). Isaiah 35:5-6; 29:18
- Tender and compassionate (Matthew 12:15-21). Isaiah 40:11; 42:3; Psalm 112:4
- Another Prophet Will Announce Him (Matthew 3: 1-3). Isaiah 40:3
- Light To The Gentiles (Matthew 12: 14-21). Isaiah 49:6; 42:1-4,6
- Deliver Spiritual Captives (Matthew 11: 5). Isaiah 61:1-2
- Enter Jerusalem On A Donkey (Matthew 21: 1-9). Zechariah 9:9
- Disciples Scattered (Matthew 26: 31,56). Zechariah 13: 7
The Bible indicates that the Messiah would come from at least three different places - Bethlehem, Nazareth and Egypt.
Events conspired to get His parents to these locations.
When Augustus Caesar issued a tax, he forced all people to go to the original places of birth to register.
This meant that Mary, who was 9 months pregnant was forced to make a long arduous journey that no one would reasonably have made to fulfill the prophecy.
They might not have known what the prophecy wanted, but God made a Roman Emperor issue a law that would force the prophecy to be fulfilled.
The Messiah would come out of Egypt.
Again, because of political circumstances Joseph was forced to flee to Egypt because King Herod was trying to destroy the baby by killing
all Jewish babies of a certain age. Joseph was told by an angel to go to Egypt. They returned to Israel after the death of Herod. So Jesus spent His life as a young boy in Egypt.
- Nazareth. After coming from Egypt, the family went to live in Nazareth where Jesus grew up.
- Capernaum. He would live in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali.
Today, Christians around the world celebrate December 25 as the birth date of Christ.
But this is incorrect. The date was chosen to attract the people of the pagan religion, who celebrated the birth date of the sun on that day.
The story of the birth of Christ and John, pinpoints the exact date of his birth.
We present this evidence in another lesson.
- The Place of Birth.
There is one point of interest about the caves and the feast of booths.
During this time the Israelites were supposed to live outside in booths.
One side of this temporary dwelling was supposed to be constructed next to a permanent wall.
The rest of the structure was made of branches.
Stables were normally inside a cave.
The structure made in the feast of booths sound a lot like the inside of a cave.
So the ancient feast actually portrayed the type of dwelling in which the King of
the universe would live when he came to live with mankind.
- The Bread of Life.
So Christ (the Bread of Life) was born in Bethlehem (the House of Bread) and came to tabernacle with mankind during the feast of Tabernacles.
John states that the Word became flesh and tabernacled (lived) among us. (John 1: 14)
- Born to Die.
His place of birth was a sign of His death. (Luke 2: 12)
In the ancient world, animals were kept in caves, their feeding troughs were made of stone.
He was born in a cave and wrapped in strips of cloth and laid on a bed of stone.
He was buried in a cave wrapped in strips of cloth. Like a dead man.
He was born to die.
Matthew's genealogy traced the lineage of Jesus as the son of David through Joseph - His legal father (Matthew 1).
Luke's genealogy traced the lineage of Jesus as the son of God through Mary - His mother (Luke 3: 23-38).
In Luke, Joseph was called the "son of Heli", while in Matthew he was the "son of Jacob".
Is this an error?
The Jerusalem Talmud states that Mary was the daughter of Heli (Haggigah, Book 77, 4).
Heli was Mary's father and Joseph was his son-in-law according to modern reckoning.
But this designation "son" instead of "son-in-law" was common in those days.
It was not an error.
Even today, according to Jewish tradition - you are a Jew if your lineage could be traced through your mother.
The new Testament shows Jesus' heritage, through both Joseph and Mary.
Since Joseph was not His Father, it is the ancestry of Mary that was most important.
She was from the line of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and Judah and Jesse and David.
And He was a Jew because of His mother.
The Bible states that He was born from the "seed of a woman".
This is significant because of what it does not say.
He was not from the seed of a man as normal humans are.
Therefore, His only human biological connection must be from a woman only.
He must not have the genes of any man from earth.
Therefore, He must be either born from a virgin or from a conception that did not involve a sexual act.
The New Testament states that Jesus was born to the Virgin named Mary after she conceived a child by the Holy Spirit.
Current Jewish interpretation implies that the Old Testament did not say that a virgin would conceive, but that a young woman would.
One would be a miracle, the other would not. Let us examine the evidence.
The Jewish Perspective.
What was the Jewish perspective prior to Christ.
The original Hebrew word is almah which could mean virgin or maiden (young woman).
Historically, the term young woman implied virginity. So while an old woman could be a virgin
she could not be a young maiden.
Therefore, in modern thinking, the prophecy either means that His mother would be a virgin or that she was young.
So the Hebrew term is ambiguous.
To find out how the ancient Hebrews interpreted the prophecies we have to go back to the Septuagint.
When the Hebrew was translated into the Greek, there were two distinct Greek words for a virgin (parthenos) and a young woman (kore) (also nea = young, korasion = girl).
The Hebrew translators chose to use the Greek word for virgin.
This is strong circumstantial evidence that the ancient Hebrews thought that a virgin (not simply a young woman) would conceive.
» Logic: A Great Sign.
It would be a miraculous sign if an old woman, like 99 year old Sarah, or a child under 8 would give birth.
However, the only way a young woman who gave birth would be a "great sign" would be if the woman was a virgin.
In the Old Testament, miraculous births were to older women.
Modern theologians teach that Mary was about 13 when she conceived because that would have been the norm in the society with a short life expectancy.
As a righteous Person God would not set such a precedence. Mary must have been older.
The Family Tree Of Jesus.
Jesus was from both the tribe of Judah and Levi.
| Jesus Preexisted (The Branch)|
| Adam (Son of God) Eve (Mother Of Nations)|
||(Kings) Tribe of Judah Tamar
||Tribe of Levi (Priests) Aaron|
|Jacob||-||Eli ||Mary's Mother's Relatives||Abijah|
|Joseph||God || Mary ||Salome ||Elizabeth||Zacharias|
| Jesus (Yeshua) Son Of God||John the Beloved ||John the Baptist|
His geneology is recorded in two places. Matthew 1: 1-17 records the ancestors of Joseph, His step-father.
Luke 3: 23-38 records the ancestors of Mary's husband as the son-in-law of Mary's father.
| Maternal Lineage|
In addition, Luke 1: 5, 36 establishes that Mary had a cousin who was from the tribe of Aaron, the priests from Levi.
God ("Biological Father and Creator").
Adam ("Ancestor of All People"). The son of God.
Abraham ("Ancestor of Israel"). Father of Isaac. 20 generations from Adam.
Isaac ("The Promised Son"). Heir of the promise. Father of Jacob.
Jacob ("Ancestor of the Twelve Tribes of Israel"). His name was changed to Israel.
Levi ("Ancestor of Mary and Elizabeth"). Line of priests. The third son, who was one of the twelve tribes.
Judah ("Ancestor of Mary and Joseph"). Line of kings. The fourth son, who was one of the twelve tribes.
David ("Tribe of Judah"). Second king of Israel, fourteen generations from Abraham. Chosen by God.
Joseph ("Step Father"). Matthew 1: 1-17 records the genealogy of Jesus through Joseph who was from the tribe of Judah. Luke 1: 27. He came through David's son Solomon (Matthew 1: 6).
Jesus ("Son of God"). 77 generations from God according to Mary's geneology and 63 generations from God by the geneology of Joseph.
Mary ("Biological Mother").
She comes from the tribe of Judah according to the genealogy of Luke 3: 23-38. Although it was recorded as the genealogy of Joseph the "son of Eli" it was actually "the son-in-law of Eli". This was the lineage of Mary.
He came through David's son Nathan (Luke 3: 31).
Mary was also a relative/cousin of Elizabeth who was from the tribe of Levi (Luke 1: 36).
So Mary must have been from the tribe of Judah through her father's side and from the tribe of Levi through her mother's side.
So Jesus was biologically from both the lines of kings and priests and legally from the line of kings through adoption.
» The Age of Mary. Mary was a virgin, but how old was she?
Salome ("Aunt"). Possibly the sister of Mary. We have to compare the list of women standing at a distance from the cross in several books to establish a possible relationship.
- Young Girl. Scholars claim that Mary was probably around 14 years of age when she became pregnant because that was the custom of the day.
Although God can create a miracle to make a healthy pregnancy for a young girl, I do not believe this responsible God would set this precedent.
While the young may be more responsible in ancient times, not only are the young too emotionally immature in our era, but in all cultures and ages their bodies are too young.
I do not believe that God would leave an example of pedophelia. It is more miraculous to make an old virgin pregnant than a young child.
- Older Woman. In all of the examples of mothers who gave birth to a special, promised child, the mother was old or unsuccessful at becoming pregnant and some were long past their fertile years.
Sarah, the mother of Isaac was 99. Hannah, the mother of Samuel and Elizabeth, the mother of John the baptist waited a long time. Jacob had the two children by Rachel in his old age, perhaps Rachel was also older then the average first-time mother because she watched as her sister had 7 children and the two concubines had their children. She probably waited at least 14 years after waiting 7 years for her beloved.
Moses appears to have been born when his mother was older. Miriam was old enough to be an advocate for him and broker a deal with the daughter of Pharaoh.
God would have compounded the miracle if Mary was both a virgin and older.
For He has had regard for the humble state of His bondslave, for behold, from this time on all generations will count me blessed.
(Luke 1: 48)
If we look at the praise by Mary, we could assume that up until this time she had been regarded as cursed and she was in a state of reproach.
This would be her label if she was unmarried and childless at an age when she was expected to have crossed these two hurdles.
While cousins are generally of the same age, it is very possible that in a polygamous society, that first cousins could vary greatly in age.
But, one additional clue that she was older was that her cousin Elizabeth was also older and childless and apparently beyond her fertile years.
All the mothers of the special children were beautiful women, perhaps Mary was the exception and this in addition to poverty caused her to remain unmarried and childless.
John the Beloved Disciple ("Cousin"). Cousin of Jesus, son of Salome.
- Mary, Mary and John's Mother. Matthew 27: 56: Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee, who were James and John (Matthew 4: 21; Mark 10: 35).
- Mary, Mary and Salome (John's Mother). Mark 15: 40: Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Salome. Therefore Salome is the mother of James and John.
- Mary, Mary, Mary and Mary's Sister. John 19: 25: Mary Magdalene, Mary the wife of Clopas, Mary His mother, and His mother's sister.
All the women mentioned were named Mary, with the exception of "Mary's sister". So she must be Salome, the mother of John the disciple.
Therefore John was His cousin. It explains why John took care of Mary. She was a family member. She was His aunt.
The reason why he became the beloved disciple was probably because he was the only family member who acted as if He believed the claims of Jesus.
Elizabeth ("Cousin of Mary"). Comes from the tribe of Levi through Aaron (Luke 1: 5, 36)
Zacharias ("Husband of Elizabeth"). Comes from the tribe of Levi from the division of Abijah (Luke 1: 5)
John the Baptist ("Cousin"). Son of Elizabeth (Luke 1).
James and Jude ("Brothers"). James 1: 19. Jude 1. Mark 6: 13. Matthew 13: 55-56 states that Mary later had other children. He had four brothers and some sisters.
These were not her step children. A prophecy from Psalm says that His mother had other sons.
I have become estranged from my brothers and an alien to my mother's sons.
(Psalm 69: 8)
There are historical references to the existance of Jesus and the trial of Jesus.
They are from writers hostile to Christianity. Their accounts show at least three things.
- There was a man named Jesus Christ (Yeshua).
- He was executed.
- His movement survived His death.
- Josephus' Account.
The Jewish historian, Josephus referred to Jesus in two places.
He referred to the stoning of James in 62 AD as the brother of Jesus who is called Christ.
In the other reference this is what he had to say about Jesus:
About the same time there lived Jesus, a wise man for he was a performer of marvelous feats and a teacher of such men who received the truth with pleasure. He attracted many Jews and many Greeks. He was called the Christ. Pilate sentenced him to die on the cross, having been urged to do so by the noblest of our citizens; but those who loved him at the first did not give up their affection for him. And the tribe of the Christians, who are named after him, have not disappeared to this day
- Tacitus' Account. (56 - 117 AD) Speaking about the burning of Rome, the Roman historian Tacitus (who hated Christians and Jews) has this to say:
Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilate, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, and the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular.
- Babylonian Talmud. It mentions Yeshua (Jesus) Who was hanged on the eve of Passover because He practiced sorcery and enticed and led Israel astray (Sanhedrin 43A).
It has been taught on the eve of the Passover they hanged Yeshua. And an announcer went out in front of him for forty days saying, 'He is going to be stoned because He practiced sorcery and enticed and led Israel astray. Anyone who knows anything in his favor, let him come and plead in his behalf.' But, not having found anything in his favor, they hanged him on the eve of the Passover.
- Talmud. Although the accounts were not flattering, the Talmud states that Miriam (Mary) conceived Jesus by the best man of the bridegroom while she was menstruating.
So Jesus was an illegitimate bastard, born to a prostitute in the filth of menstruation (a bastard and a niddah).
So I assume they hated Him. But, despicable as He was, He existed according to the records of an unbiased source.
Medical Aspects Of His Suffering
Hematidrosis: Sweating Drops Of Blood
As He prayed, He perspired great drops of blood.
Medical doctors have recorded cases when this process of hematidrosis occurs.
Usually the victim is under extreme anxiety such as the threat of pain or death. This causes the tiny capillaries in the sweat gland to burst and blood to seep into the sweat glands and out to the skin.
One reported case was that of a British girl in World War II during the time when London was being bombed.
Every time the city was attacked, this frightened girl would sweat blood.
» Haemolacria: Tears of Blood. A new or rare phenomenon seen in 2009. The cause is unknown.
Psychological Torture: The King's Game (Swords and Kings)
The Romans played a cruel child's game called "Swords and Kings" with the prisoners who were waiting to be crucified.
It was described by a writer in Alexandria where the mob entertained themselves by making fools out of idiots and the mentally handicapped.
The Roman soldiers would take one of their prisoners and make a mock king out of him.
They would catch them and dress them up in purple robes like kings. Then they would sit them down and mock worship them.
They beat and taunted the prisoner until it was time to be crucified.
| Roman Forms of Corporal Punishment|
There were three levels of severity for flogging.
Fustigatio. For a light offense.
Flagellatio. For criminals
Verberatio. Most severe. Accompanied by other punishments including crucifixion
They threw a robe across the shoulders of Jesus and placed a stick in His hand for a scepter.
They twisted flexible branches with one to two inch thorns and made a crown. Then they shoved it on His head.
This caused much bleeding, because the scalp has many blood vessels.
Yeshua was most likely taken to the Fortress Antonia for this beating.
The court where Pilate judged Jesus was named Gabbatha (the Pavement) was located at the Tower of Antonia (John 19: 13).
The Crown Of Thorns
Some claim that the crown of thorns was not a simple crown that sat on His head as far as the hairline of His forehead.
It was cylinder that came down over His eyes.
| Roman Flogging Instruments|
The Jews have a law about flogging no more than 40 times. In practice, they limited it to 39 lashes just in case there was an error in counting.
But there is no evidence that the Romans had a limit.
Elm Rods. For whipping free men
Vine, Laurel or Myrtle Canes. Military
Whips. Straps of different materials.
» Ferula - Leather strap
» Scutia - Thongs of twisted parchment
» Flagrum or Flagellum.
2 or 3 lashes with various objects tied to the ends or along the length.
|Scorpion||Thorns or metal hooks which tear flesh|
The Agony Of The Whipping
The prisoner was stripped of his clothing and his hands tied to a post above his head.
Or, he was tied and bent over a low pillar or laid on the floor.
This exposed his back and legs and allowed hitting from both sides.
Dr. C. Truman Davis, describes a flogging as follows:
The heavy whip is brought down with full force again and again across Jesus' shoulders, back and legs. At first, the heavy thongs cut through the skin only. Then, as the blows continue, they cut deeper into the subcutaneous tissues, producing first an oozing of blood from the capillaries and veins of the skin, and finally spurting arterial bleeding from vessels in the underlying muscles. The small balls of lead first produce large, deep bruises, which the others cut wide open. Finally, the skin of the back is hanging in long ribbons, and the entire area is an unrecognizable mass of torn, bleeding tissue.
When it is determined by the centurion in charge that the prisoner is near death, the beating is finally stopped. The half-fainting Jesus is then untied and allowed to slump to the stone pavement, wet with His own blood.
Sometimes the beatings are so severe the victim is disemboweled.
» The Laws On Flogging.
The Romans had no legal limit for the number of lashes, but the Jews were limited to 40.
And it shall be, if the wicked man be worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to his fault, by a certain number.
Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed: lest, if he should exceed, and beat him above these with many stripes, then thy brother should seem vile unto thee.
(Deuteronomy 25: 2-3)
"Chastening" or "chastise" is the same as flogging as a form of punishment to hold the unrighteous accountable.
It was limited to a maximum of 40 times so that they would not be totally humiliated and may be less "according to the fault".
In the case of the Jews there was a tradition to administer 39 as the maximum (forty "less one") just in case they miscounted and exceeded the limit.
Among the Jews, rods seem to be the preferred implement of scourging (Proverbs 10:13; 19:18; 23:13-14; 26:3; 29:17), but there is a reference to the use of thorns in Judges 8: 7, 16 and the use of whips and scorpions in 1 Kings 12: 11, 14
Since the life and crucifixion of Jesus fulfilled all laws and prophecies we can assume that He suffered at least 40 lashes.
Other prophecies state that God's prescribed limit for the wicked is 42 or 44 times.
Since the curses broke the rules and since the Romans had no limits we can also assume that He received more than 40 lashes.
The Origin Of The Cross
Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution which was used by the Romans for slaves and criminals until AD 337.
Crucifixion was invented either by the Persians between 300-400BC or by the Syro-Phoenicians about 600 BC.
However, before it was invented, about 1000 BC King David prophesied about the crucifixion of Christ.
... They pierced my hands and my feet.
(Psalm 22: 16)
However, I have found new information which sheds additional light on this topic.
The Shape Of A Cross. The final letter in the alphabet in use by the ancients in the region was the letter Tau or Tav, which was shaped like a cross.
It meant "sign, covenant or seal".
This was used by the Phoenician, Aramaic, Samaritan, Punic and Ivri (Hebrew) scripts.
The saving significance of the shape was known from the time of Adam.
This invention as an instrument of terror came later.
| Crucifixion Anatomy and Physiology|
- Nails. Wrists and feet nailed.
- Ropes. Arms tied to patibulum.
- Chest Muscles. Intercostal, pectoral and diaphragm.
- Sedulum. The victim assisted breathing by alternating between standing or sitting.
4a. Stand (Inhale). Weight on feet
4b. Sit (Exhale). Weight on arms
- Sword. A spear 5 - 6 feet (1.5-1.8 m) pierced the heart.
- Crucifracture. Normally, the legs were broken below the knees to end the cycle of standing and sitting and hasten death by asphyxia. Jesus' legs were not broken.
The Agony Of The Crucifixion
Jesus was crucified naked. It was prophesied that people would stare at Him.
It was humiliating.
» Hard Labor.
The efforts to breathe on the cross were an exercise in hard and painful labor.
He died slowly and painfully by slowly suffocating.
Normally, the victim's legs were broken so that he could not push up on his feet to breathe.
However, Jesus died before they broke His legs - fulfilling the prophecy that not one of His bones would be broken.
Before the legs were broken, the slow process of suffering and resulting death during a crucifixion is described in an article by Dr. David Terasaka.
... it appears likely that the mechanism of death in crucifixion was suffocation. The chain of events which ultimately led to suffocation are as follows:
With the weight of the body being supported by the sedulum [a seat], the arms were pulled upward. This caused the intercostal and pectoral muscles [muscles in the rib cage] to be stretched. Furthermore, movement of these muscles was opposed by the weight of the body. With the muscles of respiration thus stretched, the respiratory bellows became relatively fixed [in the inhale position, making exhalation virtually impossible, leaving only shallow breathing. The shallow breathing eventually caused muscle cramps].
As dyspnea [difficulty breathing] developed and pain in the wrists and arms increased, the victim was forced to raise the body off the sedulum, thereby transferring the weight of the body to the feet [tarsal bones]. Respirations became easier, but with the weight of the body being exerted on the feet, pain in the feet and legs mounted. When the pain became unbearable, the victim again slumped down on the sedulum with the weight of the body pulling on the wrists and again stretching the intercostal muscles [between the ribs]. Thus, the victim alternated between lifting his body off the sedulum in order to breathe and slumping down on the sedulum to relieve pain in the feet. Eventually, he became exhausted or lapsed into unconsciousness so that he could no longer lift his body off the sedulum. In this position, with the respiratory muscles essentially paralyzed, the victim suffocated and died. (DePasquale and Burch)
» Great Suffering.
Death by crucifixion was a process that took three hours to four days depending on the severity of the beating.
Then the beaten prisoner was tied to the patibulum and walked to the site of the crucifixion.
A severe beating stripped the back and would generally cause great blood loss, making the victim too weak to carry the patibulum and hasten death at crucifixion. Efforts to breathe by lifting and lowering the body would cause the raw back to scrape against the upright post and to rotate the wrist around the nails and cause great pain along the median nerve and back.
» Cause of Death (Broken Heart Syndrome).
The cause of death was due to several possibilities including shock by blood loss, exhaustion asphyxiation (suffocation) as Satan squeezed the life out of Him, cardiac arrhythmia or congestive heart failure. But the prophetic evidence is that His heart was broken or ruptured.
The symbolic evidence is that He was strangled and crushed by the snake.
» Cause of Death (High Altitude Pulmonary Edema).
Many prophecies emphasize the fact that the offering must be lifted up high.
In this cause of death, the lungs fill up with fluid at very high altitudes. It is usually precipitated by an injury to the body, like falling or trauma to the chest.
Jesus suffered all of these and He was symbolically suspended high, somewhere between heaven and earth.
The condition is fixed by going down to a lower level.
It is a symbolic cause of death.
» Attacked by Wild Animals.
Insects and birds of pray would invade the open wounds, the eyes, nose and ears and increase the misery of the victim.
The corpse would sometimes be left on the cross to be eaten by scavengers unless the family received permission to bury the body.
The birds were not allowed to cannibalize His body, but He may have been bothered by insects.
» The Roman Cross.
The entire cross weighed over 300 pounds (136 kg) and the patibulum (cross beam) weighed 75-125 pounds (35-60 kg). The nails were about 5-9 inches long (13 to 21 cm) with a square shaft 1 cm wide.
There were several types of crosses.
- Crux Decussata. It is shaped like an "X". The crossbar and stipes were the same length.
- Crux Commissa . It is shaped like a "T". A crossbar is affixed to the top of a stake.
- Crux Immisa. A crossbar is affixed 2 to 3 feet from the top of a stake, leaving space for a titulus.
- Crux Simplex or Crus Palus. A stake without a cross beam.
| Parts of the Cross Immisa|
|King of the Jews |
Titulus. A small sign which stated the victim's crime was nailed above the head
Patibulum. The horizontal cross beam
Stipes. The upright post
Sedulum. A small seat to sit on.
Jesus And His Cross
- Carrying The Cross. He probably carried the cross beam, not the entire cross. It weighed about 34 to 57 kg and was tied on His neck and across His shoulders.
He carried the patibulum of the cross like an ox or donkey carried a yoke on their shoulders.
The Titulus, bearing the description of the crime, was fixed to a short staff and carried ahead of the execution procession.
- Hands Nailed To The Cross.
He was nailed in the wrist not the palm. Nailing in the palm would tear the flesh since it would not support His weight.
A flat disc of wood was placed on the wrist to prevent the flesh from tearing through the nail head.
The soldier drives a heavy, square, wrought iron nail through a flat piece of wood, then the depression in front of His wrist between the radius and ulna, deep into the wood.
The nail is placed past the wrist next to the base of the thumb in a space between the radius, ulna and the eight small carpal bones.
It avoids the nerves and major blood vessels so that the victim does not prematurely bleed to dead and He could still feel the pain.
» Median Nerve. If it pierces the largest nerve in the hand, it causes severe burning pain and permanent paralysis of the hand.
» Nailed In The Hands Or Wrist?
Most sources claim that the nails were placed in the wrist because the hands would tear.
However, a documentary by National Geographic Channel's Quest For Truth: The Crucifixion, showed an experiment proving that a person can be suspended by the palm of the hands.
- Patibulum And Titulus. Then the cross bar is raised up and placed on the upright. Then the titulus is nailed above His head, "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews".
- Feet Nailed To The Cross.
His feet were first turned to the side and His legs bent at the knees. Then the left foot was placed on top of the right foot.
The left foot is now pressed backward against the right foot, and with both feet extended, toes down, a nail is driven through the arch of each, leaving the knees moderately flexed so that He had room to sit and stand.
To prevent tearing of the flesh through the nail head, a flat piece of wood was placed over his feet, and a larger spike was hammered through the wood, both feet, and the cross.
- Anesthesia. A mixture of vinegar (gall) and wine could be given as a mild anesthetic. Jesus refused to drink it.
They gave Him wine to drink mixed with gall; and after tasting it He was unwilling to drink.
(Matthew 27: 34)
- Spear Wound.
The Roman guards pierced the body with a sword or lance to ensure that the victim was dead.
Traditionally, this was believed to be a spear wound through the right side of the chest that pierced the heart.
But for many reasons I believe that it was through His left side.
» Fearing The Sign Of The Cross. Jewish tradition says that the mark that was placed on Cain, which was a sign to protect him, was the Tau cross.
A Sign of Salvation and Vengeance.
Behold, You have driven me this day from the face of the ground; and from Your face I will be hidden, and I will be a vagrant and a wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.
So the Lord said to him, "Therefore whoever kills Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold." And the Lord appointed a sign for Cain, so that no one finding him would slay him."
(Genesis 4: 14-15)
If so, the shape became a sign, a seal and a mark to be feared like declaring "the final word" on a subject.
So from the beginning ( 3850 BC), this was a mark of protection and also a mark to be feared and it must have evolved into the instrument to be feared as the final word of a government to its enemies.
Therefore, the ancients must have had this global meaning in mind when they chose execution by crucifixion as a method of terror and vengeance by the state.
While the shape must have been known by David as a sign or covenant, its use as a weapon of terror and execution was not done until 400 years later.
So his prophecy about "nailing the hands and feet" showed prophetic foreknowledge about how the Messiah would be attached, David might not have known that it was the cross to which the Messiah would be nailed.
» Crucifixion Diseases.
The Bible says that He bore our diseases. An examination of several real diseases show a remarkable similarity to the suffering of Christ and the symbols of the Plan of Salvation.
These diseases are either triggered by the same events he endured or have the same symptoms.
- Leprosy. He was treated with scorn like a leper.
- Helicase Malfunction. It causes premature aging, sun sensitivity, skin lesions and spots.
- Porphyria. Triggered by stress, excess iron (nail and sword) or the sun. It causes blisters, pain, swelling and cramping.
- Sleep Disorders. Sleep paralysis, cataplexy, REM Without Atonia, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, bedwetting, night terrors, sleep walking and sleep talking.
- Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). Affects people of Mediterranean descent, muscle pain, skin lesions, joint attacks and chest pain.
Crucifixion Week Timeline
All gospels must be read carefully to place the timing of Mary washing Jesus' feet and Mary given to John.
|The Final Days of Jesus|
|Kislev 25||About 100 days before He rode through the east gate, the Jews try to stone Him during the Feast of Dedication (Channukah) so He left Jerusalem ||John 10|
|Nisan, 31 AD||Lazarus was raised from the dead about a week before, after being dead for 4 days ||11|
|The Final Week of Jesus||Matthew||Mark||Luke||John|
| Saturday Night |
| Six days before Passover Mary washes Jesus' feet with perfume at the home of Simon the leper. This act triggers the anger of Judas||26:7||14:3||-||12:1|
|Judas betrays Him with a bribe of 30 pieces of silver||26:15||14:10||22:4||-|
| Sunday |
|The people come to see Lazarus and Jesus. The priests plotted to kill Jesus (John 11: 47, 53) and Lazarus (John 12: 10-11)||-||-||-||12:9|
| Night |
| Sunday evening was the beginning of Nisan 10, the day to select the Passover Lamb||Matthew 21||Mark 11||Luke 19||John 12|
|Jesus sends His disciples to find a donkey||2-5||2-5||21||14|
|Jesus goes to Jerusalem on a donkey colt||7-9||7-9||29-35||-|
|The people shout Hosanna!||9||9||38||-|
| Night |
| Jesus goes back to Bethany (House of the poor or afflicted), 2 miles east of Jerusalem||-||11||-||-|
|The fig tree is cursed||-||12||-||-|
|Jesus drives out the money changers and cleansed the temple ||12||15||45||-|
|Jesus also threw out the money changers 3 years earlier at Passover||John 2: 13-16|
|The fig tree is withered||19||20||-||-|
| Night |
| Jesus goes back to Bethany||-||-||-||-|
|Scribes question Jesus about His authority||-||28||20:2||-|
|Prophecy: No stones left in the temple||24:2||13:1||21:5||-|
|Prophecy: The end of the age and the Second Coming signs||3||4||7||-|
|Priests plot at Caiaphas' house two days before the feast||26:3||14:1||22:2||-|
| Night |
|Satan entered Judas and he betrayed Jesus||-||-||22:3||13:2|
|Judas had betrayed Him for 30 pieces of silver before||26:15||14:10||22:4||-|
| Jesus goes back to Bethany||-||-||-||-|
|Disciples ask where Passover meal will be||17||13||9||-|
|A man carrying water leads the disciples to the Upper Room||18||13||10||-|
|The Three Days of Suffering ||Matthew 26||Mark 14||Luke 22||John 13|
|In the Hands of Caiaphas (The High Priest) and the Religious Rulers|
| Night ||Beginning of the three days and nights in the "bowels of the earth" (Thursday sunset) |
|The Last Supper |
|Jesus and the 12 disciples come to the upper room in the evening||20||17||14||-|
|Washes the disciple's feet||-||-||-||4|
|Announces the betrayal by the one who dips in the bowl with Him||23||18||21||26|
|Satan entered Judas and he left quickly||-||-||-||2,27|
|Bread. This is My body||26||22||19||-|
|Wine. This is My blood||27||24||20||-|
|Will not drink the fourth cup until the New Jerusalem||29||25||18||-|
|Who is the greatest disciple||-||-||24||-|
|Sang a hymn. Went to the Mt of Olives in the Garden of Gethsemane||30||26||39||18:1|
|Praying alone in agony, a stone throw away||-||-||41||-|
|One angel came to strengthen Him||-||-||43||-|
|Let this cup pass from Me||39||36||-||-|
|Found the disciples (Peter, James, John) sleeping three times||45||37||46||-|
|Judas betrays with a kiss. A crowd came with swords and clubs||48||45||48||3|
|Peter cuts off Malchus' ear with a sword. Jesus heals him||51||47||50||10|
|This hour and the power of darkness are yours||-||-||53||-|
|Trial 1: Annas||-||-||-||13|
|Trial 2: The high priest Caiaphas and the council||57||53||54||24|
|Try to get false testimony||59||55||-||-|
|Found two false witnesses||60||-||-||-|
|Jesus admits that He is the Son of God||64||62||70||-|
|Caiaphas tears his clothes saying that Jesus has blasphemed||65||63||-||-|
|Blindfolded, beat and spat on Him and mocked Him||67||65||63||-|
| 6:00 AM. Peter denies Him 3 times and curses. Cock crows twice ||74||72||60||27|
| Night 1 ||End of the first night (Thursday sunset to Dawn on Friday). Passover supper to Cockcrow |
|In the Hands of Rome and the Civilian Government||Matthew 27||Mark 15||Luke 23||John 18|
|Trial 3: Governor Pilate. Delivered Him bound||2||1||1||29|
|Judas hangs himself after giving back the 30 pieces of silver. |
Judas fell and his intestines burst out in the Field of Blood. Acts 1:16-20
|Potter's field bought for 30 pieces of silver||7-8||-||-||-|
|Trial 4: Herod (because Jesus was from his jurisdiction in Galilee)||-||-||7||-|
|Herod and his soldiers mock Him with contempt. Dressed Him||-||-||11||-|
|Trial 5: Sent back to Pilate who calls the priests, rulers and people||-||-||11||-|
|Remained silent before his accusers||12-14||3-5||8-10||-|
|Pilate's wife warns him about her dream||19||-||-||-|
| Pilate washes his hands of the guilt of innocent blood||24||-||-||-|
|The people said "His blood be on us and on our children!"||25||-||-||-|
|Exchanged for Barabbas, imprisoned for insurrection and murder||26||15||25||40|
|Beaten and handed over for crucifixion||26||15||-||19:1|
|Stripped, dressed in purple robe, crown of thorns, reed||28||17||-||2|
|Mocked and beaten by the soldiers. "Hail, King of the Jews"||29||18||38||3|
|Wears purple robe, crown of thorns. "Behold the Man" ||-||-||-||5|
|"Behold your King" Hour 6? (6 AM Roman time, other gospels give Jewish time). People said "We have no king but Caesar"||-||-||-||14|
|Jesus carries the cross||-||-||-||17|
|Simon of Cyrene carries the cross||32||21||26||-|
|Went to Golgotha (Calvary), "place of a skull" ||33||22||33||17|
|Tastes and refuses wine mixed with gall (myrrh)||34||23||36||-|
The Wrath of God
| Crucified naked at hour 3 (9:00 AM)||35||22||33||23|
|Father forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing||-||-||34||-|
|Soldiers tore His outer clothes into 4. Gambled for His seamless tunic||35||24||34||23|
|Above His head. "Jesus of Nazareth. King of the Jews"||37||26||38||19|
|Two robbers crucified on the right and left||38||27||33||18|
|Passers by hurl abuse||39||29||35||-|
|Priests and scribes mocked Him||41||31||-||-|
|Two robbers mock and insult Him||44||32||39||-|
|One robber asks Jesus to remember him||-||-||40||-|
|Gives mother to a disciple||-||-||-||26-27|
(Friday Noon - 3:00 PM)
|Three hours of darkness (Noon to 3:00) or (hour 6 to hour 9)||45||33||44||-|
|Eloi, Eloi, Lama Sabacthani (Around hour 9)||46||34||-||-|
|People thought He called Elijah||47||35||-||-|
|"I am thirsty". Given sponge, sour wine on hyssop reed to drink||48||36||-||28|
|"It is finished". Yielded up the Spirit with a loud voice||50||37||46||30|
|Veil torn from top to bottom||51||38||45||-|
|Earthquake, rocks split, resurrection of many people||52||37||45||-|
| Side pierced with a spear. Blood and water ||-||-||-||34|
|Joseph asks for His body||58||43||50||38|
|Buried in a new tomb. Wrapped in linen and spices (myrrh, aloes) ||59||46||53||38-42|
|Women prepare spices and perfumes for His body||-||16:1||56||-|
| Day 1 ||End of the first day (Dawn on Friday to sunset Friday). Roman trial and crucifixion and burial |
|Sabbath rest in the grave. Tomb sealed and guarded by Pilate||66||-||-||-|
| Night 2 ||End of the second night (Friday sunset to Dawn on Saturday). Dead |
|Sabbath ||Jesus is swallowed up and still resting in the grave on Saturday||-||-||-||-|
| Day 2 ||End of the second day (Dawn on Saturday to sunset Saturday). Dead and resting in the grave |
|Jesus is still in the grave Saturday evening (The first day of the week)||-||-||-||-|
| Night 3 ||End of the third night (Saturday sunset to Dawn on Sunday). In the grave ||Matthew 28||Mark 16||Luke 24||John 20|
| Resurrect || Before dawn on Sunday. Earthquake. Resurrection |
| An angel rolled away the stone, body gone||2||4||2-3||1|
| Guards fell as dead men||4||-||-||-|
| Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Salome, Joanna and others came to the grave with spices||1||1-2||1,10||1|
| One Angel spoke to women. "He is risen"||5-6||6||4||-|
| Angel said that Jesus is going to Galilee||7||7||-||-|
| Priests and elders gave guards money to say that the disciples stole the body ||11-15||-||-||-|
| Mary told the disciples that the body was missing||-||-||9||2|
| Peter and others came to the empty tomb and saw grave clothes||-||-||12||3-9|
| Two angels sitting at the head and feet where the body had been||-||-||4||12|
| Mary met Jesus and worshipped||-||8-10||-||14-|
| Do not cling to me because I have not yet ascended to my father||-||-||-||17|
| Mary told the disciples that she saw Jesus. They doubted||-||10-||9-11||18|
| Jesus met 2 on the road to Emmaus near sunset, walked 7 miles||-||12||13||-|
| He showed how Moses and the prophets spoke about Him||-||-||27||-|
| They recognized him in the breaking of bread||-||-||30-35||-|
| Ascension|| Jesus stayed near evening then vanished after eating with them.||-||-||31||-|
| Day 3 ||End of the third day (Dawn on Sunday to sunset Sunday). Resurrection and ascension |
|Sunday Evening |
(First day of the week)
| The first appearance of Jesus to 11 disciples, except Thomas.||16||14||36||19|
| He showed them the holes in His hands and feet||-||-||39||27|
| Great Commission||19||15||47||21|
| Power and signs will follow because they will receive the Holy Spirit||-||17||49||22|
| He breathed on them and gave them the Holy Spirit||-||-||-||22|
| Jesus ascended to heaven||-||19||51||-|
| Thomas said that he did not believe||-||-||-||25|
|8 Days Later|| The second appearance of Jesus to them. Thomas is there||-||-||-||26|
|Before 40 Days|| The third appearance of Jesus was at the sea of Tiberias (Acts 1: 3)||-||-||-||21:1|
|Day 50||Pentecost (Shavous). The Holy Spirit came in fire ||Acts 2|
- Mary Washes Jesus' Feet. Mark 14: 1 and Matthew 26: 2 appears to say that the event happened two days before the Passover, while John 12: 1 says it happened six days before.
All the gospels place the event before Judas went to the priests.
If the events are read as chronological, we have a contradiction.
However, if certain texts are read as insertions that were meant to look back and explain how the betrayal happened then the contradictions disappear.
- Simon's Feast in Bethany (Six Days Before). Mary washes Jesus' feet six days before according to John.
Jesus, therefore, six days before the Passover, came to Bethany where Lazarus was, whom Jesus had raised from the dead.
Mary then took a pound of very costly perfume of pure nard, and anointed the feet of Jesus and wiped His feet with her hair, and the house was filled with the fragrance of the perfume.
(John 12: 1, 3)
- Priests Plot (Two Days Before). It is also clear that the priests were plotting two days before.
Now the Passover and Unleavened Bread were two days away, and the chief preists and the scribes were seeking how to seize Him by stealth and kill Him.
(Mark 14: 1)
» Jesus Was in Bethany at Simon's House (? Days Before). Since these verses follow the statements that it was two days before Passover when the priests were plotting, it creates a contradiction.
While He was in Bethany at the home of Simon the leper ...
(Mark 14: 3)
Now when Jesus was in Bethany, at the home of Simon the leper ...
(Matthew 26: 6)
If we assume that this occurred two days before, then we will have to assume that Mary washed Jesus' feet at Simon's house six days before and also two days before Passover.
I do not believe that the Bible contradicted itself and I do not believe that Mary spent all her money on spices and poured it all to wash Jesus' feet on two separate occasions.
If she used it all six days before, where did she get more two days before? And why should she?
- Simon's Feast in Bethany (Six Days Before).
Putting the two events together we concluded that Mary washed His feet six days before Passover at the house of Simon.
Judas was angry and left the feast.
» Priests Plotting in Jerusalem (Six Days Before).
At the same time, the priests were in Jerusalem at Caiaphas' house making their dastardly plot.
So Satan entered Judas and drove him into the arms of the priests who were looking for a solution to their problem.
Satan Possessed Judas At the Anointing by Mary.
And Satan entered into Judas who was called Iscariot, belonging to the number of the twelve.
And he went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers how he might betray Jesus.
(Luke 22: 3-4)
The first meeting could have occurred any time between that night and two days before Passover.
- Priests Plot (Two Days Before). This must be another meeting to finalize the details.
Two days before, the chief priests and elders were gathered again in Jerusalem at the court of Caiaphas to plot how to seize him by stealth and kill him (Mark 14: 1).
They were finalizing their decision about when and how this would occur.
» Gospels Explain That the Betrayal Began Six Days Before.
So Mark begins with the plans the priests were making (verse 1), then proceeded to say how and why that plan had been hatched (verse 3).
This is why the narrative goes back to explain what happened six days before that led to such a terrible event that would cause such a great betrayal.
This is why the information about the time at Simon's house begins with the phrase "Now when .." and "While He was ..."
We could also conclude that Jesus arrived in Bethany six days before to attend Simon's feast.
Then two days before, Mary washed His feet. But it seems clear that she washed His feet at the feast.
|Six Days Before Passover||Two Days ||Passover||7||8|
|Mary Washed Jesus' Feet ||Judas is Angry ||Satan Enters Judas||Judas Went to Jerusalem||Sold to the Priests ||Plans |
|Kissed by Judas||At the Tomb|
|Feast at Simon's House in Bethany ||Priests Were Meeting in Jerusalem ||Dead||Mary|
So I would rather believe that there was one feast six days before, not two feasts four days apart.
I must also believe that the priests met on more than one occasion to plot the death of Jesus, than believe that Mary washed Jesus' feet with expensive perfume on more than one occasion in one week.
We also choose the previous time line for symbolic reasons since the law says that after a person is anointed, he must wait at the sanctuary and the Lord will appear on the eighth day.
Jesus first appeared to Mary after the resurrection, eight days after she anointed Him.
He was both the LORD who was required to appear at the inauguration and the priest who was inaugurated (Leviticus 8-9).
Mary was the first officiating priest.
By meeting the disciples later, they were technically also inaugurated, except Thomas who was not present.
- Jesus Gives Mary to John. Only John reports this event. It occurred before He said that He was thirsty, but after the cross was placed between the two thieves, the titulus was nailed above his head and they gambled for His clothes.
John does not mention the darkness.
The other gospels place His expression of thirst after the darkness.
For symbolic and practical reasons we placed the events before the darkness on the cross because they could see each other.
|Cross Raised ||Titulus||Gambled for Clothes ||Mary Given to John ||Thirsty|
Jewish Messianic Texts
According to Dr. Alfred Edersheim, a Christian Jew, in Appendix 9 1, over 456 texts were interpreted as Messianic references in the writings of the rabbis.
In the 456 prophecetic texts, 75 are from the Torah, 243 from the prophets, 138 from the Writings (Kesuv'im) which are also recognized in 558 quotations from Rabbinic literature.
All prophecies quoted as Messianic by the early Christians were accepted as Messianic prophecies by the existing Jews.
It was later Jewish scholarship that tried to distance themselves from these prophecies. Now, they will only claim that the Messianic prophecies are those that refer to the future kingdom.
Here are some of those texts.
|Book ||Texts |
|Genesis ||(Creator). 1: 2; 2: 4; 4: 25; 5: 1. (Covenant Maker). 14: 1; 15: 18; 19: 32; 22: 18; 33: 1; 38: 1,2. |
(Judah, Dan and Gad identified with the Messiah). 49: 1,9,10,12,17,19; 50: 10.
| 3: 15; 35:21; 49: 1, 10-12|
|Exodus ||4: 22; 12: 2,42; 15: 1; 16: 25,33; 17: 16; 21: 1; 40: 9,11. Messiah is the LORD G-d of the exodus |
| 12:42; 17:16; 40:9-11|
|Leviticus ||26: 12,13. Messiah is the God who led them in the exodus|
|Numbers ||6: 26; 7: 12; 11: 26; 23: 21; 24: 17,20,24; 27: 16. Messiah is the LORD of the old testament|
| 1:26; 23:21; 24:7, 17-24|
|Deuteronomy ||1: 8; 8: 1; 11: 21; 16: 3; 19: 8,9; 20: 10; 23: 11; 25: 19; 30: 4; 32: 7,20; 33: 5,12,17
|Judges ||5: 31. The LORD who will fight His enemies|
|Ruth ||1: 1; 2: 14; 3: 15; 4: 18,20
|1 Samuel ||2: 10. The LORD who will fight His enemies.
2:7-10, 35 |
|2 Samuel ||22: 28; 23: 1,3,4. The Rock who will rule.
22: 28-32; 23:1-5|
|1 Kings ||4: 33.
|1 Chronicles ||3: 24. Descendant of Zerubabbel.
|Esther || 1:1 "The ninth is that of the Messiah the son of David" (Ahasuerus was the sixth of ten kings)|
2; 2: 4,6-9; 16: 6,9; 18: 31,50; 21: 1,2,3,4,5,7; 22: 7,15; 23: 5;
31: 19; 36: 9; 40: 7; 45: 2,3,6,7;
50: 2; 60: 7; 61: 6,8; 68: 31; 72: 1,8,10,16,17;
80: 17; 89: 22-25,27,51,53; 90: 15;
92: 8,11,13 [7,10,12]; 95: 7;
102: 16; 106: 44; 110; 110: 2,7
116: 9,13; 119: 33; 120: 7; 121: 1; 126: 2; 132: 14,18; 133: 3; 142: 5;
| 18:28-32; 21:1-8; 45:7-18; 61:7-9; 72:1-20; 80:15-18; 89:51-52; 132:10-18|
|Proverbs ||6:22 |
|Ecclesiastics ||1: 9,11; 7: 24; 11: 8; 12: 1|
|Songs of Solomon ||All references to Solomon. (Messiah as king) |
1: 8,17; 2: 8,9-10,12,13; 3: 11; 4: 5,16; 5: 10; 6: 10; 7: 6,13; 8: 2,4,11,12 (Messiah as bridegroom)
| 1:8,17; 4:5; 7:4,12-14; 8:1-4|
|Isaiah || 4: 2,4,5,6; 6: 13; 7: 21;
8: 14; 9: 6,7; 10: 27,34; 11: 1,2,3,4,6,7,10,11,12;
12: 3,5; 14: 2,29; 15: 2; 16: 1,5; 18: 5;
21: 11,12; 23: 8,15; 24: 23; 25: 8,9; 26: 19; 27: 10,13; 28: 5,15,16;
30: 5,6,10, 18,19,25,26; 32: 14,15,20; 35: 1,2;
40: 1-3,5,10; 41: 18,25,27; 42: 1; 43: 10; 45: 22;
49: 8,9,10,12,13,14,21,23,26; 51: 12,17; 52: 2,3,7,8,12,13; 53;
54: 2,5,11,13; 55: 12; 56: 1,7; 57: 14,16;
59: 15,17,19,20; 60: 1,2-4,7,8,19,21,22;
61: 1,5,9,10; 62: 10; 63; 63: 2,4;
64: 4; 65: 17,19,25; 66: 7; 68: 22;
Isaiah 2, 11, 42; 59:20
| 4:1-6; 9:5-6; 10:24-27; 11:1-16; 14:29-30; 16:1-5; 28:5-6; 42:1-9; 43:10; 52:13-53|
|Jeremiah || 3: 17,18; 5: 19; 12: 9; 16: 13,14; 23: 5,6,7 (Branch); 30: 9,21; 31: 8,20,31,33,24 (New Covenant); 33: 13
Jeremiah 23, 30, 33; 48:47; 49:39
| 23:1-8; 30:8-11,21; 33:12-26|
|Lamentations ||1: 16; 2: 22; 4: 22 (Israel was lost on the day of the Lord - the crucifixion).
|Ezekiel ||11:19; 16:55; 17:22,23; 25:14; 29:21; 32:14; 36: 25,27; 39:2; 47: 9,12; 48:19 (Covenant kept). 38:16 |
| 17:22-24; 34:20-31; 37:21-28 |
|Daniel ||2: 22,35,44; 7: 9,13,27; 8: 13,14; 9: 24; 12: 3,11,12. Daniel 10:14 |
Messiah is the Son of Man who will cleanse the temple and rule the earth
|Hosea ||2: 2,13, 18; 3: 5; 6: 2; 13: 14; 14: 7 (Last days). Hosea 3:4-3:5 |
| 3:3-5; 14:5-8 |
|Joel ||2: 28; 3: 18 (Holy Spirit comes)|
|Amos || 5:18; 8:11; 9:11 (Punishing and restoring Israel)|
|Obadiah ||18,21 (Israel will defeat Esau (Edom))|
|Micah ||(Israel restored) 2: 13; 4: 3,5,8; 5: 2,3; 7: 6,8,15. Micah 4 |
| 4:8; 5:1-3 |
|Nahum ||2: 1|
|Habakuk ||2:3; 3:17-18|
|Zephaniah ||3: 8,9,11 (Israel forgiven). Zephaniah 3:9|
|Haggai ||2: 6 (Nations come when they are shaken)|
|Zechariah ||1:20; 2:10; 3: 8,10; 4: 7,10; 6: 12; 7: 13; 8: 12, 23; 9: 1,9,10; 10:4; 11: 12; 12:10; 14: 2-6, 7,8,9. 14:9 |
| 3:8; 4:7; 6:12-13; 10:4 |
|Malachi ||3: 1,4,16,17; 4: 1,2,5 (Elijah comes) |
| These are the current Jewish Messianic and last day texts according to Judaism 101 website.|
| Messianic text in the Targum|
God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God. Romans 8:28
|| Time: 150 minutes
Print: 28 pages
Updated : September 2010
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (January 2008)
Credits: The information was compiled from various sources.
1 Christian Think Tank URL: http://www.christian-thinktank.com/messiah.html
Flogging Instruments. http://www.ecstagony.com/eng/info/artinst/roma.htm
Crucifixion. URL: c:/wiki/crucifixion
Medical Aspects of the Crucifixion. URL: http://www.frugalsites.net/jesus/crucifixion.htm
Yeshua's capture, trial and sacrifice. (Swords and Kings game). URL: http://www.returntogod.com/jerusalem/yeshuatrial.htm
Judaism 101: Moshiach: The Messiah URL: http://www.jewfaq.org/moshiach.htm
Passover Statistics and Probabilities.
» Triunity Report: Prophecies, Beyond Reasonable Doubt? URL: http://www.corp.direct.ca/trinity/part2.html
» Science Speaks. Peter Stoner.
» That Amazing Book - The Bible. Terry Watkins. URL: http://www.av1611.org/amazing.html
» Roman Empire Population. URL: http://www.unrv.com/empire/roman-population.php
» Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades (306-395 AD) URL: http://www.tulane.edu/~august/H303/handouts/Population.htm
» Incarceration in the United States. URL: wikipedia
» U.S.: Number of Mentally Ill in Prisons. URL: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2006/09/05/us-number-mentally-ill-prisons-quadrupled
» Roman Economy - Prices & Cost in Ancient Rome URL: http://www.ancientcoins.biz/pages/economy/
» List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel. URL: Wikipedia
» Sixteen Crucified Saviours. Critics. URL: http://www.actualfreedom.com.au/library/links/16-saviours-5.htm
» From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians. Frontline documentary